So when there is no these material impediments, naturally the life is eternal, the knowledge is eternal, the bliss is eternal. As soon as we are free from this material body, then these questions of past, present, future, pleasure, not pleasure, knowledge, no knowledge, these dualities, this world of duality will finish. The impersonalists, the Māyāvādī philosophers, they think that because the past, present, and future, and this duality is finished, therefore there is no variegatedness. They cannot understand. They cannot accommodate in their tiny brain that this is possible.
Just like Kṛṣṇa. Kṛṣṇa, now it is established that He hasn't got this material body. It will be confirmed in the Tenth Chapter also: avajānanti māṁ mūḍhā mānuṣīṁ tanum āśritam (BG 9.11). Rascals... Mūḍha means rascals. Most ignorant, he is called mūḍha, or an ass. So this word is used there, mūḍha. Mūḍha means rascals. "Rascals, they decry upon Me, Kṛṣṇa, because I am here just like an ordinary man. Mānuṣīṁ tanum āśritam. Because I have appeared here as an ordinary man, as Kṛṣṇa, as Arjuna's friend or the son of Devakī and Vasudeva, or the descendant in the Yadu dynasty, so many things. Avajānanti. They are decrying Me, neglecting." Why? Paraṁ bhāvam ajānantaḥ. "They do not know the real constitutional position of Me." Paraṁ bhāvam. Paraṁ bhāvam means "the supreme truth about Me." That supreme truth is partially explained here, that tāny ahaṁ veda sarvāṇi. "I know past, present, and future, but you do not." This is paraṁ bhāvam.
This is the difference between Kṛṣṇa and Arjuna. They are on the same level, on the same chariot, they are friends. Not only on that particular moment of fighting, battlefield, but they are friends from the beginning. Just like friend and friend, they stick together, they eat together, they lie together, they talk together, they quarrel together. This are friendly. So Kṛṣṇa and Arjuna was in friendly terms and almost of equal age, very intimate friends, as it has been explained in the previous verse, bhakto 'si sakhā ceti. "You are My friend and devotee." So in spite of their living together, there is difference. Now here the difference is disclosed. Tāny ahaṁ veda sarvāṇi. Although he is living together, the difference is clear because constitutional position.
I'll give you another very small example. Just like a king is sitting on the throne and there is a bug. The bug and the king, they are on the same throne, but the bug and the king, much difference. Sitting on the same throne does not mean that they have become equal. Why? Due to the constitutional position. The bug's constitutional position is to bite only, and the king's position is to rule. Although they are on the same level, the difference is great gulf of difference. Similarly, God and the living entity may sit down together, may talk together, they lie together, eat together, but that difference will be there.
Just like, īśvaraḥ sarva-bhūtānāṁ hṛd-deśe 'rjuna tiṣṭhati (BG 18.61). Kṛṣṇa says, "My dear Arjuna, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Paramātmā, is situated in everyone's heart." That means Kṛṣṇa, or God, is situated in your heart, in my heart, in cat's heart, in dog's heart, in everyone's, in ant's heart. There is heart in everyone, and there is Kṛṣṇa. Īśvaraḥ sarva-bhūtānāṁ hṛd-deśe (BG 18.61). Now hṛd-deśe means "in the heart." So sarva-bhūtānāṁ hṛd-deśe, so that means beginning from the small microbe up to the Brahmā, all the living entities, they have got heart.
Sometimes we find a small full-stop-like creature moving on the page of the, on a leaf of the book. You cannot see it, but it is moving. That small creature also has got heart. But is there any scientist to find out how he is moving, how he has got leg, how he has got hands, how he has got...? Any anatomy, is there any anatomy or physiological science to test? Here is our Dr. Mukerjee, sitting. "Can you find out the heart in that small particle-like animal?" It is not possible. But there is. But there is; otherwise, how Kṛṣṇa says sarva-bhūtānām, all living entities? So our so-called scientific advancement always remains indefinitely imperfect because it is not possible to understand the whole thing as it is. But we can understand from Bhagavad-gītā that there is heart. Now if you go to the laboratory to find out where is the heart of the small creatures, you have no capacity, neither you have instruments. No. Therefore your knowledge will always be imperfect because this process of acquiring knowledge is always imperfect. But this knowledge, as we hear from Bhagavad-gītā that there is heart in every living entity, this is perfect.
Therefore there are two kinds of processes to receive knowledge. The Vedic process says, avaroha-panthā, descending process. And the material process is āroha-panthā, ascending process, research. This is āroha-panthā, find out whether this, what is this, what is this, neti, neti, neti, neti, analysis, dissection, and so many. This is called āroha-panthā. Trying to ascend by dint of one's material knowledge. Then spiritual knowledge, you cannot have perfect knowledge... Why spiritual knowledge? Even material knowledge. Now there are so many attempts to go to the moon planet. They are trying to go there by so many ascending processes, sputnik, airplanes, and so many things. Still, we do not know what is this planet.
But you read Bhagavad-gītā or Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, you understand immediately what is this moon planet. It is said in the Bhagavad-gītā nakṣatrāṇām ahaṁ śaśī. Śaśī means this moon planet. You immediately understand that this moon planet is one of the stars. Just like the constitutional position of other stars, you understand the moon is like that. And they are searching after whether in the moon planet there is life or not, there is living condition or not. But you open Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, you'll find the description of the moon planet, how they are living, what is the constitution of the living creatures there. The soma-rasa, you have heard this word. The soma-rasa is beverage in the moon planet. So everything is there. And who can go there, and how one can go there. So this is perfect knowledge, to hear from the authorities. Otherwise...
So even for material things we have to hear from authority. Just like this moon planet or sun planet or any planet, you can understand. The Brahmaloka also. Brahmaloka, that is also described in the Bhagavad... Brahmaloka means the topmost planet within this universe. You'll find in this Bhagavad-gītā that sahasra-yuga-paryantam ahar yad brahmaṇo viduḥ (BG 8.17). Brahmaṇo viduḥ. Ābrahma-bhuvanāl lokāḥ punar āvartino 'rjuna (BG 8.16). Yad gatvā na nivartante tad dhāma paramaṁ mama (BG 15.6). These things are there. You can understand simply by hearing. The whole process is hearing. You don't require any education, you don't require any scientific qualification, this or that. Simply if you kindly come here and hear this Bhagavad-gītā and Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, you become completely learned and completely self-realized. Simply. Sthāne sthitāḥ. Caitanya Mahāprabhu recommended this process.
We are trying to open so many branches just to give facility to the poor people who do not know what is the end of life, what is the objective of human life, how one can become perfect. These knowledges, these informations are there. We are trying to distribute. It is not dogmatic, it is all scientific.
Now there are so many things that it is not possible even to understand by the modern process of scientific experimental knowledge. It is not possible. And what to speak of about God? You cannot know even material objects by your so-called scientific study and research. You simply... You can know little more, that's all. Not complete. So Vedānta-sūtra advises therefore, acintyāḥ khalu ye bhāvā na tāṁs tarkeṇa yojayet. Things which are beyond your imagination, beyond your reach, beyond your thoughts, beyond your words, beyond your sense perception, how you can understand them by your experimental so-called scientific research? Acintya. Acintya means inconceivable. Inconceivable. Now we cannot conceive even these material things.
Just like in the Bhagavad-gītā it is said that sahasra-yuga-paryantam ahar yad brahmaṇo viduḥ (BG 8.17). Brahmaṇaḥ means of Brahmā and the living creatures there in the Brahmaloka, the highest, topmost planet. So in that planet the people or the living entities who are living there, their duration of life is like this. What is that? Sahasra-yuga-paryantam. Now yuga means these four yugas, Satya-yuga, Tretā-yuga, Dvāpara-yuga, and Kali-yuga. So these four yugas... Satya-yuga means eighteen lakhs of years. Eighteen hundred thousands of years. And Tretā-yuga means twelve hundred thousands of years. And Dvāpara-yuga means eight hundred thousands of years. And Kali-yuga means four hundred thousands of years. This is the rough calculation. Eighteen, then twelve, then eight, plus four. How many years? Eighteen plus twelve becomes thirty, and thirty plus eight, thirty-eight, and four. That means forty-three-hundred thousands of years makes one yuga, divya-yuga. So such one thousand. Sahasra-yuga-paryantam (BG 8.17). That means forty-three hundred thousands of years multiplied by one thousand, ahar yat. That calculation is one day of the inhabitants of the Brahmaloka.
So we cannot imagine, you see, that how long year. Such hundred years they live. That is their twelve hours. Similarly, twelve hours night. Similarly, thirty days, one month. Similarly, twelve months equal to one year. Such hundred years they live. So we cannot imagine even, even in the material world, how long a living entity can live even in this material world. So these are acintya. Acintya means beyond our conception.
And what to speak of the spiritual world? We cannot calculate even anything of the material world perfectly.
Therefore the best thing is our process, Vedic process, is to receive knowledge by the descending process. Kṛṣṇa has come from His kingdom, kingdom of God, the Kṛṣṇaloka. And it will be explained in the next verses,
- yadā yadā hi dharmasya
- glānir bhavati bhārata
- abhyutthānam adharmasya
- tadātmānaṁ sṛjāmy aham
- (BG 4.7)
He comes and He sends His own, I mean to say, confidential sons or servants to give us information of the spiritual world of God, or everything, both material and spiritual. This knowledge is perfect knowledge. We have to receive from the authority.
In the material world also. Now some students, they come here to learn scientific knowledge because it is understood Western countries, they're advanced in scientific knowledge. So why they come? Because they think that Western scientists are authorities. The process is there, to receive knowledge from authority. Similarly, some serious students, they go to India, they try to search out some saintly persons to receive knowledge about the spiritual world.
Actually, it is a fact that if you want to know about spiritual knowledge then you have to know it from India. That is recommended by one Chinese gentleman, I forget his name. His book is recommended as study book in the New York University. He has plainly written that if you have to understand the science of religion then you have to go to India. He has clearly said that.
So anyway, here Kṛṣṇa is imparting knowledge to Arjuna. The condition of the living entity, both Himself and the ordinary living entity. God and living entity, individual living entity. God is also individual. He is also living entity. He's not dead. Just like in your country, they have, some of them, they have taken it granted that God is dead. Is it not? Somebody says that God is dead. So God cannot be dead. If I am not dead, if I am eternal, how God can be dead? He is also eternal. So these things are very nicely explained.