Pradyumna: Translation: "Now you may hear from me of what happened while Mahārāja Parīkṣit was passing his days hearing of the good occupations of his forefathers and being absorbed in thought of them." (SB 1.16.17)
Prabhupāda: So the question was, "How Mahārāja Parīkṣit punished this Kali-yuga?" The chapter name is "How Parīkṣit Received the Age of Kali." So why he punished the Kali? Because... Here it is said, pūrveṣāṁ vṛttim anvaham, tasya vartamānasya. He was situated always on the platform where his forefathers remained. This is called aristocratic. Every family or every caste... Family... First of all, there must be division. Then family. Community, society, then family. So Parīkṣit Mahārāja belonged to the royal family. His forefathers, own-Bhārata-vaṁśa, the Bhārata dynasty. Therefore you will find the members of the Bhārata dynasty is called Bhārata, Bhārata. Arjuna was addressed by Kṛṣṇa as Bhārata. Mahārāja Dhṛtarāṣṭra was also addressed as Bhārata. Vidura was addressed as Bhārata. Many times you have seen it.
So these descendants of the Bhārata dynasty, especially... Not especially. All of them. When Parīkṣit Mahārāja was born, so... I have told you already. Learned scholars in astrology, they were calculating the horoscope of the newly born child. So he was being described that "This child, this baby now born, he will be hero like this. He will be devotee like this. He'll be..." This horoscope made, in future what he will be. So Mahārāja Yudhiṣṭhira was anxious and he informed the learned brāhmaṇas that "This is all right. I thank you for your calculation. First of all, I want to know whether he will follow his forefathers. I want to know." That was the question. Because that Bhārata dynasty, they were rulers of the world, emperors and great devotees at the same time. Evaṁ paramparā-prāptam imaṁ rājarṣayo viduḥ (BG 4.2). They were not emperors and kings, simply tax collector. No. They were rājarṣayaḥ, rājarṣi. Rājarṣi means royal majesty. But in their behavior, they exactly like great saintly persons. Rāja and ṛṣi. That is called rājarṣi. Rāja means royal king and ṛṣi means saintly person.
There are many examples of rājarṣi. Just like Rājarṣi Janaka, Janaka Mahārāja, Rājarṣi Prahlāda Mahārāja, Rājarṣi Dhruva Mahārāja, Rājarṣi Yudhiṣṭhira Mahārāja, Rājarṣi Parīkṣit Mahārāja. All the kings almost, when monarchy was accepted... And that is the only thing. Monarchy must be accepted. But at the present moment democracy means abolish monarchy and elect a rascal as monarch. This is called democracy. But after all, you have to accept a man... (aside:) These legs should not be spread before the Deity. Monarchy, that is required, monarchy. Because a monarch is rājarṣi. He should be rājarṣi, a saintly person. Without being saintly person, how he can become representative of God? A king is supposed to be representative of God. So unless he has got godly character, saintly character, great devotee, how he can become the head of a state? Just like the demigods in the heavenly planets... The king of heaven is Indra. So Indra is materially very opulent, although they are after material enjoyment. You cannot compare their material enjoyment with this material enjoyment on this earthly planet. There are thousand, thousand times better standard, the duration of life, paraphernalia for enjoyment, facilities, so many things. They are higher and higher. As you go to the higher planets, they are higher and higher, thousand times. Just like in this planet also we see that some nation's standard of living is higher than other nation. Take for example you Americans. Your standard of living, from material point of view, you have got greater facilities, or you have created your own good facilities. Similarly the more the intelligent persons are, they create their own facilities by the grace of God. Just like in this America, the Red Indians were there, but they could not develop the country. But when the Europeans came and settled in this country, now this country has become the first-class country in comparison to other countries. So it is the intelligence.
So the standard of living, intelligence, increases, as you go higher, higher, higher, higher. Ūrdhvaṁ gacchanti sattva-sthāḥ (BG 14.18). Ūrdhvam. Ūrdhvam means higher. And adho gacchanti tāmasāḥ. There are three qualities. The whole material world is being operated under the influence of three qualities. Traiguṇya-viṣayā vedā nistraiguṇyo bhavārjuna. So according to the quality, there are different grades of people, and that is called cātur-varṇyaṁ mayā sṛṣṭaṁ guṇa-karma-vibhāgaśaḥ. (BG 4.13) So everyone is not on the same platform. Everyone is under the influence of some quality of nature—goodness, passion, ignorance. So there is division. So the kṣatriyas, they are supposed to be in the mode of passion, a desire for controlling, ruling. That is kṣatriya's spirit, ruling. Therefore one kṣatriya king used to attack another kṣatriya king. The idea is not to take possession of other's property. The idea was that "This king is not ruling nicely." Just like in your country, you want to change the president, but forcibly he is sitting in his position, so as you want good government or good man as president, similarly, formerly, although there was fight between the two kings, the objective was different, not to occupy one's property, not to become a big thief.