Young man (2): Yes, yes. Prabhupāda: Yes. The, the necessity of a spiritual master is for him who is conscious of his material suffering. If one is not conscious of his material suffering, then he is not even on the human being status. He's still in the animal status. Animal status, you see? Now, the modern civilization... The modern civilization is practically... They are evading, evading the real sufferings. They are engaged in temporary sufferings. But the Vedic system is Vedic knowledge. They are meant for ending the sufferings of.., for good, sufferings for good. You see? The human life is meant for that, ending all suffering. Of course, we are trying to end all kinds of suffering. Our business, our occupation, our education, our advancement of knowledge—everything is meant for ending suffering. But that suffering is temporary, temporary. But we have to end the sufferings for good. Suffering... That sort of knowledge is called transcendental knowledge, and if anyone is seeking after that transcendental... This Bhagavad-gītā is not an ordinary thing. It is transcendental knowledge. And now here the ground is prepared. Ground is prepared. Arjuna is conscious of his suffering, perplexity. Now he is seeking a spiritual master. So the, the... We should take the position of Arjuna, disciple. When a disciple is serious about making, about making a solution of the suffering, then he requires a spiritual master. And what sort of spiritual master? Kṛṣṇa, the most perfect man, the most perfect man. So a spiritual master is representative of Kṛṣṇa. Of course, Kṛṣṇa is not present before us. But at least we must have a person as our spiritual master who represents Kṛṣṇa. And who can represent Kṛṣṇa? One who is devotee of Kṛṣṇa, in the line, disciplic succession. You see? So see here. Arjuna accepts Kṛṣṇa as the spiritual master. Now, question may be that "Why Arjuna...? There was many learned men, not only Kṛṣṇa, but there were Vyāsadeva and other great sages and brāhmaṇas. Why...?" Kṛṣṇa was also kṣatriya. Kṛṣṇa was not a brāhmaṇa. Of course, He took His, mean... He appeared in the family of a kṣatriya. And they were cousin-brothers. Kṛṣṇa and Arjuna, they were cousin-brothers. Kṛṣṇa was the son of the brother, and Arjuna was the son of the sister. Arjuna's mother and Kṛṣṇa's father, they were brother and sister. So they are in the family relation. They were intimately related, and at the same time, they were of the same age and friends. Now, the question may be: "Why Kṛṣṇa is accepted as the spiritual master?" That is the selection of the disciple, that Arjuna says,
- na hi prapaśyāmi mamāpanudyād
- yac chokam ucchoṣaṇam indriyāṇām
- avāpya bhūmāv asapatnam ṛddhaṁ
- rājyaṁ surāṇām api cādhipatyam
- (BG 2.8)
Now, he says that "I am so perplexed that my lamentation cannot be satisfied even if I get the kingdom of the universe. I am going to fight for the kingdom only of this earth, or the India." Of course, formerly, India means Bhārata. Now India is a name given by the foreigners. The real name of this planet is Bhāratavarṣa, this planet. Now, gradually, it has been cut up. It has been cut up, just like we have got immediate experience that some portion of India is now cut up, and that is named Pakistan. You know, all. Similarly, this whole planet, five thousand years before, this whole planet was known as Bhāratavarṣa. Bhāratavarṣa. And before that, thousands and millions of years before, this planet was known as Ilāvṛtavarṣa. Ilāvṛtavarṣa. And now, since the time of Emperor Bharata... There was an emperor whose name was Bharata. So from the name of Bharata, this planet's name became Bhāratavarṣa. So up to five thousand years before... Why five thousand years before? Say, up to four thousand years before, although the modern history cannot give account, chronological account, more than 2,500 years, but we are speaking... About four thousand years before, this planet was called Bhāratavarṣa. Now, Arjuna says that "We are going to fight for the matter of this Bhāratavarṣa planet. This is one of the planet in the universe. But if I get the whole planets of this, the complete planets of this universe, and without any competitor, still, the perplexity which has arisen in my mind, that cannot be mitigated."