So, so far in this material conception of life there are two puruṣas, one, the living entity, and the other is the Supersoul. So above this... Living entity is the adhama-puruṣa, and the Supersoul is the madhyama-puruṣa, and Kṛṣṇa, or the Supreme Personality of Godhead, is uttama-puruṣa, the Supreme. And in this material world the adhama-puruṣa is called also nitya-baddha. Similarly, there are other living entities in the spiritual world, they are called nitya-mukta or nitya-siddha. They never come in this material world. Just like Rūpa Gosvāmī. In his Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu, he describes some comparison, that the sea fishes, they never come to the river. The river fishes sometimes go to the sea, but the sea fishes, they never come to the river. Similarly, there are living entities in the spiritual world. They never come in this material world. Their number is greater, at least three times greater than all the living entities within this material world. And the Supersoul, He is also living entity, but superior, Supersoul. Soul and Supersoul.
So the Supersoul is also living with the..., along with this ordinary living entities as friends. That is described in the Upaniṣad, that two birds are sitting on one tree. One bird is eating the fruit and the other bird is simply witness. Paramātmā, upadraṣṭā anumantā. That is described in the Bhagavad-gītā. Paramātmā is existing within our heart. Īśvaraḥ sarva-bhūtānāṁ hṛd-deśe 'rjuna tiṣṭhati (BG 18.61). He is simply upadraṣṭā. He is not enjoying. He has no interest to enjoy this material world. But the other bird, the living entity, he is trying to enjoy this material world. And according to his karma, upadraṣṭā... I wanted to do something or I have done something. The resultant action, I will have to enjoy or suffer in the next life. The witness is the Paramātmā, sākṣī, upadraṣṭā anumantā, antaryāmī, sākṣī. We cannot do anything without the knowledge of the Supreme Personality of Godhead in His Paramātmā feature. He is fulfilling our desires and waiting for the opportunity when the living entity will give up this business of eating the fruit of this body, of the tree, and simply become engaged, again come back to the Supersoul. That opportunity He is looking after. So the Christian philosophers, they do not believe in the Paramātmā feature, and they say that "If I am punished for my past deeds, then who is the witness?" Because in the court, if somebody is charged with criminality, there must be some witnesses. So we heard a Christian professor in our college. They did not believe in this witness of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. He is witness within the heart. Witness must be. This is very intelligent, that without witness, how my charges, charges upon me, can be substantiated? The witness is the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Upadraṣṭā anumantā. He is seeing everything. So that is puruṣa also, and we are also puruṣa. And above these two puruṣas, the Supreme Puruṣa is Kṛṣṇa, as it is described in the Bhagavad-gītā, Eighth Chapter, puruṣottama-yogam.
So brūhi kāraṇayor asya sad-asac ca yad-ātmakam. So the uttama-puruṣa, Puruṣottama, just like Kṛṣṇa or Kapiladeva, They come within this material world, but they are not affected. But we are affected. We are, according to our desire, conditioned. We are affected by the different modes of material nature. It is described in the Vedic literature just like the fire and the spark. The fire is always blazing, but the sparks coming out of the fire, they sometime fall down. And this falling down is described that if the spark falls on some dry grass, then immediately the grass is also ignited into fire. That is sattva-guṇa. And rajo-guṇa means on the ground. It gradually, the ignition, the fire of the spark, becomes finished. And if the spark falls down on some water, then immediately it is extinguished. Similarly, when we come down from the spiritual world on account of desire, icchā-dveṣa samutthena sarge yānti parantapa (BG 7.27), by our icchā, Kṛṣṇa gives us to fulfill our desires. So as we contact with the different modes of material nature, we are situated either in sattva-guṇa or rajo-guṇa or tamo-guṇa, and our different characteristics are visible.
But the Puruṣottama, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, He is never become affected by the material nature. This is the general description of the puruṣa and puruṣottama. And further description will be given from the verse number ten. If you like, you can read that. Or you can read this purport of the ninth verse.
Nitāi: "Prakṛti, or material nature, is connected with both the Supreme Lord and the living entities, just as a woman is connected with her husband as a wife and with her children as a mother."
Prabhupāda: Yes. This is very nice example. This prakṛti, the mother... Just like mother is woman, prakṛti, but her relationship with the husband is different from the relationship with her children. So both of them are puruṣa-living entities and the Supersoul, or the Supreme Lord. They come to this material world. But the relationship is that the Supreme Lord is the controller, controller of the material world, and the living entities, they are controlled. This is difference. One is controller, and the other is controlled. The same woman, mother, she is working under the direction of the husband. That is one relationship. And she is taking care of the children and controlling the children. The... Although the medium is the same, but the relationship is different.
In the Bhagavad-gītā also, it is said, mama māyā: "Under My control."
- mayādhyakṣeṇa prakṛtiḥ
- sūyate sa-carācaram
- hetunānena kaunteya
- jagad viparivartate
- (BG 9.10)
We should understand this relationship. The material nature has got relationship with both God and the living entities, but the activities of the two living entities, namely the aṇu and vibhu... God is Vibhu or Prabhu, and living entity is aṇu or servant, and the via media is the material nature. So we cannot control material nature. That is not possible. We are controlled. We are being controlled. Tribhir guṇamayair bhāvair mohitam, nābhijānāti mām ebhyaḥ param avyayam (BG 7.13). We are always being controlled. And... But the prakṛti, material nature, is being controlled by the Supreme Lord. This is the difference. Unfortunately, sometimes we claim that we can control over. Just like the scientists, they are trying to control over the material nature. That is not possible. You cannot control. Therefore, in the Bhagavad-gītā it is said, daivī hy eṣā guṇamayī mama māyā duratyayā (BG 7.14). You cannot control. You shall be controlled, but you cannot control. The controller is the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Kṛṣṇa. Mayādhyakṣeṇa prakṛtiḥ sūyate sa (BG 9.10).
This is the relation. This is the characteristic, two puruṣas: one living entity and the Supreme Soul, parama-puruṣa or puruṣottama. The puruṣottama is the controller, and we ordinary living entities, we are controlled. Then how the living entities can be on the equal level with the Supreme Lord? That is not possible. Anyone who thinks like that, they are imperfect knowledge. That is not perfect knowledge. Aviśuddha-buddhayaḥ. They have been described as aviśuddha-buddhayaḥ. Imperfect knowledge. Buddhi means intelligence. They have no intelligence. We cannot say no intelligence, but aviśuddha. Aviśuddha, means it is not purified. Anyone who is claiming to be on the equal level with the Supreme, their intelligence is not yet purified. Aviśuddha-buddhayaḥ. Ye 'nye 'ravindākṣa vimukta-māninas tvayy asta-bhāvād aviśuddha-buddhayaḥ (SB 10.2.32). Because these Māyāvādī philosophers, they have no knowledge of the Supreme Personality of... They cannot believe that the Absolute Truth can be a person. They cannot believe it. Their knowledge is so poor, they cannot accommodate. Because as soon as they think of one person, they think that "That person is equal with me." Otherwise, they cannot think of person.
So this is poor fund of knowledge. Therefore Kṛṣṇa said, nāhaṁ prakāśaḥ sarvasya yoga-māyā-samāvṛtaḥ (BG 7.25). He does not become manifest or visible to everyone. Then who..., unto whom He is visible? And that is also stated in the Bhagavad-gītā, bhaktyā mām abhijānāti yāvān yaś cāsmi tattvataḥ (BG 18.55). So unless you take to this process of bhakti-yoga, you cannot understand what is God. Then you will be misguided. So if you take... Sevonmukhe hi jihvādau (Brs. 1.2.234). You cannot, understand God. But if you take to the devotional service submissively, if you become submissive, surrendered, and you render service to the Lord, then, by His causeless mercy, He becomes revealed, "Here I am. See Me." He talks.
- teṣāṁ satata-yuktānāṁ
- bhajatāṁ prīti-pūrvakam
- dadāmi buddhi-yogaṁ tam...
- (BG 10.10)
Then He gives intelligence. What kind of intelligence? Yena mām upayānti te: "By which one can approach Me." This intelligence is given to him. To whom? Teṣāṁ satata-yuktānām. Twenty-four hours engaged in the service of the Lord. How? Prīti-pūrvakam: "With love and faith," not that officially. Just like if I want a glass of water, one can give me, "Here is. Take it!" And one brings the same glass of water with love and devotion. So there is two different. Kṛṣṇa is not in want of anything from us. He is pūrṇa. But if we offer Him something with love and faith and devotion, then He accepts. That is the difference. Patraṁ puṣpaṁ phalaṁ toyaṁ yo me bhaktyā prayacchati (BG 9.26). That is the real thing, bhakti. Otherwise Kṛṣṇa is not hankering after your patraṁ puṣpam. He has created patraṁ puṣpaṁ phalaṁ toyam, He can enjoy. Why He should ask from you? But the real thing is bhaktyā. It is insignificant thing, but if you offer Him bhaktyā, with bhakti, devotion, faith, and love, that He accepts. And if He continues to accept, then you can realize Him. Bhaktyā mām abhijānāti yāvān yaś cāsmi tattvataḥ (BG 18.55). Otherwise you cannot understand what is Kṛṣṇa.