Introduction to Gītopaniṣad by A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami, the author of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, Easy Journey to Other Planets, editor of Back to Godhead, etc.
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Bhagavad-gita As It Is Lectures
An American lady asked me to recommend an English edition of the Bhagavad-gītā which she could read. I was unable to do so in good conscience. Of course there are many translations, but of those I have seen, not only in America but those also in India, none can be said to be authoritative, because in almost every one of them the author has expressed his personal opinion through the commentaries without touching the spirit of the Bhagavad-gītā as it is. The spirit of the Bhagavad-gītā is mentioned in the Gītā itself. It is like this: If we want to take a particular medicine, then we have to follow the directions written on the label of the bottle. We cannot take the medicine according to our own directions or the directions of a friend ot in knowledge of this medicine. We must follow the directions on the label or the directions of our physician. The Bhagavad-gītā also should be accepted as it is directly by the speaker Himself. The speaker is Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa. He is mentioned on every page as the Supreme Personality of Godhead or Bhagavān. Bhagavān sometimes means any powerful person or demigod, but here it means Kṛṣṇa."
And here is an important fact. The other day while I was walking, I saw one advertisement of tourist agent. India, (indistinct) can view wonderful land. The wonderful land. Anyway, so I asked Karttikeya(?), "So India is considered very wonderful?" He said "Yes." Anyway, India is still considered the land of spiritual cultivation. Even one Chinese author, he has written that if you want to study religion, then you have to go India. He is impartial. He is not Indian nor an American or any country. He is Chinese. Chinese are considered to be Communist country, but he has very impartially said that if you have to learn what is religion then you have to go to India. Anyway India, actually it is the land of religion, dharma-kṣetra, although it has gone down at the present moment. But anyway, there are two sections in the..., amongst the Indian, bona fide religionists. That means bona fide religionists means those who are following the Vedic principles. They are called bona fide. Anyway, that is, that wa the system in the bygone ages, even one thousand years ago. And now that, just like Buddha, Buddha religion. Buddha religion is also Indian religion.
You fought also for the Lord. Kindly help me." This is the idea. Kapi-dhvajaḥ. So any activities of the Vaiṣṇava, they should always pray to the previous ācārya, "Kindly help me. Kindly..." This is, Vaiṣṇava is always thinking himself helpless, helpless. And begging help from the previous ācārya.
Just like in Caitanya-caritāmṛta you will find, the author, at the end of every chapter:
- śrī rūpa-raghunātha-pade yāra āśa
- caitanya-caritāmṛta kahe kṛṣṇadāsa
- (CC Adi 1.110)
His every line, he is thinking of Rūpa-Raghunātha, previous ācāryas. "So let me surrender to the gosvāmīs and they will help me how to write." You cannot write. That is not possible.
So Caitanya Mahāprabhu replied, "Yes, My Guru Mahārāja, spiritual master, saw Me a fool number one." So Caitanya Mahāprabhu, it was known to Prakāśānanda Sarasvatī, He was a great learned scholar in His student life. So He is posing Himself as a fool number one. So this is the way. Caitanya-caritāmṛta the author of Caitanya-caritāmṛta, he is presenting himself: purīṣera kīṭa haite muñi sei laghiṣṭha: (CC Adi 5.205) "I am lower than the worm of the stool." Purīṣera kīṭa haite muñi sei laghiṣṭha. Laghiṣṭha means lower, lowest. Jagāi mādhāi haite muñi sei pāpiṣṭha. Jagāi and Mādhāi was taken, they were drunkards, woman hunters. Therefore they were sinful. So Caitanya-caritāmṛta kahe, says that jagāi mādhāi haite muñi sei papiṣṭha. This is the way, nobody think himself as one has become very big man and he has his own opinion to give. This is rascaldom. So everyone should think that "What is my value?" That is really learned, humble and meek. Nobody should think that "Now I have learned everything. I can surpass everyone. I have become above all rules and regulation. Now I have become paramahaṁsa."
"My dear Kṛṣṇa, so long we are talking as friend. Now I become Your regular disciple. Kindly save me by instruction. What I have to do?" Therefore, when this stage was arrived, Kṛṣṇa is advising Arjuna as follows: śrī-bhagavān uvāca. Now, it is said here... Who is saying to Arjuna? The author or the recorder of Bhagavad-gītā... Bhagavad-gītā was spoken by Kṛṣṇa. It was a discussion between Kṛṣṇa and Arjuna, and it was recorded by Vyāsadeva, and later on it became a book. Just like when we speak it is recorded and later on it is published as a book. Therefore in this book it is said, bhagavān uvāca. Vyāsadeva is the writer. He does not say that, "I speak." He says, bhagavān uvāca, means "The Supreme Personality of Godhead said."
So Kṛṣṇa is accepted by the authorities as Bhagavān, or the Supreme Personality of Godhead. And what is Bhagavān? Bhagavān means that one who is fully equipped with six opulences. Fully equipped with all opulences means Bhagavān is the richest personality.
No mistake, no illusion, no cheating and no imperfection. This is Bhagavān. Why we are taking Bhagavad-gītā so seriously? There are so many other books we can read, so many theories, so many philosophers, big, big philosophers. But we cannot take them because they are defective. The author is sure to commit mistake. He is illusioned. Because his senses are not perfect, therefore imperfection.
So with all these defects, we cannot accept anyone's knowledge. This is Vedic process. This is called paramparā system, disciplic succession. We receive knowledge perfectly from the Supreme Bhagavān. And if I receive the knowledge from Bhagavān, and if I distribute the same knowledge as Bhagavān has said, without any interpretation of my cheating policy, then the knowledge which I distribute, that is also perfect. I may not be perfect, but the knowledge which I have taken from Kṛṣṇa, if I present it as it is, without any interpretation, then what I give you, that is perfect.
This is the version of Kṛṣṇa in the beginning of Bhagavad-gītā. So first of all it is said here, Vyāsadeva, the author..., not author, the compiler who recorded the talks between Kṛṣṇa and Arjuna and then put it systematically in a book form. So he says that bhagavān uvāca. Bhagavān means the Supreme Person. Just like in this meeting, amongst my students, I am the supreme person, similarly, in the state there is a supreme person, the president or the prime minister, so everywhere you will find out one supreme person. Without a supreme person nothing can be managed, order-giving person. This is everlastingly existing, and you cannot avoid this. Even in Communist country they also have the supreme person, dictator. So taking the whole universal affair, the nature, how things are going on... The sun is rising early in the morning. It is setting exactly in due time. Then the moon is coming.
So Vedic knowledge is not like that. There is no cheating. There is no imperfection. There is no illusion. There is no error. That is Vedic knowledge.
So there... The author of Vedic knowledge... Who is the author of the Vedic knowledge? Not Lord Brahmā. The author of Vedic knowledge is Kṛṣṇa. As it is stated in the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam: tene brahma hṛdā ādi-kavaye muhyanti yat sūrayaḥ. He imparted the knowledge, brahma, śabda-brahma knowledge, into the heart of Lord Brahmā. So Brahmā is not self-sufficient. Factually, we are supposed to get knowledge, Vedic knowledge, from Brahmā, beginning from Brahmā. But actually it is not the, from Brahmā. Brahmā got the knowledge from Kṛṣṇa. Tene brahma. Oṁ namo bhagavate vāsudevāya. Janmādy asya yataḥ anvayāt itarataś ca artheṣu abhijñaḥ svarāṭ tene brahma hṛdā ādi-kavaye muhyanti yat sūrayaḥ (SB 1.1.1). So actually knowledge is coming from Kṛṣṇa.
And he was passing naked, and the girls who were taking bath, naked on the river, they saw that innocent person, so they did not cover their body. But when the father was passing, such a learned sage, old man, Vyāsadeva, who is the author of all Vedic literatures—he is not an ordinary man. But because he was a worldly man, a householder, the girls, after seeing him, covered their body. That story the other day we have narrated before you. So the stage of Śukadeva Gosvāmī is ātma-rati, self-satisfied, doesn't care for anything of the world. He is aloof from the world. We should not imitate Śukadeva Gosvāmī and become naked. (chuckles)
Simply by... There are many so-called mendicants in India. They, I mean to say, loiter in the street naked, and sometimes they are arrested by the police, like that. Imitation is not required. Imitation is not required. But there is a stage like that. Just like a madman.
When the program is that the Bhagavad-gītā clearly says that in this case fighting is necessary, how can you prove that nonviolence is taught in Bhagavad-gītā? That is a different interpretation. You cannot interpret a thing which is, whose theme is different. The author, the author of Bhagavad-gītā... The author of the Bhagavad-gītā is saying very frankly that "the purpose of Bhagavad-gītā is now lost. So I am just trying to convince you. So you try to understand it." The purpose of Bhagavad-gītā is lost because they have been interpreted in a different way. So as soon as Bhagavad-gītā is interpreted in the way of a particular scholar or particular man, oh, then the purpose of Bhagavad-gītā is lost.
Now, you'll find in the Tenth Chapter how Arjuna understood Bhagavad-gītā. So you have to follow the footprints. The whole thing is... I have several times repeatedly saying to you that mahājano yena gataḥ sa panthāḥ (CC Madhya 17.186).
He killed his elder brother, he killed his younger brother, and he arrested his own father in the fort, and he manipulated things in such a way, politician, and he became the king, emperor, king, emperor. Now, the whole activities of that book is the Aurangzeb's activities. So one friend of the author, D.L. Raya, he inquired from D.L. Raya that "Mr. Raya, you have written this book and this book is full of the activities of Aurangzeb. Now, why you have made the hero Shahjahan? Shahjahan is on the background. The old man is arrested in the fort of Agra. He is sitting there. Why you have named the Shahjahan?" Now, just see the purpose of the author. The author replied, "Yes, I have purposely named this book Shahjahan because actually the hero is Shahjahan." The friend inquired, "Why?" "Now, because the whole activities was being done by Aurangzeb, but the effect was being enjoyed and suffered by Shahjahan. Shahjahan was the father; he could not tolerate that his eldest son was killed, his youngest son was killed, and he was arrested.
Shahjahan was the father; he could not tolerate that his eldest son was killed, his youngest son was killed, and he was arrested. This was a political maneuver by Aurangzeb. But actually, the hero, the sufferer, was the Shahjahan, Emperor Shahjahan." Now, just see. The mind of the author was disclosed by the author. Nobody could interpret what was the intention.
Similarly, the intention of the Bhagavad-gītā is known by Kṛṣṇa, the author. So we have to understand the intention of the author. We cannot exact any meaning by our own scholarship which is different from the intention of the author. So anyone who is not in the disciplic succession, he cannot understand the intention of Kṛṣṇa, why this Bhagavad-gītā, why this yoga was imparted. You can... You are a good scholar. You can make a... something... Just like our president, Mr. Goldsmith, he knows that expert lawyers, by interpretation, they can do so many things.
The Bhagavad-gītā is a standard literature. Most of you know this Bhagavad-gītā. But generally the Bhagavad-gītā is read very superficially, not very critically. We do not understand Kṛṣṇa, the author of Bhagavad-gītā, neither we understand what is Kṛṣṇa consciousness, although it is stated in the Bhagavad-gītā. We read Bhagavad-gītā superficially, not very critically, neither there is any edition so far... Of course, in Sanskrit there are many editions, annotation by Śrīdhara Svāmī, annotation by Baladeva Vidyābhūṣaṇa, annotation by Viśvanātha Cakravartī, annotation by Śrī Rāmānujācārya. There are many great scholars. But we have no information of those in the western countries. You have no information of those scholars. Ordinary persons with some academic career, they think they are very learned, they can comment on Bhagavad-gītā. Oh, that is not possible. That is not possible.
There is a list of incarnation of Godhead. There are many thousands and thousands of incarnation, and there is a list. Especially in Caitanya-caritāmṛta there is a specific list. Now, after giving that list, the conclusion is made that ete cāṁśa-kalāḥ puṁsaḥ kṛṣṇas tu bhagavān svayam.
Now, we have given the list, the author of the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, but all these incarnation of Godhead, they are either plenary manifestation or manifestation of the plenary manifestation, like that. Ete cāṁśa. Aṁśa means plenary manifestation, and kalāḥ means manifestation of the plenary manifestation. So the conclusion in the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam is that "This name Kṛṣṇa, which is given here..." Because Kṛṣṇa also appeared, and He proclaimed Himself that yadā yadā hi dharmasya glānir bhavati bhārata, tadātmānaṁ sṛjāmy aham (BG 4.7). So He is accepted as the original Supreme Personality of God.
Just like in the Caitanya-caritāmṛta the author says that in this material world, which is illusion, our division that "This is good; this is bad," these are all mental speculation only. In the higher stage they see that in the material bondage nobody is in goodness. Everyone is in trouble. So this material calculation that "This is good, this is bad, and this is happy, and this is miserable," in the transcendental position they think that they are all equal. Ihaiva tair jitaḥ sargo yeṣāṁ sāmye sthitaṁ manaḥ (BG 5.19). Now, one who is situated in such transcendental position of mind, then, ihaiva tair jitaḥ sargaḥ, then in this very body he has conquered rebirth. He has conquered rebirth. The whole position is that we want to stop rebirth, rebirth in this material world. Now, there is a story in the Rāmāyaṇa. In the Rāmāyaṇa there is a story.
The reason is that he's a first-class rascal. That's all. I tell you frankly. Let anyone come, argue with me whether he's not a first-class rascal by not accepting Kṛṣṇa consciousness. I'll prove it.
So don't be first-class rascal. Become first-class intelligent man. As Caitanya-caritāmṛta author says, kṛṣṇa yei bhaje sei baḍa catura. Anyone who has taken to Kṛṣṇa consciousness, he's first-class intelligent man. So don't be first-class fool, but become first-class intelligent man. That is my request.
Thank you very much. (obeisances) Any question?
The other day so many students came, now nobody. Because they want to remain the first-class rascal, that's all. That is... It is a fact. So unless one is very intelligent, they cannot take to Kṛṣṇa consciousness. They want to be bluffed, cheated, in this way or that way. That's all. Plain thing, simple thing. And result is very great, they'll not agree to accept. Yes.
So unfortunately, God is canvassing Himself personally, and still we are unaware of Him. Why? Because there is one verse which you will see in Caitanya-caritāmṛta. Caitanya-caritāmṛta... Here two honorable Justices are present, and I can recite that verse. It is in Bengali. It is said that caitanya-dayā katha karaha vicāra. The author is placing the quantity of mercy as given by Caitanya Mahāprabhu to the judgment of the public. Caitanya-dayā katha karaha vicāra. It is not something we have accepted blindly as faith. No. It is a fact. It is a science. It is an authority. Therefore we place before the Justices for judgment, caitanya-dayā katha karaha vicāra vicāra karite citte pābe camatkāra. If you wait for the judgment, then when you hear the judgment you will find, ah, a great ecstasy you will enjoy. This is Kṛṣṇa consciousness. If you kindly try to understand the Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement with cool head, I mean, I mean to say right judgment, you will find ecstasy.
The perfection of life is not dharma artha kāma mokṣa (SB 4.8.41, Cc. Ādi 1.90). That is described in the beginning of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, dharmaḥ projjhita-atra kaitavaḥ. Dharmaḥ projjhita-kaitavaḥ atra paramaḥ nirmatsarāṇāṁ. In the beginning, introduction of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, the author, Vyāsadeva, says that all kinds of kaitavaḥ-kaitavaḥ... Śrīdhara Swami has commented upon it, kalaḥ niṣandi rūpa. Any religion which is seeking after some result of action.... Generally we perform religion, dharma-artha. We perform religion for getting some economic benefit, artha. And why artha is required? For kāma, dharma artha kāma. For, for satisfying our sense gratification we require money, and generally we perform religious rites, ritualistic ceremonies, yajña, dharma for getting some economic development. Dharma artha kāma. Artha is required, money is required for fulfilling our sense gratification, and when we are baffled in gratifying our senses... Because here the whole struggle is going on.
Therefore Kṛṣṇa says, mattaḥ parataraṁ nānyat (BG 7.7). This is all confirmed. The audience, Kṛṣṇa, I mean to say, Arjuna, is accepting, and Kṛṣṇa is confirming.
Therefore Bhagavad-gītā is perfect. Otherwise where is the authority of Bhagavad-gītā. If we do not accept the author, or the speaker, of the Bhagavad-gītā, and if we do not accept the student of Bhagavad-gītā, Arjuna, then where is the study of Bhagavad-gītā? It is something nonsense. You have to accept the version of Bhagavad-gītā as it is stated by Kṛṣṇa, and you have to accept the version of Arjuna as it is admitted by Kṛṣṇa. Then you are perfect in Bhagavad-gītā. Otherwise you have simply wasted your time.
There are many other books of knowledge. They are not very reasonable. That is dogmatic. But hetumadbhiḥ, if we accept with our logic and sense, that is first-class book which gives us information of the ātmā, Paramātmā.
Therefore, in the Caitanya-caritāmṛta the author says, caitanyera dayāra kathā karaha vicāra, vicāra karile citte pābe camatkāra. The author says that "You kindly put your consideration and judgement about the mercy of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu. And if you consider with logic and reason," vicāra karile pābe citte camatkāra, "you'll feel that these are wonderful things." So we haven't got to accept anything blindly.
The Brahma-sūtra, or Vedānta-sūtra, is called nyāya-prasthāna. There are three different processes for understanding the Absolute Truth: nyāya-prasthāna, śruti-prasthāna, smṛti-prasthāna. Brahma-sūtra is nyāya-prasthāna. Nyāya-prasthāna means everything, all the sūtras and codes, are there with full reasoning. Hetumadbhir viniścita. And whatever Brahma-sūtra says, that is viniścita, means ascertained.
And the explanation of Vedānta-sūtra, natural comment on Vedānta-sūtra, is Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam. Bhāṣyāyāṁ brahma-sūtrāṇām. Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam is the natural commentary.
Because the author, Vyāsadeva, after compiling Vedānta-sūtra under the instruction of Nārada Muni, his guru—Vyāsadeva's guru is Nārada Muni—he was not satisfied even after compiling Vedānta-sūtra. He was not very happy. So Nārada Muni advised him that "You should directly describe the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Then you'll be happy. It is indirect. All the Vedic literatures, they are indirect. You directly..." Therefore Vyāsadeva took Vedānta-sūtra and from the very beginning of Vedānta-sūtra, janmādy asya yataḥ (SB 1.1.1), he commented on the Vedānta-sutra. Janmādy asya yataḥ anvayad itarataś cārtheṣv abhijñaḥ svarāṭ/ tene brahma hṛdā ya ādi-kavaye muhyanti yatra sūrayaḥ. In this way. Here Kṛṣṇa personally gives the Brahma-sūtra. So Brahma-sūtra's commentary is Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam.
This Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam is the real bhāṣya of Brahma-sūtra. So the Gauḍīya Sampradāya did not make any commentary on the Brahma-sūtra because they took it, Caitanya Mahāprabhu took it as, Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, as a natural commentary, because Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam is also made by Vyāsadeva and Vyāsadeva is the original author of Brahma-sūtra. So author made his own commentary; so there was no need of another commentary. This is the Gauḍīya-siddhānta, Gauḍīya-vaiṣṇava-siddhānta.
But sometimes back, in Jaipur, there was a challenge that "The Gauḍīya Sampradāya has no commentary on the Vedānta-sūtra." So at that time Viśvanātha Cakravartī Ṭhākura was requested... Because he was grand scholar, grand old man scholar, at that time living in Vṛndāvana... So he was very old at that time; so he authorized Baladeva Vidyābhūṣana, that "You do it." There was no need, but people are demanding, "Where is your commentary on the Vedānta-sūtra?"
This stage can be attained in the bhakti-yoga. Bhakti-yoga means one who has understood everything very perfectly. Sometimes foolish people say that "Bhakti-yoga is meant for the less intelligent class of men." But he is less intelligent. Unless one is very, very intelligent, he cannot take to Kṛṣṇa consciousness. Therefore Caitanya-caritāmṛta author says, kṛṣṇa yei bhaje sei baḍa catura: "Unless one is very intelligent, he cannot become a devotee of Kṛṣṇa." Because he knows everything.
That is stated in Bhagavad-gītā,
- brahma-bhūtaḥ prasannātmā
- na śocati na kāṅkṣati
- samaḥ sarveṣu bhūteṣu
- mad-bhaktiṁ labhate parām
- (BG 18.54)
One who is actually devotee, parām, parā-bhakti, he is already brahma-bhūta (SB 4.30.20), liberated, self-realized. Without being self-realized, nobody can attain unalloyed devotional platform. Bhakti means the platform where only liberated person can act. That is bhakti platform. Īhā yasya, those who are always working for Kṛṣṇa. Īhā, īhā means desire. Yasya, harer dāsye. Just to serve Kṛṣṇa. He has no other business.
"Oh, I am so low," Tṛṇād api sunīcena, "I am lower than the grass. I am lower than the grass"... This is Caitanya Mahāprabhu's teaching. What is this dambhaḥ? Why I should be pride? What is this pride? So that is ignorance, due to ignorance. When one man is unnecessarily proud, that means it is due to ignorance. And Caitanya-caritāmṛta author, he describes himself that "I am lower than the worms in the stool."
- purīṣera kīṭa haite muñi se laghiṣṭha
- jagāi mādhāi haite muñi se pāpiṣṭha
- (CC Adi 5.205)
Adambhitvam. In the Ninth Chapter. Just the opposite. Why I shall be proud? What I have got? I am humble servant of Kṛṣṇa. Let me discharge my duties. But if one is proud after becoming a pure servant of Kṛṣṇa, that is very good. That dambhaḥ, that pride, is very glorious. "I am a servant of Kṛṣṇa." That is very nice.
So first of all, before beginning the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, the author is offering respectful obeisances to the Supreme Personality of Godhead. The Supreme Personality of Godhead is explained in the following four lines. The first line is janmādy asya yataḥ, means Supreme Personality of Godhead is the origin of all emanation. The human mind is inquisitive. A human being, even a child, he enquires from his father. We have got experience personally. Any intelligent boy, he enquires from the father. He is inquisitive. That is human life. He enquires, "What is this, father? What is this father?" And the father replies. So unless this enquiry is there, he is not human being. A cat and dog cannot enquire about the origin of a thing.
So Veda means knowledge. The word Veda means knowledge. So Vedic literature means... You can take it. Any kind of knowledge, it can be called Vedas. Vetti veda vido jñāne vinte vid vicāraṇe(?). So in Sanskrit grammar the vid-dhātu. From vid-dhātu... Means knowing. And from vid-dhātu the word Veda has come. Now, the author says that "This Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam is the essence of Vedic knowledge." Vedic knowledge is compared with the tree, and the tree has got fruit. So this Bhāgavatam is the fruit of the Vedic tree. That means you keep a tree for some getting fruit. If there is no fruit, that is mean for fuel. It is useless tree. So here it is said, nigama-kalpa-taror galitaṁ phalam (SB 1.1.3), means "The Vedic literature is just like the desire tree, and the Bhāgavatam is the ripened fruit." And galitaṁ phalam means a fruit ripened in the tree. It is very, very delicious. Generally, for business purpose, fruits or unripe fruits are taken from the tree, and it is artificially kept to ripe. That fruit means the unripe fruit taken from the tree and it is ripened artificially—that is not so tasteful.
So this is the essence of Vedic knowledge. The essence of Vedic knowledge is Vedānta, Vedānta. There are four Vedas and many branches, eighteen Purāṇas and then 108 Upaniṣad. All combined together, the essence is taken as the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam. First of all, Vyāsadeva... Vyāsadeva is the author of all these literatures. Not author, he has written. Formerly there was no need of writing because people were very intelligent. As soon as one hears from the spiritual master, he remembers.
That was the position five thousand years ago, not now. Now the memory is not sharp. Therefore he left all this Vedic literature, Vedic tradition, into writing. So Vedānta-sūtra is the cream of all Vedic literature, and Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam is the further explanation of this Vedānta-sūtra. So because Vyāsadeva knew that "Later on this Vedānta-sūtra will be misinterpreted by so many rascals," therefore he left the comment on the Vedānta-sūtra in the form of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam.
Nitāi: Translation: "Before reciting this Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, which is our very means of conquest, I offer my respectful obeisances unto the Personality of Godhead Nārāyaṇa, unto Nara-nārāyaṇa Ṛṣi, the supermost human being, unto mother Sarasvatī, the goddess of learning, and unto Śrīla Vyāsadeva, the author." (SB 1.2.4)
Prabhupāda: This is the paramparā system. As you get knowledge, step by step... Kṛṣṇa is the original spiritual master, and then from Kṛṣṇa, Lord Brahmā learned the Vedic knowledge. Tene brahma hṛdā ādi-kavaye (SB 1.1.1). In the Bhāgavata it is said that "Wherefrom Brahmā got his knowledge?" Because whenever we want to get knowledge, we must approach a superior person to get knowledge. Tad-vijñānārthaṁ sa gurum eva abhigacchet (MU 1.2.12). Guru means superior. So who was the superior person when Brahmā got knowledge? Because there was no other creature. He is the first creature. Therefore it is said, "The superior person was Kṛṣṇa, but He was not present." We see, Kṛṣṇa was present before Arjuna, but nobody was present before Brahmā. Therefore it is said, tene brahma hṛdā ādi-kavaye, hṛdā: "through the heart." Because Kṛṣṇa is situated in everyone's heart. Actually, He is the spiritual master, caitya-guru. So in order to help us, He comes out as physical spiritual master. And therefore sākṣād-dharitvena sama... Spiritual master is representative of Kṛṣṇa. Kṛṣṇa sends some sincere devotee to act on His behalf, and therefore he is spiritual master.
Then they are explained or supplemented by the Purāṇas, eighteen Purāṇas. Then they are further explained by hundred eight Upaniṣads. Then they are summarized in Vedānta-sūtra, Brahma-sūtra. And then again, the Brahma-sūtra is explained by Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam. Bhāṣyāyāṁ brahma-sūtrāṇām. The Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam is the direct commentary by the author himself. Therefore you will find at the end of each chapter of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, śrīmad-bhāgavate mahā-purāṇe brahma-sūtra bhāṣye. Bhāṣya means commentary. Commentary means to explain. Just like in the Brahma-sūtra the first aphorism is athāto brahma jijñāsā: "This human form of life is meant for inquiring about the Absolute Truth." Brahman means Absolute Truth, the supreme truth.
Without understanding Vedānta, where is the question of spiritual advancement? So Vedānta does not mean it is the monopoly of a certain class of philosopher. No. Actually Vedānta, this vedānta-bhāṣya understanding of Vedānta, it is Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam. Bhāṣya brahma-sutrani. And this bhāṣya, this commentary, is given by the author Himself. The purpose of Vedānta is known to the author. Therefore if he personally gives the commentary, that is very perfect. Kṛṣṇa also says, vedānta-vit vedānta kṛd cāham: "I am the compiler of Vedānta, and I am the knower of it." That is, Vyāsadeva is incarnation of Kṛṣṇa. Therefore Kṛṣṇa says, "I, I am the actual knower of Vedānta." So whatever is said by Kṛṣṇa in the Bhagavad-gītā, that is no a..., against Vedānta-sūtra, or what is spoken in the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, that is not..., that is actually following the Vedānta-sūtra.
That is the difference between Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam and other scriptures. In Bhagavad-gītā Kṛṣṇa is speaking about Himself personally, and Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam also speaking about Kṛṣṇa spoken by Vyāsadeva. Practically the subject matter is the same. In the Bhagavad-gītā the Supreme Personality of Godhead speaking Himself, and in the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, the compiler, the author, Vyāsadeva, he is speaking of Kṛṣṇa. So kṛṣṇa-kathā. This is full of kṛṣṇa-kathā. These two important Vedic literature is full of kṛṣṇa-kathā. And Caitanya Mahāprabhu... We are worshiping Caitanya Mahāprabhu. He is supposed to be... He is incarnation of Kṛṣṇa. So He also advised everyone, yāre dekha tāre kaha kṛṣṇa-kathā. Tāre kaha kṛṣṇa-kathā. He said that,
- yāre dekha tāre kaha 'kṛṣṇa'-upadeśa
- āmāra ājñāya guru hañā tāra' ei deśa
- (CC Madhya 7.128)
He said that each and every one of you, whoever met Lord Caitanya, or whoever is in the chain of disciplic succession of Lord Caitanya, he's advised by the Lord that "You become a spiritual master." How? "Under My order. I give you order that you become a spiritual master." And, then... "I am a fool." "No. You are not fool. You have simply to say kṛṣṇa-kathā."
Devotee (1): Who is the author of Mahābhārata?
Prabhupāda: Mahābhārata author is Vyāsadeva. Author means it is not an imaginary story. It is historical fact. History anyone can write. So if you mean by author that something original, just like at the present moment there are so many authors of some fiction, novel, and fictitious, it is not like that. The historical incidences were there, and it was put forward by Vyāsadeva. In that sense he is author.
Guest (2): When was it written, the Bhagavad-gītā?
Prabhupāda: Five thousand years before. It was after the Battle of Kurukṣetra. The Battle of Kurukṣetra was fought about five thousand years ago, and the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam was written after writing Mahābhārata. When Vyāsadeva was not satisfied in his heart even by writing Mahābhārata and Vedānta-sūtra, he was sitting morose, and he was thinking that "I have written so many nice literatures. Why I am not happy?" At that time his spiritual master Nārada came, and he instructed him that "You have written the history of Mahābhārata. It is very nice. But there is some idea of Kṛṣṇa, or God, but not absolute. You write some book in which simply, absolutely about Kṛṣṇa is there." So under his instruction he wrote the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam.
What is the original source of everything, that is the beginning. Janmādy asya yataḥ (SB 1.1.1). Therefore it is called bhāṣyāyaṁ brahma-sūtrāṇām. Bhāṣya ayam. Ayam (grantha?) Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam is the right commentary on the Vedānta-sūtra. So how this Vedānta-sūtra commentary was originally written by the author himself is explained in the Fifth Chapter of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, First Canto. You try to understand it. So the cause was that after compiling all these Vedic literatures up to the end, Vedānta-sūtra, Vyāsadeva was not satisfied. Vyāsadeva was still morose. So Nārada Muni, he is spiritual master, he could understand that Vyāsadeva is seeking something, that "Why I am morose? I have tried to give knowledge to the people as far as possible, as far I have known from reliable sources. So why I am not satisfied?"
At that time Nārada came to him, and Vyāsadeva received him, as it is the duty of the disciple to give good reception to the spiritual master.
So spiritual sound is so powerful. And we are trying to catch you directly from that sound vibration, Hare Kṛṣṇa, and I am sure it is acting. Simply, śabdād anāvṛttiḥ.
Our question by Nārada Muni to Vyāsadeva, asking that "My dear Vyāsadeva, the author of all Vedic literature, you are such a learned scholar. You have produced such vastly, scholarly, and philosophical theses, books, and still you are not happy. So did you try to find out what is the cause?" The similar position is of the present world. There is so much advancement of scientific research, result, economic. Of course, in India there may be poverty-stricken, but in your country, you have got ample, everything ample. But still, a section is confused and frustrated. Why? The same position as Vyāsadeva, who was not satisfied even after producing so many variety of literatures in material science and philosophy and religion and... Everything was complete.
Vedānta Society. But we, actually we find they are enjoyed by a crow class men. Because they do not know what was the intention of writing Vedānta philosophy. That Vedānta philosophy explanation is Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam. Vyāsadeva actually did it. Bhāṣyaṁ brahma-sūtrāṇām **. This is... Therefore Bhāgavata, it begins with the first aphorism of Vedānta-sūtra: janmādy asya yataḥ (SB 1.1.1). The author himself explains because he knew under, after the instruction of Nārada Muni he could understand that "What fault I have done by writing this Vedānta-sūtra because that will (be) misinterpreted by the crow class men. Therefore I must write my own commentary of the Vedānta-sūtra so that swan class men will enjoy it." That is the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam.
Yasmin, yaśasaṁ gṛṇanti atre tu yad yāni nāmāni sādhavo mahanto vaktari sati śṛṇvanti śrotari sati gṛṇanti, anyathā tu svayam eva gāyanti kīrtayanti.(?) So indirectly he hinted that: "You should compile one first-class literature which the swan class men will hear, will chant and enjoy. So far, what you have done, that will be enjoyed by the crow class men. But you do something which will be enjoyed by the... Then you will be satisfied. Otherwise, you'll not be satisfied."
Everyone accept Kṛṣṇa as a great personality, but somebody's accepting Him as a great politician, a great diplomat, or in this way, according to one's angle of vision. Just like in Bombay... There are in India and all over the world, I calculated, there are more than six hundred commentary on Bhagavad-gītā, more than. And each one is presentation of the author's own view. One Doctor Rele(?) in Bombay, he has also explained Bhagavad-gītā in his own way. He says that it is a talk between a diseased person, a patient, and the physician. Because he is physician, he has made Kṛṣṇa as physician. Of course, Kṛṣṇa is physician in other way. But he has tried to explain the medical science through the Bhagavad-gītā-anatomy, physiology, medicine, like that. Just like Gandhi, he wanted to prove Bhagavad-gītā as nonviolence. In this way, everyone is trying. But actually who is understanding Kṛṣṇa? That is being explained by Nārada, that "In this way, people will misunderstand. You simply apply, simply write and explain the science of Kṛṣṇa."
And, at last, he summarized the whole Vedic knowledge into Vedānta-sūtra, Vedānta-sūtra, a small aphorism: janmādy asya yataḥ (SB 1.1.1), athāto brahma jijñāsā, ānandamayo 'bhyāsāt... (Vedānta-sūtra 1.1.12). In short aphorism. And it has got very deep meaning. That is Vedānta-sūtra. And this Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam is commentary on the Vedānta-sūtra by the author himself under the instruction of his guru, Nārada Muni. Therefore we began this that according to the advice of Nārada Muni, that "You write about the Supreme Personality of Godhead." So he began... We began this.
- bhakti-yogena manasi
- samyak praṇihite 'male
- apaśyat puruṣaṁ pūrṇaṁ
- māyāṁ ca tad-apāśrayam
- (SB 1.7.4)
By bhakti-yoga... The bhakti-yoga is also mentioned in the Bhagavad-gītā. Bhagavad-gītā is bhakti-yoga, but about jñāna-yoga, karma-yoga, haṭha-yoga and other yogas there are description, but at last Kṛṣṇa advises that "The most confidential part of knowledge I am speaking to you, Arjuna, is sarva-dharmān parityajya mām ekaṁ śaraṇaṁ vraja (BG 18.66)." This is real gain.
Kṛṣṇa says in the Bhagavad-gītā that brahma-sūtra padaiś caiva hetumadbhir viniścitaiḥ (BG 13.5). The truth, Absolute Truth, is fixed up by Brahma-sūtra. So Brahma-sūtra is explained in the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam. Brahma-sūtra is the summary of the whole Vedic literature. Because in future people will misinterpret. Therefore the author of Brahma-sūtra, Vyāsadeva, made natural a comment. And that comment is Brahma-sūtra bhāṣya, the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam. Don't be misguided by rascals, that "Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam is written by somebody else. It is not written by Vyāsadeva." These are rascals proposition. This is given by Śrī Vyāsadeva, and he is the author of Brahma-sūtra. Lokasyājānato vidvāṁś cakre sātvata-saṁhitām (SB 1.7.6). This is sātvata-saṁhitām.
So we have tried to explain this sātvata-saṁhitām in English for study of the whole world, because English can be understood, or it can be translated easily. So these activities are going on. And we are very much thankful to you that you are cooperating. So in India you may find some difficulty.
So this is dharmasya glāniḥ. But you have to change your angle of vision. In the material conditioned life your aim is how to satisfy your senses. And Kṛṣṇa consciousness means you have to work in the same spirit, same vigor, but you have to satisfy Kṛṣṇa. That is spiritual life. Not that to become lazy fellow. The difference is, as it is said by author, Kṛṣṇadāsa, ātmendriya-prīti-vāñchā tāre bali 'kāma' (CC Adi 4.165). What is kāma? Kāma means when one desires to satisfy his own senses. That is kāma. Kṛṣṇendriya-prīti-icchā dhare 'prema' nāma. And what is prema? Prema means when you engage yourself for satisfying Kṛṣṇa's senses. Why gopīs are exalted? Because their only endeavor was to satisfy Kṛṣṇa's senses. Therefore Caitanya Mahāprabhu recommended, ramyā kācid upāsanā vraja-vadhū-vargeṇa yā kalpitā. They had no other business. Vṛndāvana means, those who are in Vṛndāvana... If they actually want to live in Vṛndāvana, their business should be how to satisfy the senses of Kṛṣṇa. That is Vṛndāvana. Not that "I am living in Vṛndāvana and trying to satisfy my senses." That is not vṛndāvana-vāsī.
This is Vaiṣṇava, that "I am the lowest of the human being." Just like Caitanya-caritāmṛta author, Kṛṣṇadāsa Kavirāja Gosvāmī, he said,
- jagāi mādhāi haite muñi se pāpiṣṭha
- purīṣera kīṭa haite muñi se laghiṣṭha
- (CC Adi 5.205)
Jagāi-Mādhāi, he was considered to be very sinful. "I am more sinful than Jagāi-Mādhāi." Jagāi mādhāi haite muñi se pāpiṣṭha. And my position? Purīṣera kīṭa haite muñi se laghiṣṭha. "The worm in the stool, he has got some position, but I am lower than that."
Caitanya-caritāmṛta author, such an exalted person, practically the most exalted personality in Gauḍīya-Vaiṣṇava... His Caitanya-caritāmṛta, there is no comparison. It is postgraduate study. So the author of the book, he's presenting himself, that "My position is lower than the worm in the stool." Purīṣera kīṭa haite muñi se laghiṣṭha. And jagāi mādhāi haite muñi se pāpiṣṭha. Jagāi-Mādhāi was the example of pāpī, sinful. Caitanya Mahāprabhu... Narottama dāsa Ṭhākura sings, pāpī-tāpī jata chilo hari-nāme uddhārilo, brajendra-nandana jei śacī-suta hailo sei balarāma hailo nitāi. "Two brothers who were formerly the sons of..., Vrajendra-nandana, the Mahārāja Nanda, his son, Kṛṣṇa, and Balarāma, so Balarāma has become Nitāi, and Kṛṣṇa has become Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu." But... Why they have become Nitāi, and Caitanya Mahā...? Now, pāpī-tāpī jata chilo: "Just to deliver all the sinful persons." So "Did He? Did They do actually so?" "Yes." "Then where is the evidence?" Tāra sākṣī jagāi and mādhāi: "Here is evidence. They delivered Jagāi and Mādhāi."
Or he becomes ṛṣi. Viprarṣe. Rathena. Rathena. They were not walking, all these respectable personalities, brāhmaṇas and bhagavān.
Bhagavān api. Here Kṛṣṇa ... The author could have mentioned the name, kṛṣṇa api. No. He's especial: bhagavān api. All others' name is mentioned. Yudhiṣṭhira's name is mentioned. Dhanañjaya, Arjuna's name is mentioned. Other's name is mentioned. But when it comes to the terms of Kṛṣṇa, He is mentioned as Bhagavān, the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Bhagavān. This word I have explained many times. Bhaga means opulence, all fortune. That is called, from the bhaga, the word bhāgya has come. One who is very fortunate person, he is called bhāgyavān. Not this bhaga. So bhaga means opulence, and vān means one who possesses opulences. So Kṛṣṇa possesses all the opulences, six opulences: all strength, all influence, all beauty, all knowledge, all—everything complete.
Gargamuni: Purport. "Vāsudevāya means to Kṛṣṇa, the son of Vasudeva. As by chanting the name of Kṛṣṇa, Vāsudeva, one can achieve all the good results of charity, austerity, and penances, so by the chanting of this mantra, oṁ namo bhagavate vāsudevāya, it is to be understood that the author or the speaker or any one of the readers of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam offer respectful obeisances unto the Supreme Lord Kṛṣṇa, the reservoir of all pleasure. In the First Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, the principles of creation are described, and as such the First Canto can be called 'Creation.' "
Prabhupāda: So this om means addressing the Lord. In the all the Vedic mantras they are addressing. Our this Hare Kṛṣṇa mantra, mahā-mantra, that is also addressing. Hare, Hare, addressing the energy of the Lord, Harā. The energy is Harā, Rādhā, Sītā. So when a female is addressed, it is like that: Hare, Late, Sīte, Rādhe. So Hare means addressing first, first of all the energy. The impersonalists, they do not know this, this addressing first of all Kṛṣṇa's energy. We Gauḍīya Vaiṣṇavas, we don't worship Kṛṣṇa alone, ekala-vāsudeva. No. We must worship Kṛṣṇa along with His energy. Just like Kṛṣṇārjuna, Kṛṣṇa and Arjuna. Arjuna is also energy, living entity, and Kṛṣṇa, Rādhā-Kṛṣṇa, His internal energy, and marginal energy.
Vyāsadeva compiled this Brahma-sūtra, and he explained it, bhāṣyaṁ brahma-sūtrāṇām **, this Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam. If we read some artificial comments on Brahma-sūtra, we'll misunderstand. Generally, these Māyāvādīs give prominence of the comment given by Śaṅkarācārya about Brahma-sūtra, Śārīraka-bhāṣya. But that is unnatural. The natural commentation is given by the author himself, Vyāsadeva. So we have to understand... Vyāsadeva has written Brahma-sūtra, and we have to understand the meaning of Brahma... Brahma-sūtra means codes only. So codes can be explained by the author himself. So our process is to accept the Brahma-sūtra. Brahma-sūtra-padaiś caiva hetumadbhir viniścitaiḥ (BG 13.5). Kṛṣṇa says in the Bhagavad-gītā. So Brahma-sūtra is nyāya-prasthāna. Nyāya-prasthāna: very logically, transcendental knowledge. So brahma-sūtra-padaiś caiva hetumadbhir viniścitaiḥ (BG 13.5). So we must... Therefore, according to our Vedic system, the ācārya must understand Brahma-sūtra and explain. Then he'll be accepted as ācārya.
Just like Bhagavad-gītā ends with the assertion of the Lord: sarva-dharmān parityajya mām ekaṁ śaraṇaṁ vraja (BG 18.66). Sarva-dharmān. We have created so many dharmas. But dharma cannot be so many. Dharma is one. Or religious system... What is that, religious system? The all religious system, the author of religion, author of religion... Just like author of law is government, similarly author of religion is God, Kṛṣṇa. Dharmaṁ tu sākṣād bhagavat-praṇītam (SB 6.3.19). You cannot manufacture dharma, just like you cannot manufacture law at your home. That will be not feasible. That will be not useful for anyone. You can make thousands of laws: "I think this should be done..." That is the fashion now. Everyone thinks in his own way. That is not philosophy. That is not law: "I think..." "We think..." No. You cannot think. What is your value? You are imperfect. Your senses are imperfect. How you can think perfect things? No, that is not possible.
So Caitanya Mahāprabhu is Kṛṣṇa. He is ordering, āmāra ājñāya, "By My order," guru hañā, "you become guru." "Sir, it is very difficult to become guru. I have no education. I have no culture. I am not born in a very high family. I am very low." A devotee always thinks like that. He never thinks that "I have become very great man." Just like Caitanya-caritāmṛta, author of, he says, purīṣera kīṭa haite muñi se laghiṣṭha (CC Adi 5.205). Purīṣa, purīṣa means stool, and there are worms in the stool. So Caitanya-caritāmṛta author is saying that "I am lower than the worms in the stool." That is Vaiṣṇava conception. Tṛṇād api sunīcena. He is very humble. He never says, "Oh, I am the Supreme. I have become God." A most rascal, foolish. So that is not... Therefore we have to follow. If we actually want to become guru, there is necessity of many thousands of gurus to teach this cheated public. But how to become guru? That is... Caitanya Mahāprabhu says, āmāra ājñāya: "By My order." "What is Your order, Sir?" Yāre dekha, tāre kaha 'kṛṣṇa'-upadeśa (CC Madhya 7.128). Then you become guru. You simply advise people to follow Kṛṣṇa's instruction.
So bhakti means this practice of using the senses for sense gratification should be rectified, should be purified. Then the same senses will be utilized for Kṛṣṇa's satisfaction, and then you become a bhakta. Kṛṣṇa's things may be used for Kṛṣṇa. Sarvopādhi-vinirmuktaṁ tat-paratvena nirmalam (CC Madhya 19.170).
The Caitanya-caritāmṛta kaṛacā, the author of Caitanya-caritāmṛta, he has distinguished between kāma and prema. Kāma means lusty desires or sex desires. Generally, it is meant, sex desires. So he has very simplified the matter very much. Ātmendriya-prīti-vāñchā—dhare... nāma dhare... prema... tāre... bali dhare...nāma kāma (CC Adi 4.165), like that. Kṛṣṇendriya-prīti-vāñchā dhare nāma prema, and ātmendriya-prīti-vāñchā—dhare nāma kāma. They... Actually, senses are there for satisfaction. That's a fact. Otherwise, why the senses are there? Just like the smell is there, and the nose is there. So smell is there for satisfaction of the senses. For the smell, for the nose, nostril, the beautiful flower is there, or beautiful, anything beautiful... To the man, woman is beautiful; to the woman, man is beautiful.
And the predominating deity, or you may call the king or emperor... In the moon planet he is called Candra. Similarly, the predominating deity or the emperor of the sun planet, at the present moment he is called Vivasvān. So the predominating deity or the emperor in each and every important planet, they are mentioned in the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam. That means the author of the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam has complete knowledge not only of this universe, but also beyond the universe.
Beyond the universe, there is spiritual sky. There are also different planets. But in those planets the predominating deity is the Supreme Personality of Godhead Himself. And in this material world, in each and every planet, the predominating deity or the person is a very pious human being or living being. Generally, human being. In other higher planetary system they are also like human being. Their features are exactly like us: two hands, two legs, one head, like that. But they are very pious.
As Madhvācārya says, "No, jagat satyam, that is fact." How you can say this jagat is false? It is not false. Besides that, that Vyāsadeva, he's the compiler of Vedānta-sūtra, and he has commented himself about Vedānta-sūtra. That is Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam. Bhāṣyaṁ brahma-sūtrāṇām **. And at the end of each chapter of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, you'll find, brahma-sūtrasya bhāṣya. So, when the author is giving a commentary personally, we should accept that. Why others? So Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam is the natural commentary given by Vyāsadeva. We should accept. And it begins... Because it is commentary on Brahma-sūtra, therefore it begins with the sūtra, Brahma-sūtra: janmādy asya yataḥ anvayād itarataś ca artheṣu abhijñaḥ svarāṭ (SB 1.1.1). This is the explanation. So the conclusion is that we Vaiṣṇavas, we do not say that this jagat is mithyā. No. The jagat is satyam. Unless the jagat is satyam, how we are approaching God, the Absolute Truth through this material, I mean to say, world. How it is possible? You cannot approach the truth through false thing.
So it is the natural comment by Vyāsadeva. Vyāsadeva is the writer of Vedānta philosophy, and he has written a comment personally so that in future, rascals may not misrepresent Vedānta. There are so many bhāṣyas, but that is not commentary. Real commentary... The author knows what he wants to speak. So Vedānta is the compilation by Vyāsadeva. So he knows what he wants to speak. What others have got the right? Just like Bhagavad-gītā. The purpose of Bhagavad-gītā is known by Kṛṣṇa. Why the rascals comment in different way? They may write their rascal philosophy other... Why they touch Bhagavad-gītā and give different interpretation? They have no right. I have written a book; I have got my purpose. Why you should poke your nose and make it a different purpose? This is very mischievous rascaldom. So we want to stop this. We present Bhagavad-gītā as it is, as Kṛṣṇa says. We don't allow any rascal to comment upon Bhagavad-gītā in a different way. That is our Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement.
This is the difference. There is... Just like lusty desires and love, pure love. What is the difference between lusty desires and pure love? Here we are mixing, man and woman, mixing with lusty desires, and Kṛṣṇa is also mixing with the gopīs. Superficially they look the same thing. Yet what is the difference? So this difference has been explained by the author of Caitanya-caritāmṛta, that what is the difference between lusty desires and love? That has been explained. He has said, ātmendriya-prīti-vāñchā-tāre bali 'kāma' (CC Adi 4.165), "When I want to satisfy my senses, that is kāma." But kṛṣṇendriya-prīti-icchā dhare 'prema' nāma, "And when we want to satisfy the senses of Kṛṣṇa, then it is love, prema." That is the difference. Here in this material world there is no love because the man and woman, they have no idea that "I mix with the man, the man who satisfies desires with me." No. "I will satisfy my desires." This is the basic principle. The man is thinking that "Mixing with this woman, I'll satisfy my sense desire," and woman is thinking that "By mixing with this man, I shall satisfy my desire."
So kindly... I am very pleased that you are doing nicely. But don't be proud. Always remain humble, meek, that "I am nothing. I cannot..." That will be nice. And if you think, "Now I have become liberated. I can chant and dance," no, don't think like that. Just like even Caitanya-caritāmṛta author, he says, purīṣera kīṭa haite muñi se laghiṣṭha: (CC Adi 5.205) "I am lower than the worm in the stool." Jagāi mādhāi haite muñi se pāpiṣṭha: "I am more sinner than Jagāi-Mādhāi." In this way... That is not artificial. A Vaiṣṇava must think like that, that "I am rotten. I have no value." Don't be proud. Then the things will go on nicely. And as soon as you become proud, then māyā—"Yes, you are God. Come on. I will kick you on your face. Come on." (laughter) These rascals becomes God, and the māyā kicks on the face, and they think that they have become God. Don't become like that. Always remain humble servant and you will be happy.
Those who are not representative of Kṛṣṇa, they will say simply dogmas. Just like in every religion there is a dogma. But in bhāgavata religion, bhāgavata-dharma, there is no dogma. Caitanya Mahāprabhu's bhāgavata-dharma, the Caitanya-caritāmṛta's author, Kṛṣṇadāsa Kavirāja Gosvāmī, says, therefore, that caitanyera dayāra kathā karaha vicāra. Vicāra means you just try to understand the gift of Lord Caitanya by logic, vicāra. Don't follow blindly. Following blindly something, that is not good. That will not stay. But one should take everything with logic. But the servants of God, they put everything in logic. Caitanyera dayāra kathā karaha vicāra. If you study the Caitanya's philosophy with logic and argument... Don't go by sentiment. The so-called missionary, they're simply bogus propaganda without any logic. Without any logic. Just like some missionary people are propagating a man to become God. How a man can become God? There must be evidences how God incarnates. Not that somebody by worshiping a demigod becomes God.
Then tapta: you may be burned. And āhataḥ: you may be injured from others. Then during this time you can test, practical. What is that test? Harir ity avaśena aha. Try to chant Hare Kṛṣṇa. Pumān. If anyone does so, na arhati yātanāḥ. You'll immediately feel that from the injuries you are not feeling pain. This is practical seen. Even a snake bite... You may be saved. The author says, never says, that you may be saved from death, but the suggestion is that you may not feel much pain. This is practical.
Because this material world is full of dangers, these symptoms of dangerous position, patitaṁ skhalito bhagnaḥ... Especially in the modern age, in the Western countries, accident, motor accident and die, is very common thing nowadays. Here also it is becoming. On the whole, even there is no motor accident, there are so many accidents. In every step there is danger. Padaṁ padaṁ yad vipadām (SB 10.14.58). This material world means every step there is danger.
That is Absolute conception. Advaya-jñāna. We should not distinguish a devotee from Bhagavān. We shall not distinguish Bhāgavatam from Bhagavān. When we read Bhagavad-gītā—practically every one of us reads—we should not think that Bhagavad-gītā is different from Kṛṣṇa. Bhagavad-gītā is as good as Kṛṣṇa. It is not ordinary book. Ordinary book is different from the author, but this Bhagavad-gītā is Bhagavān Himself.
- ataḥ śrī-kṛṣṇa-nāmādi
- na bhaved grāhyam indriyaiḥ
- sevonmukhe hi jihvādau
- svayam eva sphuraty adaḥ
- (CC Madhya 17.136)
- nāma cintāmaṇiḥ kṛṣṇaś
- pūrṇaḥ śuddho nitya-mukta
- 'bhinattvān nāma-nāminoḥ
- (CC Madhya 17.133)
So Bhagavad-gītā or Śrīmad-Bhagavam or Kṛṣṇa's name, Kṛṣṇa's form, Kṛṣṇa's pastime, anything about Kṛṣṇa, they are one. Abhinnatvān nāma-nāminoḥ. Abhinnatvān, that is not separated. Therefore by chanting this Hare Kṛṣṇa mahā-mantra, you directly contact with Kṛṣṇa. Abhinnatvān nāma-nāminoḥ. Kṛṣṇa is the nāminoḥ, and Hare Kṛṣṇa mantra is His name. But they are abhinna. Otherwise how this Hare Kṛṣṇa movement is being so quickly appreciated all over the world?
Then teaching, they are learning Sanskrit and English especially, a little geography, mathematics. We have started a school. So do not take this movement very insignificantly. Try to understand this movement with all your intelligence. As Caitanya-caritāmṛta author says, caitanyera dayāra kathā karaha vicāra. Vicāra. Just put your judgment. Try to understand with logic and try to understand with philosophy. Not as a fanatic. Vicāra. Vicāra karile citte pābe camatkāra. And if you rightly judge this movement, you will find it very sublime.
So we have got four branches now in India, out of 102 branches all over the world. But especially this movement is easier for the Indians because by birth they are imbibed with the Kṛṣṇa consciousness idea.
As I have already mentioned that Brahmā is one of the authorities, similarly, he has got the disciplic succession from Brahmā. From Brahmā to Nārada, from Nārada to Vyāsadeva, from Vyāsadeva to Madhvācārya, from Madhvācārya to Mad... I am making shortcut. From Madhvācārya to Mādhavendra Purī, from Mādhavendra Purī to Īśvara Purī, from Īśvara Purī to Lord Caitanya, from Lord Caitanya to Svarūpa Dāmodara, from Svarūpa Dāmodara to six Gosvāmīs, Rūpa Gosvāmī, Sanātana Gosvāmī, from Gosvāmīs to Kṛṣṇadasa Kavirāja Gosvāmī, the author of Caitanya-caritāmṛta, and from him Narottama dāsa Ṭhākura, and from Narottama dāsa Ṭhākura, Viśvanātha Cakravartī, from Viśvanātha Cakravartī Ṭhākura to Jagannātha dāsa Bābājī, from Jagannātha dāsa Bābājī to Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura, from Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura to Gaurakiśora dāsa Bābājī Mahārāja, and from Gaurakiśora dāsa Bābājī my spiritual master, and then we are descended.
Indian man: ...many incarnations including Kṛṣṇa. So Kṛṣṇa gave Bhagavad-gītā. That doesn't means that the author has not given all the gods, whether including Kṛṣṇa... (break)
Acyutānanda: ...nations, so...
Prabhupāda: So that I have already explained, that incarnation—whose incarnation? The question will be: whose incarnation?
Indian man: God. God.
Prabhupāda: God's. So that God is Kṛṣṇa. You do not know that. Now learn it.
Guest: Is not Rāma a God?
Take for example: goodness is brāhmaṇa. How at the present moment the brāhmaṇa, the hereditary brāhmaṇa, by birth, how they have fallen on account of attack of these base qualities. But they're trying to keep their brahminical platform in spite of being polluted by the other two base qualities. Therefore the Caitanya-caritāmṛta author's statement that ei bhāla, ei manda, saba bhrama: even if you are raised to the brāhmaṇa quality, there is always chance of falling down. Therefore you have to keep always in the transcendental platform, brahma-bhūtaḥ prasannātmā na śocati na kāṅkṣati... (BG 18.54). Even from brahma-bhūtaḥ platform one falls down. One who is already mixed, or merged into the Brahman, they fall down. Āruhya kṛcchreṇa paraṁ padaṁ tataḥ patanty adhaḥ (SB 10.2.32). Why? Anādṛta yusmad aṅghrayaḥ. Unless one is very rigid devotee, even he has approached the other feature—that means the Brahman feature: Brahman, Paramātmā and Bhagavān—so he falls down, very, very easily. And why? That is this attachment—sneha-pāśair dṛḍhair baddham.
He did not think that "Oh, all other demigods failed to pacify the Lord. Now it is my turn, so how great I am, that I am superceding all these great demigods." So this is the Vaiṣṇava devotee's temperament, humble and meek. They, although they are always in the exalted position, they never advertise that "I am in exalted position." He is never puffed up. As you have read it, the author of Caitanya-caritāmṛta, such a great devotee, who could produce in his ripe old age such nice transcendental literature, which is certified by my Guru Mahārāja as the postgraduate study of the devotees... So Bhagavad-gītā is the study for the neophytes, those who are inquiring, those who are trying to understand the science of God, for them. That means it is primary study. And after studying Bhagavad-gītā, just like the boys, after passing the school final examination, they are allowed to enter into the degree college, similarly, one who has understood Bhagavad-gītā very nicely and taken up the instruction, sarva-dharmān parityajya mām ekaṁ śaraṇaṁ vraja (BG 18.66), such person is eligible to enter into the study of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam.
That is postgraduate study. After getting your degree, as you try for your Ph.D. or M.A., similarly, Caitanya-caritāmṛta is like that, post-graduate study. And the author of the Caitanya-caritāmṛta, he places himself that "I am lower than the worm in the stool." Just see how humble. This is the nature of Vaiṣṇava. That is not artificial. He says. Every Vaiṣṇava thinks himself as very insignificant. Actually, every one of us is very insignificant in comparison to the Supreme Lord. What we are? Nothing. But if we establish our loving relationship, which is already there, then we will become the greatest. By relationship with the greatest, we become the greatest.
So artificially, if we become puffed up, "I am God," we shall always remain in the position of a dog. We shall never be God. But actually if we feel ourselves humble and meek servants of God, then we become more than God. Kṛṣṇa is so kind that He keeps His devotees more honorable than Himself. And He recommends to the devotees that mad-bhakta-pūjābhyadhikā: (SB 11.19.21) "My dear devotees, take it for granted that if you worship My devotees, that is more than My devotional service."
Like that. The author of Caitanya-caritāmṛta, he presents himself: "The lighter than the worm in the stool." Purīṣera kīṭa haite muñi se laghiṣṭha. And in Caitanya-līlā, Jagāi-Mādhāi, two brothers are supposed to be most sinful, but he has also They were also delivered. Kavirāja Gosvāmī says, "I am more sinful than the Jagāi-Mādhāi."
- jagāi madhāi haite muñi se pāpiṣṭha
- mora nāma yei laya tāra puṇya kṣaya
"I am so low grade that if somebody takes my name, whatever little pious action is there is lost." In this way he's presenting. And Sanātana Gosvāmī, presenting himself, nīca jāti nīca karma nīca saṅga... They are not artificial. A Vaiṣṇava actually thinks like that. That is Vaiṣṇava. He is never proud of... And just opposite number: "Oh, I have got this. I have got this. Who is equal to me? I am so rich. I am so this and that." That is the distinction.
So they cannot answer this. Because their theory is foolish, they cannot answer all these things. Actually, unless one is a devotee, he'll have all these bad qualification.
So Prahlāda Mahārāja is thinking himself that "I am less than śvapaca." Just like Caitanya-caritāmṛta author says,
- purīṣera kīṭa haite muñi se laghiṣṭha
- jagāi mādhāi haite muñi se pāpiṣṭha
- (CC Adi 5.205)
He said that "I am insignificant, more insignificant than the stool-worm." The worm... There are worms in the stool. "So I am lower than that." Purīṣera kīṭa haite muñi se laghiṣṭha: "My value is less than the worm in the stool." This is called tṛṇād api sunīcena. It is not that Kavirāja Gosvāmī is artificially posing in that way. No. He's sincerely... No Vaiṣṇava thinks himself, "I am very big man." No. He's not Vaiṣṇava. Vaiṣṇava means tṛṇād api sunīcena taror api sahiṣṇunā. This is Vaiṣṇava. Even he is exalted more than anyone in this world, still he thinks himself as lowest: "I am lower than the worm in the stool." Prahlāda Mahārāja, Vaiṣṇava, he is engaged to offer prayers to the Lord, Nṛsiṁha-deva.
That does not mean that they were lower than somebody else. No. But it is the, I mean to say, general tendency of a devotee that he always thinks that "I am lower than the lowest. Lower than the lowest." Purīṣera kīṭa haite muñi se laghiṣṭha (CC Adi 5.205). Kṛṣṇa dāsa Kavirāja Gosvāmī, the author of a literature, Caitanya-caritāmṛta, unique in the world, he said that "I am lower than the worm in the stool." Purīṣera kīṭa haite. Purīṣa means stool and kīṭa means worms. There are some worms in the stool. So he said that "I am lower than that worm in the stool." Just see.
Similarly Prahlāda Mahārāja says, "My dear Lord, these demigods, they are all devotees. They are Your obedient servant. Sattva-dhāmno. And they are not like us, disturbing." Kṣemāya bhūtaya utātma-sukhāya cāsya vikrīḍitaṁ bhagavato rucirāvatāraiḥ. "And Your appearance as Nṛsiṁha-deva is not for me, but for them. Because I am born in atheistic family. It is Your determination that You want to cut down the atheistic people. So it is automatically You have cut down, You have killed my father.
So Prahlāda Mahārāja says that "All these big, big demigods, they are Your servants." Vidhi-karās tava sattva-dhāmnaḥ. "You are in transcendental position, and we are all servants." Ekala īśvara kṛṣṇa āra saba bhṛtya. This is said by Caitanya-car itāmṛta author.
- ekala īśvara kṛṣṇa āra saba bhṛtya
yāre yaiche nācāya, se taiche kare nṛtya
Master is one, Kṛṣṇa. There cannot be two masters. The master can expand Himself as masters. That is another thing. The master is one. Advaitam acyutam anādim ananta-rūpam (Bs. 5.33). Ananta-rūpam. The master can expand Himself in many, many thousands and millions of forms, but they are advaita. They are not different. Just like Kṛṣṇa, when He married 16,108 wives, so He expanded Himself also into 16,108 forms, Kṛṣṇa. But those expansions, 16,000 expansions, they are one, the same Kṛṣṇa.
This is bhakta's position. This is Kṛṣṇa's causeless mercy. He can do that.
So Prahlāda Mahārāja is appreciating that "I am worthless. I have no qualification." That should be the position of the bhaktas always. Never we should think that "I have become a big bhakta." No. Caitanya-caritāmṛta author says humbly, puriṣera kīṭa haite muñi se laghiṣṭha: (CC Adi 5.205) "I am lower than the worm in the stool." Does it mean that he is actually? No. But he's feeling like that. An advanced devotee, they're always so humble and meek, they always think of himself as worthless. And still, the Lord is so kind and favorable. That is His causeless mercy, that "I am not qualified, I am not worthy of this facility." This is the humbleness. Kvāhaṁ rajaḥ-prabhava īśa tamo 'dhike 'smin. "Not only I am influenced by rajo-guṇa, but mostly, seventy-five percent, I am infested with tamo-guṇa." Adhika. Akhika means "in larger quantity." And there is no question of sattva-guṇa. Adhika 'smin jātaḥ sure... "Otherwise why I am born in this family?" That is the test. Now they are... By force they are trying to be equal.
Nectar of Devotion Lectures
Everyone, a mahā-bhāgavata sees that "Everyone is engaged in the service of the Lord, except myself." That is mahā-bhāgavatas vision. But we should not imitate that. Just like I was, I was giving the example of Caitanya-caritāmṛta author, Kṛṣṇadāsa Kavirāja Gosvāmī. He's speaking that
- jagāi mādhāi haite muñi se pāpiṣṭha
- purīṣera kīṭa muñi se lagiṣṭha
He's not imitating, or he's speaking falsely. He feels like that. A mahā-bhāgavata feels like that, that "I am the lowest." Just like Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura has sung, āmāra jīvana sada pāpe rata nāhika puṇyera leśa (?). He says like that, that "My life is always engaged in sinful activities. I've not a trace of pious activity." Āmāra jīvana sada ape rata nāhika puṇyera leśa. "I have given so much distress to all other living entities."
In the Gauḍīya-sampradāya, therefore, the Gosvāmīs, they did not write any comment on the Vedānta-sūtra although other ācāryas like Rāmānujācārya, Mādhavācārya, they wrote commentaries on the Bhagavad, uh, Vedānta-sūtra. But our Gosvāmīs, they did not write purposefully, because they accept that there is already natural perfect commentary written by the same author, Vyāsadeva, the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam. Bhāṣyaṁ brahma-sūtrānām **.
So Vedānta-sūtra says, answer, the first aphorism is: athāto brahma jijñāsā. Brahman, the Absolute, that is the main business of the human life, to inquire about the Absolute Truth. Here everything is relative truth. I am the son of my father. My father is the son of his father. His father is the son of his father. You go on. Everything is relative. But who is the Absolute? Who is the Absolute? That inquiry is called Brahma-jijñāsā. Who is the original father? Then if you go on searching like that, within this universe you'll find Lord Brahmā is the origin.
Pradyumna: "The author of Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu, Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī, very humbly submits that he is just trying to spread Kṛṣṇa consciousness all over the world, although he humbly thinks himself unfit for this work. That should be the attitude of all preachers of the Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement, following in the footsteps of Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī. We should never think of ourselves as great preachers, but should always consider that we are simply instrumental to the previous ācāryas, and simply by following in their footsteps, we may be able to do something for the benefit of suffering humanity."
Prabhupāda: Yes. Just like Narottama dāsa Ṭhākura says, tāṅdera caraṇa-sevi-bhakta-sane vāsa. Tāṅdera caraṇa-sevi. Our main business is..., (uproar in background, sounds like monkey attacked audience) (pause) Hut! Hut! (laughter, applause) So our main business is to serve the ācāryas. This Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement means why..., we are trying to serve the ācāryas. Caitanya Mahāprabhu and His direct disciples, the Ṣaḍ-gosvāmīs, and their disciples. Rūpa-raghunātha-pade haibe ākuti. That is required.
Pradyumna: "The author of Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu, Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī, very humbly submits that he is just trying to spread Kṛṣṇa consciousness all over the world, although he humbly thinks himself unfit for this work."
Prabhupāda: Yes. Every Vaiṣṇava, that is Vaiṣṇava's sadācāra (?), humble. Tṛṇād api sunīcena taror api sahiṣṇunā. Although Vaiṣṇava knows everything, still he presents himself very humble, lower that the straw, humbler than the tree. Tṛṇād api sunīcena taror api sahiṣṇunā, amāninā, they don't..., the devotee does not claim any so-called popular respect, false respect. They go on with their Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement. Tṛṇād api sunīcena taror api sahiṣṇunā, amāninā, if anyone wants some honor, he gives everyone honor. For him, he does not want any honor. What honor he'll take? This material honor. Prahlāda Mahārāja, when he was offered benediction by Lord Nṛsiṁha-deva, "You take any kind of benediction." So Prahlāda Mahārāja replied, "My dear Lord, I am born of a father, passionate, and I am always greedy about material opulence, naturally, because my father was like that. So You are offering benediction. I can ask from you any kind of material opulence.
That is not love. As soon as there is any difficulty in sense gratification, immediately there is divorce. So there is no love. There is only lust. In the material world there is no love. Therefore Caitanya-caritāmṛta Kaja, the author of Caitanya-caritāmṛta, he has distinguished between love and lust. He says, ātmendriya-prīti-vāñchā tāre nāma kāma (CC Adi 4.165). When you want to satisfy your senses, that is called lust. Kṛṣṇendriya-prīti vāñchā dhare prema nāma. When you want to satisfy the senses of Kṛṣṇa, that is love.
Just like Arjuna. In the beginning he wanted to satisfy his own senses. "I shall not fight because if the other party, my brothers and grandfathers, they live, I shall be happy." So that is kāma. That is not prema. But when he agreed to fight because Kṛṣṇa wanted it... Nimitta-mātraṁ bhava savya-sācin. So that is prema. So Kṛṣṇa-prema can be executed in so many ways. Simply Kṛṣṇa should be satisfied. That is prema.
That is the sign of devotee: appreciation (of) the activities of devotee. This appreciation means a devotee who is actually freed from all contamination, he does not find any fault with other devotee. That is the sign. He does not think himself that he is bigger devotee or greater devotee than others. He thinks himself as the lowest of all. As Caitanya, as Caitanya-caritāmṛta author, Kavirāja Gosvāmī, says, purīṣera kīṭa haite muñi se lagiṣṭha: (CC Adi 5.205) "I am lower than the insect within the stool." Jagāi-mādhāi haite se muñi pāpiṣṭha: "I am greater sinner than Jagāi and Mādhāi." Mora nāma yei laya tāra puṇya kṣaya: "Anyone who takes my name, immediately, all the result of his pious activities becomes vanquished." He's placing like that. Because it is not imitation or any bluff. He's... Any devotee who's actually advanced, he feels like that. Just like great scientist, Sir Isaac Newton, he used to say that "I have simply collected a few grains of sand in the ocean of knowledge." Yes. He used to say. And actually, that is the fact.
Sri Caitanya-caritamrta Lectures
Now the author, Kṛṣṇadāsa Kavirāja Gosvāmī, is establishing with great stress that na caitanyāt kṛṣṇāt jagati para-tattvaṁ param iha: "There is no greater truth than Kṛṣṇa Caitanya." We are after truth, so here the author of Caitanya-caritāmṛta, he is asserting that "Here is the Supreme Truth, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu." Na caitanyāt kṛṣṇāt. Kṛṣṇāt, because Kṛṣṇa has appeared as Kṛṣṇa Caitanya. We have explained this truth yesterday according to Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya's declaration, vairāgya-vidyā-nija-bhakti-yogaṁ-śikṣārtham ekaḥ puruṣaḥ purāṇaḥ (CC Madhya 6.254). Puruṣaḥ purāṇaḥ. Puruṣaḥ purāṇaḥ is Kṛṣṇa. Puruṣaḥ, He is puruṣaḥ, and purāṇaḥ, ādyam, the original person. Govindam ādi-puruṣaṁ tam ahaṁ bhajāmi **. In many Vedic literature Kṛṣṇa is described as the purāṇaḥ puruṣaḥ, the oldest. Purāṇaḥ puruṣaḥ nava-yauvanaṁ ca (Bs. 5.33). Although He is the oldest of all, still, He is always like fresh youth, nava-yauvanaṁ ca. So how it is possible? They are trying to understand God. Sometimes they paint the picture of God as very old man. Because He is the original person, so by this time He must have become very old. This is imagination. This is not actually the form of the Lord.
They do not know. This is the ignorance, basic ignorance. "I" and "my." "I am this body, and anything in relationship with the body is mine." This is ignorance. But this ignorance is going on all over the world. That's a fact, this ignorance.
Therefore in the beginning the author said,
- vande śrī-kṛṣṇa-caitanya-
- nityānanda sahoditau
- gauḍodaye puṣpavantau
- citrau śandau tamo-nudau
- (CC Adi 1.2)
Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu and Nityānanda Prabhu, both of Them have come to deliver these fallen souls of this material world who are in the darkness of conception. So They are fighting all over the world this darkness. Just now somebody told me that the king of the Arabia is killed. He is killed now by his nephew or somebody else. This is going on. Even in family affairs it is going on. Why? This darkness.
So we should learn from Kṛṣṇa. We should learn from Caitanya Mahāprabhu, who is Kṛṣṇa Himself. Therefore the author says that "You accept this authority." Na caitanyāt kṛṣṇāt para-tattvaṁ param iha. If you want knowledge, then... You have missed already, because when Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu appeared five hundred years ago people already became fools and rascals. They did not care for the teachings of Bhagavad-gītā. Therefore He again came as devotee of Kṛṣṇa to teach us how to serve Kṛṣṇa, how to love Kṛṣṇa. This is Caitanya Mahāprabhu's cult, the same thing. When Kṛṣṇa appeared He said, sarva-dharmān parityajya mām ekaṁ śaraṇaṁ vraja: (BG 18.66) "Give up everything, so-called rascaldom. Just surrender to Me." And Caitanya Mahāprabhu, He said the same thing as a devotee: yāre dekha, tāre kaha 'kṛṣṇa'-upadeśa (CC Madhya 7.128). He did not say anything new. That is the authenticity.
So another feature of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu is described here by the author, Kavirāja Gosvāmī. In the beginning He has been described as the ultimate Absolute Truth, ṣaḍ-aiśvarya-pūrṇaḥ ya bhagavān. The Absolute Truth realized in three phases. The ultimate phase is Bhagavān. Ṣaḍ-aiśvarya-pūrṇaḥ. Bhagavān means full of six opulences. Not as nowadays there are so many Bhagavāns, they have no aiśvarya. But Bhagavān means ṣaḍ-aiśvarya-pūrṇaḥ, full opulences, six kinds of opulence. Then that Bhagavān, Supreme Personality of Godhead, has descended as incarnation, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, just to bestow the topmost understanding of loving affairs with Kṛṣṇa. Samarpayitum unnata ujjvala-rasāṁ sva-bhakti-śriyam.
This is Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu. Therefore it is said, śrī kṛṣṇa caitanya rādhā kṛṣṇa nahe anya. If you simply worship Śrī Kṛṣṇa Caitanya Mahāprabhu, then you will be able to worship both Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa. This is the meaning of these verses. So Caitanya-caritāmṛta author, Kṛṣṇadāsa Kavirāja Gosvāmī, is describing the cause of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu's appearance. The cause is that Kṛṣṇa wanted to know, "What is there in Rādhārāṇī?" He is Madana-mohana. Kṛṣṇa's another name is... He's attractive. Kṛṣṇa is attractive to everyone, even He is attractive to Cupid, Madana. Madana is attractive in the material world, and He is Madana-mohana. And Rādhārāṇī is Madana-mohana-mohinī, means She attracts even the Madana-mohana. Therefore Kṛṣṇa is trying to understand, "What is there in Rādhārāṇī that She attracts? I attract the whole universe, and She attracts Me."
So with this feeling, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, tad-bhāvāḍhyaḥ lobhāt. These are all transcendental loving affairs. Lobhāt: there is greediness to understand.
And the Brahma-saṁhitā is there—it is written by Brahmā. And in the Brahma-saṁhitā, the Kāraṇodakaśāyī Viṣṇu is mentioned, yasyaika-niśvasita-kālam athāvalambya jīvanti loma-vilajā (Bs. 5.48). It is not that we are accepting this verse of Caitanya-caritāmṛta author. No. It is confirmed by the Vedic knowledge. This is the origin of creation, not that this chunk, or... No. Matter cannot expand. Matter, when there is reaction... Just like explosion. We have got experience that there is sometimes explosion like if you mix together two chemicals, acid and alkaline, there is explosion for the time being. But this explosion takes place when a chemist in the laboratory mixes soda, soda bicarb, and citric acid. Otherwise, it is not possible.
So this is wrong theory that matter automatically takes the explosion or something like that. Matter is handled by some superior living being. Then it explodes or whatever you call. It reacts. Otherwise, it is not possible.
So gradually the author is offering respect, śrī-kṛṣṇa-caitanya prabhu-nityānanda śrī-advaita. He has already offered respect to Lord Caitanya and Lord Nityānanda. Now it is the turn for Śrī Advaitācārya. So advaitam, nondifferent, expansion of Mahā-Viṣṇu. Therefore He is Viṣṇu-tattva; He is not jīva-tattva. Therefore He is advaita. Advaitam acyutam anādim ananta-rūpam (Bs. 5.33). Kṛṣṇa has got unlimited number of expansions: expansion, expansion of the expansion, then expansion of the expansion, in this way. So Advaitācārya is expansion of Kṛṣṇa, it is already explained. Therefore He is called advaitam, and ācāryaṁ bhakti-śaṁsanāt.
This is the surrendering process of the author, Kavirāja Gosvāmī. Before beginning to write Caitanya-caritāmṛta, he submitted himself to the lotus feet of Madana-mohana. (aside:) That child may be... So he is submitting that Rādhā-Madana-mohana... Those who have gone to Vṛndāvana, they have seen the temple of Rādhā-Madana-mohana. That was established by Sanātana Gosvāmī, the first disciple of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu. Sanātana Gosvāmī established this Madana-mohana temple, and Rūpa Gosvāmī established that Govindajī's temple, and the Jīva Gosvāmī established Rādhā-Dāmodara temple. Gopal Bhaṭṭa Gosvāmī established Rādhā-Rāmaṇa temple. In this way, in Vṛndāvana there are seven temples authorizedly established by the Gauḍīya-sampradāya, Caitanya Mahāprabhu's sampradāya.
We are preaching that God is one and to think of God is also one and to become obedient servant of God, that is also one. Not that you have to become a different servant, I have to become different ser... Everyone is servant originally. So we accept to serve God. Then our religion is there; our fulfillment of desires are there. Therefore the author said, mat-sarvasva-padāmbhojau: "That is my everything. To take shelter of Rādhā-Madana-mohana, that is my everything. I have no other desire." This is Kṛṣṇa consciousness.
- samāśritā ye pada-pallava-plavaṁ
- mahat-padaṁ puṇya-yaśo murāreḥ
- bhavāmbudhir vatsa-padaṁ paraṁ padaṁ
- padaṁ padaṁ yad vipadāṁ na teṣām
- (SB 10.14.58)
This is the solution. To take shelter of the padāmbhojau of Rādhā-Madana-mohana, that is the solution of all problem. And for a person who has taken shelter of the lotus feet, samāśritā ye pada-pallava-plavam... Pada-pallavam. His lotus feet is compared with the lotus flower. The lotus flower has got petals, and the petal is just like in the shape of a boat. Everyone has got this experience. If you take the shelter of this boat, then we can cross over the ocean of material world very easily.
That is the beginning of Kṛṣṇa's instructions. And at last He, as a father, advises sarva-dharmān parityajya mām ekaṁ śaraṇaṁ vraja (BG 18.66). So when we do that, giving up everything, we surrender to Kṛṣṇa, at that time we revive our relationship with Kṛṣṇa. This is wanted. Therefore the author is instructing us, jayatāṁ suratau paṅgor mama manda-mater. Manda means one who cannot go very fast, or bad, manda means bad. Manda means slow. In this age especially, in Kali-yuga we become very, very slow in spiritual progress, although that is our main business. But on account of this Kali-yuga, we are all very, very slow. We think that "Spiritual cultivation is meant for old age. Now let us enjoy our life in this material world." That is our wrong conception of life. What do you mean by old age? Nearing death. So who can guarantee that he is not nearing death? Everyone is nearing death at every moment. Why should you wait for old age? That is manda-mater, bad intelligence. We should know that death may take place at any moment. Therefore every one of us are already old.
Just like we try to take opinion from a person who is accepted. Just like you are selling your Back to Godhead by Ginsberg's name because he is popular. So similarly, there are popular representative, popular authors, just like Vyāsadeva, Nārada, Asita, Devala, Kumāra, Kapila, Manu. They have accepted. They have accepted. Even in the modern age, Śaṅkarācārya, he accepted Lord Kṛṣṇa, the Supreme Personality of Godhead. And what to speak of other ācāryas. They have... They are Vaiṣṇavas. They will naturally. So we have to follow. Mahājano yena gataḥ sa panthāḥ (CC Madhya 17.186). So there are opinions of great scholars and stalwarts, and there is mention in the śāstra, in the scriptures. And the activities have shown practically. So these things are there. And still, those who are atheists, they will not do it. They will not do it.
Therefore, following his footsteps, I have kept the Bengali character and tried to give the literary meaning of each word of the Bengali poem. This is, of course, Sanskrit. This book is full of Sanskrit verses. Some of them are composed by the author himself, Kavirāja Gosvāmī, and some of them are quoted from various literature, Vedic literature.
So the author is accepting Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, agaty-eka-gatim. Agati. Agati means... Gati means movement, and gati means also destination. So agati. At the present moment, especially in this age of Kali, people are not moving. Moving means... We are moving. This moving is not very good. Moving means material movement. Moving... We are not... Not that we are not moving, but we are moving, but agati—we do not know what is the destination of the movement in this age. The trees are not moving, but we are moving.
At the same time, they are disturbed by so many conditions. Just like at the present moment there is no rice, no wheat, no food. The agitation is... Manda-bhāgyā hy upadrutāḥ. Upadrutāḥ. They must be disturbed because they have not taken the right path.
Therefore, it is concluded here by the author, agaty-eka-gatiṁ natvā (CC Adi 7.1). If we take the path of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, then—we are embarrassed in so many ways—we can get the light. We can get the light. We can reform our life. Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu's teaching is so nice. Of course, the great author Kavirāja Gosvāmī has depicted the activities and teachings of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu, and this Māyāpur is the birthsite of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu. Five hundred years, 488 years ago, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu traveled on this street. Now, still, that memory is going to be revived by this Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement all over the world because Caitanya Mahāprabhu wanted this.
Although He advised personally in the Bhagavad-gītā that sarva-dharmān parityajya mām ekam (BG 18.66), they are so rascal—avajānanti māṁ mūḍhāḥ mānuṣīṁ tanum āśritāḥ (BG 9.11)—they thought that "Kṛṣṇa is ordinary person, maybe little learned or little powerful." But they did not take up Kṛṣṇa as the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Even big, big authors, scholars, they cannot understand. Therefore Caitanya Mahāprabhu—He is Kṛṣṇa Himself—came again to teach us Kṛṣṇa consciousness for our benefit. Therefore He is mahā-vadānyāvatāra. So if we want to understand Kṛṣṇa, we must try to understand Kṛṣṇa through Caitanya Mahāprabhu. Then it will be very easy to understand. Other people, they do not try to understand Kṛṣṇa through Caitanya Mahāprabhu. They try to understand Kṛṣṇa directly; therefore they fail to understand. Manuṣyāṇāṁ sahasreṣu kaścid yatati siddhaye (BG 7.3). Yatatām api siddhānām. So Kṛṣṇa cannot be understood by ordinary way. Kṛṣṇa can be understood only through one way, not many ways. What is that one way? Bhaktyā mām abhijānāti yāvān yaś cāsmi tattvataḥ (BG 18.55).
Especially in India, although it was unknown, now the government is teaching how to drink wine, how to eat beef and how to... This is going on.
So now the whole world is full of Jagāi-Mādhāis. That is a fact. Now, by the mercy of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, they can be delivered. How they can be delivered? That is being instructed by the author, Kṛṣṇadāsa Kavirāja Gosvāmī, by personally behaving. Agaty-eka-gatiṁ natvā hīnārthādhika-sādhakam (CC Adi 7.1). Hīnārtha, those who are dispossessed of all good qualities. Hīnārtha. Artha. Artha means possession, money. Artha, anartha, and paramārtha. So paramārtha, there is no question of paramārtha. Even they have no artha, ordinary riches, all poor men. You see in the street, not only... Here, of course, we are poor country, but in your country also, they are also hippies. Unnecessarily they have become poor. Here, by circumstantially they have become poor like wretched person, loitering in the street.
So for them this Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement is very, very easy. Take advantage of it. Take advantage of it. Hīnārthādhika-sādhakam. Adhika means greater. Adhika-sādhakam. Śrī-caitanya likhyate asya prema-bhakti-vadānyatā.
Therefore Śrī Kavirāja Gosvāmī is attempting to describe about the magnanimity of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, and Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu's birthsite is there, and the annual 488th birth anniversary is going to be held on the 8th March, so I am very glad. I welcome you from all countries. You have taken so much labor to come here. Take advantage of the teachings of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu described by the fittest author, Kavirāja Gosvāmī, and we have tried to translate it as far as possible. Let us discuss.
So He demanded so much. But Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu is so kind and magnanimous that in course of His chanting and dancing, He embraced everyone and gave him Kṛṣṇa-prema. That is Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu's magnanimity. Therefore Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī has offered his prayer to Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, namo mahā-vadānyāya kṛṣṇa-prema-pradāya te: (CC Madhya 19.53) "People cannot understand Kṛṣṇa, and You are giving love of Kṛṣṇa." If you don't know anybody, how you can develop love for him? So just imagine how much magnanimous is Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu. He is giving such a nice process, that chant Hare Kṛṣṇa, be purified—immediately you become free from this material bondage and begin your loving service to Kṛṣṇa. This is Caitanya Mahāprabhu's gift.
So therefore the author is writing that.
And that mercy can be achieved in the human form of life, not in the life of cats and dogs. Therefore it is said, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu is acting both as guru and Kṛṣṇa-combination of guru and Kṛṣṇa.
So, Kavirāja Gosvāmī the author of Caitanya-caritāmṛta, he first offered his obeisances to Lord Caitanya in the first verse, agaty-eka-gatiṁ natvā (CC Adi 7.1). After offering obeisances to the Supreme Lord, who is the only hope for the hopeless, now he's again offering, jaya jaya mahāprabhu śrī-kṛṣṇa-caitanya. Prabhu and Mahāprabhu. Nityānanda Prabhu, Advaita Prabhu. Any Vaiṣṇava is addressed as prabhu, but Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu is Mahāprabhu, the topmost prabhu, the master prabhu. All others are servant prabhu. Just like, it is very easy to understand: if you are working in an office, your immediate boss, you consider him as your master, but he's not the master. The master of the office is the managing director, manager or the proprietor. But still those who are working under him, sub-prabhus, they are also called prabhu.
So our, this Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement is trying to understand the Absolute Truth. So in another place Kṛṣṇa says, janma karma me divyaṁ yo jānāti tattvataḥ: (BG 4.9) anyone who understands the Absolute Truth factually as He is, not by mental speculation, but by the paramparā system... So therefore, the author of Caitanya-caritāmṛta is beginning with guru, pūrve gurv-ādi. Beginning is the guru, the spiritual master, because he is the representative of the paramparā system, disciplic succession. Therefore, whatever we do, we must first of all try to understand from guru.
Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī also says in his Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu, ādau gurvāśrayam: the beginning of spiritual life is to accept the bona fide spiritual master. Sad-dharma pṛcchāt. Then inquiry from the spiritual master. The approach should be by full surrender. Tad viddhi praṇipātena, tattvam, etad viddhi (BG 4.34).
There is no association of the external energy, as it is said here, that guru-tattva-kahiyāchi, ebe pāñcera vicāra. Guru-tattva is also along with Him. He's also representative of the Supreme Lord. Acāryāṁ māṁ vijānīyān (SB 11.17.27). So, that guru-tattva has been explained by the author, Kavirāja Gosvāmī in five chapters, six chapters, and the seventh chapter he's describing the five tattvas. Īśa-prakāśa. Nityānanda Prabhu is the direct manifestation of the Supreme Lord, Kṛṣṇa. Vrajendra-nandana yei śacī-suta hoila sei balarāma hoila nitāi. So Nityānanda Prabhu is the first expansion of Lord Kṛṣṇa or Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu. Śrī-kṛṣṇa-caitanya rādhā-kṛṣṇa nahe anya. When you speak of Śrī Kṛṣṇa Caitanya, we should understand immediately that He's Kṛṣṇa in Rādhā's attitude, Rādhā-bhāva. Kṛṣṇa, Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa, They are one; They are not different. Rādhā kṛṣṇa-praṇaya-vikṛtir hlādinī śaktir asmād (CC Adi 1.5). Rādhārāṇī is expansion of Kṛṣṇa's pleasure potency. So Śrī Kṛṣṇa Caitanya Mahāprabhu is Kṛṣṇa Himself, but the pleasure potency of Kṛṣṇa is prominent in His activities.
So He Himself, Kṛṣṇa, and Nityānanda Prabhu is immediate expansion of His personal self; Advaita Prabhu is incarnation of Kṛṣṇa or Viṣṇu, Mahāviṣṇu, three; and Gadādhara Prabhu is the expansion of spiritual energy; and Śrīnivāsa Prabhu is the expansion of His marginal potency, marginal energy, jīva-tattya. Jīva-tattva, śakti-tattva, prakāśa-tattva, and avatāra-tattva, and He Himself. This Pañca-tattva. This Pañca-tattva will be explained in this chapter. That is the proposal of the author. Guru-tattva kahiyāchi ebe pāñcera vicāra. Consideration of the five. So although the Absolute Truth is one, He expands in His various features. That has been divided in Caitanya Mahāprabhu's practical exposition of tattva-vicāra, in six: five personal, and the guru is also representative. Sākṣād-dharitvena samasta-śāstrair **. Guru is also expansion of Hari for the benefit of the conditioned soul. For the benefit of the conditioned soul, He is within everyone's heart. Īśvaraḥ sarva-bhūtānāṁ hṛd-deśe 'rjuna tiṣṭhati (BG 18.61).
So this is simultaneously one and different. This acintya-bhedābheda-tattva you'll find everywhere in Vaiṣṇava philosophy. Similarly, here the author of Caitanya-caritāmṛta is trying to explain that pañca-tattva eka-vastu, they are one Kṛṣṇa, but āsvāda, taste... Akhila-rasāmṛta-sindhu. Kṛṣṇa is the ocean of all pleasure, reservoir of all pleasure. There are different types of pleasure. Just like pleasure like master and the servant. The master is also pleased by the service of the servant, and the servant is pleased by rendering service to the master. This is taste. Husband and wife: Husband is pleased having a wife, wife is pleased having... These are the different tastes: between master and servant, between friend and friend, between father and son, mother and son, between the lover and the beloved. These are different tastes.
That is called materialist. Tribhir guṇamayair bhāvaiḥ mohitaḥ. That is stated in the Bhagavad-gītā. They are bewildered. Nature's business is to keep you fool always. And if you can surpass the bewilderment of material nature, if you agree to be controlled by the supreme controller, then your life is successful. Therefore Caitanya-caritāmṛta author says that "Here is the controller," ekala, "one." And Kṛṣṇa also says, mām ekam. Not that imitation Kṛṣṇa. Then you'll be befooled. Mām ekaṁ śaraṇaṁ vraja.
So all the verdict of the śāstra is the same. It is simply our misfortune that we do not understand the verdict of the śāstra. In the śāstra, everything is there. So Kṛṣṇa is the Supreme Lord. That is the verdict of the śāstra. In the Brahma-saṁhitā it is said.
Pradyumna: Translation: "Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, is the supreme enjoyer in the rāsa dance. He is the leader of the damsels of Vraja, and all others are simply His associates." (CC Adi 7.8)
Prabhupāda: Before this verse, the author of Caitanya-caritāmṛta has described:
- svayaṁ bhagavān kṛṣṇa ekale īśvara
- advitīya, nandātmaja, rasika-śekhara
- (CC Adi 7.7)
Kṛṣṇa has got many, unlimited forms. Advaita-acyuta-anādi-ananta-rūpam. Svāṁśa-vibhinnāṁśa. Some of the forms are called svāṁśa. Svāṁśa means God, or the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Viṣṇu-tattva. Viṣṇu-tattva, They have expanded in so many ways. So all the Viṣṇu-tattvas, They are called svāṁśa, personal expansions. And others, they are called vibhinnāṁśa. The demigods, the inhabitants of the higher planetary systems within this material world, or the devotees in the spiritual world, we also, we are, although conditioned souls, we are vibhinnāṁśa. We are also expansion of Kṛṣṇa, but we are not equal to the Viṣṇu-tattva. We are fragment fires. The example is given, just like the big fire and the spark fire. So we living entities, we are spark fire. We are also fire, because we are part and parcel of Kṛṣṇa, vibhinnāṁśa... Aṁśa means part and parcel. So Kṛṣṇa is the Supreme Spirit, and we are part and parcel. We are also spirit, but we are not supreme. That is the difference. Svayaṁ bhagavān kṛṣṇa ekale īśvara. So actually, īśvara means the controller. The supreme controller is Kṛṣṇa.
Then material disease will be cured when we develop our dormant love for Kṛṣṇa. Tyaktvā dehaṁ punar janma naiti mām eti kaunteya (BG 4.9). Simply by understanding Kṛṣṇa.
So here the author of Caitanya-caritāmṛta is describing about Kṛṣṇa. Here it is: svayaṁ bhagavān kṛṣṇa ekale īśvara. Isvara, Bhagavan, is Kṛṣṇa. Don't accept these humbug, bogus Kṛṣṇa and bogus Bhagavān. Then you'll be misled. And nowadays, especially India, there are so many gods. No! Here it is said, svayaṁ bhagavān kṛṣṇa ekale īśvara. If you accept this, then you understand what is Kṛṣṇa. And if you manufacture another dini Kṛṣṇa, no, that will not help you. Kṛṣṇa is one, but He has got many expansions. Therefore the expansions are called āra yata saba dekha. There are... Just like Kṛṣṇa, Balarāma, Viṣṇu, Kāraṇārṇavaśāyī Viṣṇu, Garbhodakaśāyī Viṣṇu, Nārāyaṇa, Catur-vyuha Nārāyaṇa. There are hundreds and thousands of Viṣṇu-tattvas.
So therefore, formerly the mlecchas means the Muhammadans, because they are meat-eaters, they do not take bath daily and there are so many things. So even those persons who were delivered by Lord Caitanya, but the author says that He could not deliver the Māyāvādīs, the impersonalist sannyāsīs. That means it was easier for Him to deliver the mlecchas, but it was difficult for Him to deliver the Māyāvādīs. In other words, the author is trying to place the position of the Māyāvādī sannyāsī less than the mlecchas. Less than the mlecchas.
So, sabe eḍāila mātra kāśīra māyāvādī. Māyāvādī means materialist. Māyā means this matter, and vādī means those who stick to this principle of material... There are different kinds of materialists. Because we should always know that up to the point of intelligence, it is matter. First point is the senses, the gross. The grossest type of materialist is that they are addicted to sense gratification.
So Cai..., according to Caitanya Mahāprabhu, the so-called Vedānta societies, the so-called, I mean to say, learned scholars on Vedānta, they are not actually Vedānta scholars. They are all fools and rascals. Because Vedānta-sūtra is very difficult to understand. The compiler, the author of Vedānta-sūtra, is Vyāsadeva. He himself thought it wise that "I must leave one commentation of Vedānta-sūtra. Otherwise, in future, people will misunderstand and misuse Vedānta-sūtra." In this connection I'll, oh, I may declare herewith that some of you, if you read the Chicago speech by Vivekananda... That was, he was the first man. He came from India to preach this Hindu philosophy in 1893. Some of you know. So he has got his speech, Chicago speech of Vedānta. You'll see, it is simply rascaldom. Simply. By his speech it is written... If you can secure, you bring it, you'll see how rascaldom he was. You'll be surprised. Even a clergyman from this country, oh, he was surprised. "Oh, you come from India and you are decrying God in this way?
So Caitanya Mahāprabhu thus came back, and the author says that after this incident we shall discuss in another chapter about the activities of Lord Caitanya, and so far His Benares visit was concerned, this is the end.
- ei pañcatattva-rūpe śrī-kṛṣṇa-caitanya
- kṛṣṇa-nāma-prema diyā viśva kailā dhanya
In this way, Pañcatattva, these five pictures you have seen: Śrī-Kṛṣṇa-Caitanya Prabhu Nityānanda Śrī-Advaita Gadādhara Śrīvāsadi-gaura-bhakta-vṛnda. They inaugurated this movement of Kṛṣṇa consciousness five hundred years before, and it is predicted here that this movement will sanctify the situation of the whole world.
- ei pañcatattva śrī-kṛṣṇa...
- kṛṣṇa-nāma-prema diyā viśva kailā dhanya
He has already impregnated the seed. Just like Ṭhākura Bhaktivinoda. In 1896 he sent the Caitanya Mahāprabhu's message to McGill University. That book you have seen. The letter was there. And these are coincidence. Now, after so many years, a servant of that disciplic succession has come here again to preach.
"When I shall be detached from material enjoyment?" Viṣaya chāriyā kabe śuddha ha'be mana: "And when I shall be detached from this material enjoyment, my mind will be purified. My mind will be freed from all contamination of material dirty things." Kabe hāma herabo śrī-vṛndāvana: "And at that time it will be possible to see Vṛndāvana." Rūpa-raghunātha-pade hoibe ākuti. Now, here the author, I mean to..., the singer says that "When I shall be too much devoted to the principles of Rūpa Gosvāmī so that I'll be able to understand what is the pastimes of Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa?" In other words, if we want to understand Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa and Caitanya philosophy, then we should try to follow the instruction left by Rūpa Gosvāmī and Sanātana Gosvāmī. They are the commander in chief in this movement.
Now the author summarizes that "These are some of the activities of Lord Caitanya, and one who will hear these activities, he will be elevated in Kṛṣṇa consciousness and the philosophy of Caitanya Mahāprabhu."
- caitanya, nityānanda, advaita—tina jana
- śrīvāsa-gadādhara-ādi yata bhakta-gaṇa
Now the author humbly presents himself that "Lord Caitanya, Śrī Kṛṣṇa Caitanya Prabhu, these five personalities, I offer my respectful obeisances unto the feet of these five personalities." Yaiche taiche kahi kichu caitanya... "Therefore if I have got faith in these five personalities, then it will be possible for me to describe something about Lord Caitanya." Because he is writing this book, it is description of Lord Caitanya. So he is humbly presenting himself before... This is bhakti-mārga. He is not proud that he is very learned man, he can very nicely comment. No. He is just trying to follow the footprints of his predecessors. This is the way of disciplic succession.
Now, Sanātana Gosvāmī is taking instruction and lessons from Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu. And what is the subject matter of instruction? That is described herein by the author of this Caitanya-caritāmṛta. The subject matter is kṛṣṇa-svarūpa, what is the actual position of Kṛṣṇa, kṛṣṇa-svarūpa-mādhuryaiś, and what is the special attractiveness of Kṛṣṇa, mādhurya, kṛṣṇa-svarūpa-mādhurya aiśvarya, and what are the opulences of Kṛṣṇa, bhakti-rasāśrayam. And all these—what is Kṛṣṇa, what is His special qualification for attraction, and what is His opulence—these three things can be understood through devotional service, by no other means. Just like I have several times cited the example that if you want to be in confidence of a great personality, then you must satisfy him by your service. You cannot understand a big man by your speculation.
So Sanātana Gosvāmī, he's ācārya in this disciplic succession from Caitanya Mahāprabhu, Lord Caitanya. He is the first disciple of Lord Caitanya, and from him, Sanātana Gosvāmī, six Gosvāmīs. There were six among the first followers of Lord Caitanya. And then, from next step comes Raghunātha Gosvāmī and then this author of this book, Kṛṣṇa dāsa Kavirāja Gosvāmī, and from him, Narottama dāsa Ṭhākura, and then from him, Viśvanātha Cakravartī, Baladeva Vidyābhūṣaṇa. In this way this disciplic succession is coming from Lord Caitanya. So as ācārya... Ācārya means one who knows the principles of scripture, properly being initiated by authority who knows things as they are, and they apply those things in their own life. They are called ācārya. Acinoti śāstrāṇi: he must know all the principles from authorities, and he should apply in his life those principles. Not that he knows but does not apply.
Then he, on the basis of Vedānta-sūtra, he wrote a commentary, bhāṣyaṁ brahma-sūtrānām **. Therefore in each end of chapter of Bhāgavatam you'll find, brahma-sūtrasya bhāṣyayam. So the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam is the natural comment on Vedānta-sūtra by the author himself. So the Vedānta-sūtra says, athāto brahma jijñāsā, unless one is inquisitive to understand about Brahman or the supreme spirit or the basic principle of our life...
- indriyāṇi parāṇy āhur
- indriyebhyaḥ paraṁ manaḥ
- manasas tu parā buddhir
- buddhes tu ya para saḥ
- (BG 3.42)
So Brahman means... Generally we are identified with this body. Body means the senses. We take prominent the senses. Whole world is going on on the sense perception, sense gratification. So indriyāṇi parāny āhuḥ. The indriyas are very prominent in materialistic way of life. Indriyebhyaḥ paraṁ manaḥ. Then, above the indriyas, there is the mind. Just like philosopher, psychologist or scientist, who are thoughtful, thinking, they are also on the mental platform.
So the author of this Caitanya-caritāmṛta is offering his respectful obeisances unto Lord Caitanya. So he says, agaty-eka-gatiṁ natvā. Agaty, persons who have fallen, who have no hope for reaching the supreme destination, for them Lord Caitanya is the only hope. In this age, it is stated in authoritative scriptures, in this age the people are unfortunate. Of course, they are very much proud of advancing. From spiritual point of view, the people of this age, Kali-yuga, they are unfortunate. Their description is given in the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, Second Chapter, First Canto, that people are short-living, their duration of life is very short, and they are very slow in the matter of spiritual realization. The human form of life is especially meant for spiritual realization, but they have forgotten that aim of life. They are very much serious about maintaining about the necessities of this body, which he's not. And if somebody's interested to have some taste of spiritual realization, they are misdirected.
So this is the position of the present-day population, and the author of Caitanya-caritāmṛta, he says that Lord Caitanya is the only hope for these people. Why? Because spiritual realization is not an ordinary subject matter. But He has given us the shortcut. He's so kind to the people of the world that simply He has introduced this Hare Kṛṣṇa, Hare Kṛṣṇa, Kṛṣṇa Kṛṣṇa, Hare Hare/ Hare Rāma, Hare Rāma, Rāma Rāma, Hare Hare. By simple chanting of this transcendental vibration the people of this age will make exact progress in the matter of spiritual realization. Therefore this reference is there, agaty-eka-gatim. Those who are hopeless about their spiritual realization, Lord Caitanya is the only one hope. So hīnārthādhika-sādhakam śrī-caitanyaṁ likhāmy asya. So "I am just offering my respect to Lord Śrī Caitanya.
So for a realized soul, the fire is at once extinguished. One who is realized soul, that he's not this matter, the fire of this material existence at once extinguished. So Lord Caitanya gave us this opportunity, and the author of Caitanya-caritāmṛta, he's saying that agaty-eka-gatim. Those who have fallen, for them Lord Caitanya is the only hope.
- sarva svarūpera dhāma-paravyoma-dhāme
- pṛthak pṛthak vaikuṇṭha saba nāhika gaṇane
Now Lord Caitanya describes about the kingdom of God, or the spiritual sky. He says... He has already explained to you about different kinds of expansions: prābhava, vaibhava, vilāsa, prakāśa. You may remember it. So there are innumerable expansions. Eko bahu śyāma: "The one Supreme Lord has become so many." The same example: the original candle, and from that candle, you can expand millions and millions candles.
The author's name is Narottama dāsa Ṭhākura. He is singing. He had many songs. We are gradually translating them into English, and we will have them in our paper, Back to Godhead. The purport of this song is, śrī-kṛṣṇa-caitanya prabhu, doyā koro more: "My dear Lord Caitanya, please be merciful upon me."
- śrī-kṛṣṇa caitanya prabhu doyā koro more
- tomā binā ke doyālu jagat-saṁsāre
"I do not find anyone as merciful as You are." Yes. Śrī Caitanya Prabhu... You have seen the picture of Lord Caitanya. Yes, it is on the altar, Lord Caitanya dancing. He, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, appeared as a devotee. You have heard the name of Bhagavad-gītā. In that Bhagavad-gītā the last instruction is Kṛṣṇa, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, He is asking everyone, "My dear sons, God is higher." That is accepted in every religion. Especially in your Christian religion, God is the supreme father.
Those who are visitors, for their information, I may inform you something about this ceremony. Otherwise, it may not be misunderstood. A outsider may see it that "Why a person is being worshiped like God?" There may be some doubt. So this is the etiquette. This ceremony is called Vyāsa-pūjā. Vyāsa. Vyāsa means the original author of Vedic literature. He is incarnation of Nārāyaṇa. He gave us all Vedic knowledge. He received the knowledge from Nārada. Nārada received the knowledge from Brahma. Brahmā received the knowledge from Kṛṣṇa. So in this way, by disciplic succession, we get transcendental knowledge.
So Vyāsadeva... Formerly, before Vyāsadeva, say, five thousand years ago, before that time there was no need of written literature. People were so sharp in their memory that whatever they would hear from the spiritual master they would remember for life.
Our real aim of life—how to go back home back to Godhead and associate with Rādhā Kṛṣṇa. In another song the same author says,
- manuṣya-janama pāiyā, rādhā-kṛṣṇa nā bhajiyā,
- jāniyā śuniyā biṣa khāinu
Unless you come to Rādhā-Kṛṣṇa, you cannot get real pleasure. If you want to dance and get pleasure, don't dance independently. Dance with Kṛṣṇa. Then you'll be happy. The dancing is there, but dancing without association of Kṛṣṇa... Just like here, in our temple, we are also eating, but we are eating the remnants of foodstuff left by Kṛṣṇa. That is real pleasure. It is not that we are stopping eating. We are not stopping eating. We are not dry philosophers. Kṛṣṇa baro doyāmoy, koribāre jihwā jay, swa-prasād-anna dilo bhāi. All over the world we are eating Kṛṣṇa prasādam, and we have got good experience.
Arrival Addresses and Talks
How they're taking Kṛṣṇa in so loving attitude? This is the proof that Kṛṣṇa is for everyone, and everyone is for Kṛṣṇa.
Try to understand this philosophy. Don't be mislead. It is not a sectarian religion. It is the fact. Nitya-siddha kṛṣṇa-bhakti sādhya kabhu naya. The author of Caitanya-caritāmṛta, Kṛṣṇadāsa Kavirāja, he says, nitya siddha kṛṣṇa bhakti. Kṛṣṇa-bhakti, our love for Kṛṣṇa, is eternal fact. Everyone has got love for Kṛṣṇa. Now, somehow or other it is covered. But that has to be awakened. Just like covered fire. Sometimes fire is covered by the ashes, and if you'll fan over the fire and put some new charcoal, again the fire will awaken, very bright. So similarly, somehow or other, our love for Kṛṣṇa is covered by these material designations: "I am American," "I am Christian," "I am Hindu," "I am Muslim," "I am this," "I am that." These are all ashes. The fire is the spirit soul. So if you rightly fan it over, and you'll see very soon, the fire will come out again. So how fanning? Śravaṇādi-śuddha-citte.
We are presenting this movement before you, your country, because you are intelligent, you are materially advanced. You are greater than all other countries. Therefore I present this movement, scientific movement before you. You just try to understand it. Lord Caitanya's movement... This is Lord Caitanya's movement. And the author of Caitanya-caritāmṛta... That is in Sanskrit. We have translated it into English, Teachings of Lord Caitanya. If you like, you can purchase that book. So in that book it is stated that caitanyera dayāra kathā karaha vicāra. "Ladies and gentlemen, you just..., scrutinizingly you try to understand the mercy of Lord Caitanya, this Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement, how it is solving the problems of our life." Vicāra karile citte pābe camatkāra. If you scrutinizingly test it and try to understand this movement, then you'll feel yourself that it is wonderful. And actually it is wonderful. So... And the process is also very simple. You do not require to be highly educated or philosopher or talented or rich or poor, or black and white.
He was such a learned man, but he used to say that "I have simply collected a few grains of sand from the beach of knowledge." Knowledge is so vast that his knowledge was simply a few grains of the vast amount of sand of knowledge. So everyone should think like that. Caitanya-caritāmṛta kaj, the author, he says that "I am lowest than the germs in the stool. I have no knowledge." So the more you become advanced in knowledge, you'll know that how insignificant you are in comparison to the Supreme. Yes.
So although they were learned brāhmaṇas, or dvija... Dvija means not only brāhmaṇas, but the kṣatriyas or the vaiśyas. Kṣatriya means ruling class, administrative class, politicians. They are called kṣatriyas. And brāhmaṇas means learned scholar in philosophy, in science, in theology, they are brāhmaṇas. And kṣatriyas, and vaiśyas... Vaiśyas means traders, mercantile people. And śūdras means worker, laborer. So the brāhmaṇas and the kṣatriyas and the vaiśyas, they are called dvija.
So the first-class yogi are all these Kṛṣṇa conscious boys and girls. First-class yogi. Because they're always thinking of Kṛṣṇa within. And that is recommended by Kṛṣṇa, the author of all yogic principles. He's called Yogeśvara, the master of all yogic principles. So He said that "Here is a first-class yogi." Who? "Who is thinking always within himself Me, Kṛṣṇa." Yoginām api sarveṣāṁ mad-gatenāntarātmanā śraddhāvān: "With faith and love," bhajate, "he's engaged in My service." Sa me yuktatamo mataḥ. "He is the first-class topmost yogi." So all yogic process must culminate in Kṛṣṇa consciousness. So anyone who has accepted Kṛṣṇa consciousness, he is supposed to be the first-class yogi. Actually, what is the ultimate end of yoga? The meaning of yoga is " 'contact." Contacting whom? The Supreme. Kṛṣṇa is the Supreme. So one who has contacted Kṛṣṇa, he is the highest yogi.
It is so simple, nice. Try to understand by your knowledge, question. We are not pushing forcibly. You have got your intelligence, argument, logic, everything. But you'll find it. Caitanyera dayāra kathā karaha vicāra. The author of Caitanya-caritāmṛta says that we are placing it for your judgment. Not that we are pushing it by force, that you have to accept it. Just like sometimes it is said that the Muhammadans, they propagated one hand sword and one hand Koran: "Either you accept Koran or there is sword for you." It is not that. It is placed for your judgment. And if you like, you can accept it. Otherwise, I came here empty-handed, I shall go back empty-handed. There is no loss, no gain. (laughter) So any other question? All right. Then join with Hare Kṛṣṇa. Chant. Upendra will chant.
Similarly, the presence of Supersoul and superconsciousness in the universal body of cosmic manifestation is perceived by the presence of the Supreme Lord, or the Absolute Truth. The Absolute Truth is systematically experienced in the Vedānta-sūtra, generally known as the Vedānta philosophy, which is elaborately explained by a commentary by the same author of the Vedānta-sūtras known as the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam. The Bhagavad-gītā is the preliminary study of the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam to understand the constitutional position of the Supreme Lord, or the Absolute Truth. The Absolute Truth is realized in three phases of understanding, namely as Brahman, or the impersonal universal soul; Paramātmā, or the localized universal soul; and at the end as the Supreme Personality of Godhead. An individual soul is understood in three aspects, namely first in the consciousness pervading all over the body, then as the spirit soul within the heart, and ultimately exhibited as a person.
Everyone. We should always be prepared to take instruction from the authorities. We should never think that we have become perfect. Although you are perfect. Tṛṇād api sunīcena taror api sahiṣṇunā. One should be very humble, meek, and always think that "I am nothing." Just like the author of Caitanya-caritāmṛta, such a great, stalwart man, such a great devotee. Nobody has produced such literature as Caitanya-caritāmṛta. He is presenting himself that "I am lighter than the worm in the stool." Purīṣera kīṭa haite muñi se laghiṣṭha (CC Adi 5.205). Purīṣ means stool and kīṭa means worm. So "I am lower than the worm in the stool. Anyone who takes my name, all his pious activities immediately becomes lost." In this way he is presenting himself. That does not mean that he's actually so, but that is the attitude of a devotee. He's always very meek and humble. And the opposite side is, "I am God. Now finish all business." You see? So this māyā is very strong. He's (She's) always enticing me, "Oh, you are so great, so big, so... You have nothing to learn.
You may argue that "You have accepted Him as a perfect person, but we do not." You may not. But He is perfect person on the evidence of many authorities. It is not by my whims I accept Kṛṣṇa as the perfect person. No. There are many authorities, Vedic authorities. Formerly... Just like Vyāsadeva. He's the author of all Vedic literature, the treasure-house of knowledge, Vedas. He accepts Kṛṣṇa as the Supreme Personality of Godhead. His spiritual master, Nārada, he accepts Kṛṣṇa as the Supreme Personality of Godhead. His spiritual master, Brahmā, he accepts Kṛṣṇa as the Supreme Person. Īśvaraḥ paramaḥ kṛṣṇaḥ (Bs. 5.1), Brahmā says. "The supreme controller is Kṛṣṇa." Īśvara. Īśvara means controller. We are controller, everyone. Nobody can say that "I am without controller." No, that is not possible. Everyone has got a controller. However big officer you may be, you have a controller over your head. But Kṛṣṇa has no controller; therefore He is God. He is controller of everyone, but He has no controller; therefore He's God. So there are many so-called Gods nowadays.
So Vyāsadeva, after writing Vedānta-sūtra, he, by the instruction of Nārada Muni, his spiritual master, he compiled this Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam. Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam is explanation of the Vedānta-sūtra. Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam is explanation by the same author. Vyāsadeva is the author of the Vedānta-sūtra, and he explains what does he mean by the Sūtras. That is very nice. The author explains his mind. That is perfect explanation. I cannot understand the author's mind. I may imagine something, but you cannot understand the author's mind, what does he want to explain. Therefore Vyāsadeva explains himself about the Vedānta-sūtra: athāto brahma jijñāsā, janmādy asya yataḥ (SB 1.1.1). The human life, atha, now it is the time for inquiring about the Supreme Absolute Truth. Not in other life. "Other" means other than the human life: animal life, beast life, plant life, aquatic life, insect life. There are so many, 8,400,000 of species of life. By evolutionary process, when we come to the human form of life, it is our duty to understand and inquire about Brahma.
That Brahma is explained by the author. That Brahma is that from where everything emanates, janmādy asya yataḥ (SB 1.1.1). Janma, śiti and loi(?). Janma means birth, śiti means stay, and loi(?) means annihilation. So wherefrom everything is coming out, and from whom everything is staying, and after annihilation, where everything is entering—that is Brahma. Janmādy asya (SB 1.1.1). Janmādi.
Now, that source of energy wherefrom everything is emanating, now what is the actual position of that thing? Is it inanimate or animate? Just like some scientists explain the theory of creation, that "There was a chunk that was inanimate. From inanimate things animation has developed under certain conditions." That is not possible. We have no such experience that from inanimate things some animation has developed. Sometimes we see, it is called (Sanskrit?). Sometimes we see that from heaps of rice stocked, one scorpion is coming out. It does not mean that the inanimate rice has given birth to a scorpion.
There is no difficulty. But, unfortunately, people want to show their scholarship, that "I understand Bhagavad-gītā from this angle of vision." Why should you try to understand Bhagavad-gītā from a different angle of vision? The first preference should be given to the author. The author has given you some knowledge, so he has got some particular aim and objective. So why should you change that? You have no right to change that. If you want to speak something from your side, you write your own book. Why should you take advantage of the popular book of Bhagavad-gītā and misrepresent it? That is the fun. You see? There are about six hundred different types of editions commenting on Bhagavad-gītā. But according to Bhagavad-gītā, all these six hundred editions in different, studied from different angle of vision, they are all absurd and nonsense. It is very difficult. People have been misled by the so-called commentaries. There is no need of unnecessarily commenting on certain things.
Practically, the name which is given on the book, the hero title, he's the hero. So one of the friends of Mr. D. L. Raya, he inquired from Mr. Raya that "In your book Shah Jahan, the actual hero is Aurangzeb. Why you have given the title Shah Jahan?" He could not understand it. So I'm just trying to explain that the purpose of the book must be known to the author, not others. So the author replied, "My dear friend, the actual hero is Shah Jahan, not Aurangzeb." Although the Shah Jahan book is full of the activities of Aurangzeb, the fact is that Shah Jahan was the emperor. He had many, four or five sons, and his wife died, Mumtaz, at an early age. You have seen, those who have gone to India, you have seen the Taj Mahal building. That building was constructed in the memory of that Mumtaz by Shah Jahan. He spent all his money for constructing that building. So it is one of the seven wonders of the world. So that Shah Jahan lost his wife at an early age. She (he) was very fond of his wife.
And he made a plan how to usurp the empire. He killed his elder brother and other brothers. He arrested his father, Shah Jahan. So this is the book subject matter, Shah Jahan. So whole activities. But the author says that "Aurangzeb is not the hero; hero is Shah Jahan." Then he explained why. "Now, because Shah Jahan was living, sitting in the Agra Fort as a prisoner, and all the reactions of Aurangzeb's activities, killing of his other sons, usurping the empire, that was beating on his heart; therefore he was suffering. He is the hero."
So this is an example. The author of a book knows very well what is the purpose of that book. That is my statement. Similarly, this Vedānta-sūtra was compiled by Vyāsadeva, or Kṛṣṇa's incarnation, or Kṛṣṇa Himself. So He knows what is Vedānta-sūtra. So if you want to understand Vedānta-sūtra, then you must understand Kṛṣṇa. Vedaiś ca sarvair aham eva vedyam (BG 15.15).
Therefore I must leave..." That was also done under the instruction of Nārada. He wrote personally a commentary on the Vedānta-sūtra. That is Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam. Bhāṣyāyāṁ brahma-sūtrānāṁ vedārtha paribṛṁhitam. The Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam is the right commentary by the author Himself. And the vedārtha paribhṛmhitam the purpose of Vedas, the scheme of Vedic literature, is explained in the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam. So this human life..., athāto brahma jijñāsā, means, the Vedānta-sūtra says, that "This life, this human life, is meant for understanding God." Brahma-jijñāsā. At least, not understanding, at least inquiring, jijñāsā. Jijñāsā means inquiring.
So where the inquiry should be made? If I want to inquire about God, shall I go to the storekeeper or drug shop or a motor shop? No. Tad vijñānārthaṁ sa gurum evābhigacchet (MU 1.2.12). If you want to know the transcendental science, then you must find out a guru. That is injunction. Jijñāsuḥ śreyaḥ uttamam. Guruṁ prapadyeta.
I thank you very much for your participating in this meeting. Our Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement is based on the authority of this Bhagavad-gītā. Bhagavad-gītā, I think most of you know, Indians or foreigners. And some of you must have read Bhagavad-gītā. We have published Bhagavad-gītā as it is, without any malinterpretation. In the Bhagavad-gītā, the author of the Bhagavad-gītā is enounced as the Supreme Personality of Godhead, and the Hindus, especially the Vaiṣṇavas... Vaiṣṇava or not Vaiṣṇava, Kṛṣṇa is accepted as the Supreme Personality of Godhead. We... Our Indian spiritual life is guided by the ācāryas, sampradāya ācārya, the Rāmānujācārya, Madhvācārya, Viṣṇu Svāmī and Nimbārka. There is... Whole Indian spiritual culture is dependent on the guidance of these ācārya. And in the Bhagavad-gītā also, in the Thirteenth Chapter, it is advised, ācārya upāsanam: "One should follow the instruction of the ācārya." That is our Vedic civilization. And in the Bhagavad-gītā, also, it is said in the fourth chapter, evaṁ paramparā-prāptam imaṁ rājarṣayo viduḥ (BG 4.2).
Prabhupāda: Yes, that I have already said, that there are two authorities, one God the master authority and God's representative is the master author..., is the servant authority. So it is the duty of the servant authority to preach the instruction of God. That will make the human society happy, and this instruction should be taught from the very beginning of life. That is said in the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam by Prahlāda Mahārāja. Prahlāda Mahārāja was teaching God consciousness when he was five years old only and he was teaching amongst the class friend. The class friends wanted to play in the tiffin hour and Prahlāda Mahārāja asked them to sit down and to learn God consciousness. So the class friend protested, "My dear friend, why you are insisting now? We are now children, let us play." That Prahlāda Mahārāja protested, "No, no, you should not waste your time playing because this God consciousness should be learned from the very beginning of life." Kaumāra ācaret prājño dharmān bhāgavatān iha (SB 7.6.1). From the very childhood Kṛṣṇa consciousness should be learned. Why from the, so early, that durlabhaṁ mānuṣaṁ janma tad apy adhruvam arthadam. He says that this human form of life you have got after many, many millions of births so we should not misuse this opportunity.
Śyāmasundara: He says that because the world is so mad, it could not possibly have any author. Because if there was a God, that God would have set the world in order.
Prabhupāda: Then why he is mad? We have got experience that there are madmen, but there is hospital also for treating the madmen. Similarly, the world may be mad, but there is hospitalization. That he does not know. From practical experience we see there are many madmen. At the same time there is a hospital, lunatic hospitals also, so treatment is there. So he does not see that. He has no knowledge where is the hospital, how he'll get and be treated. This is accepted, the world is mad, that's all right. But there is treatment also. Because in our experience practically we can show whenever there is disease, there is some treatment of it. But he does not know what is the treatment. He is speaking of sinful life, what he was saying, just like, but he does not accept who is the judge to give me resultant action of my sinful life. The world is mad, but he does not know where the treatment of madman is done.
Prabhupāda: God is explaining Himself... (break)
Hayagrīva: This is a continuation of Thomas Aquinas. We've been discussing sacred doctrine, which is the same as scripture. He states that the only author of sacred scripture is God Himself, within whose power is not only to adjust words to their meaning, which even man can do, but also to adjust things themselves. In reading the scripture, one should avoid two mistakes. 1) One should not think that they can be false in any way.
Hayagrīva: That there's no falsity.