Vrndavana (CC Adi-lila)

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Expressions researched:
"cowherd village" |"vrindaban" |"vrindavan" |"vrndavan" |"vrndavana" |"vrndavana's"

Sri Caitanya-caritamrta

CC Preface and Introduction

CC Foreword:

After the passing away of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu and Svarūpa Dāmodara, Raghunātha dāsa, unable to bear the pain of separation from these objects of his complete devotion, traveled to Vṛndāvana, intending to commit suicide by jumping from Govardhana Hill. In Vṛndāvana, however, he encountered Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī and Śrīla Sanātana Gosvāmī, two of the most confidential disciples of Caitanya Mahāprabhu. They convinced him to give up his planned suicide and impelled him to reveal to them the spiritually inspiring events of Lord Caitanya's later life. Kṛṣṇadāsa Kavirāja Gosvāmī was also residing in Vṛndāvana at this time, and Raghunātha dāsa Gosvāmī endowed him with a full comprehension of the transcendental life of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu.

By this time, contemporary and near-contemporary scholars and devotees had already written several biographical works on the life of Śrī Kṛṣṇa Caitanya Mahāprabhu. These included Śrī Caitanya-carita, by Murāri Gupta, Caitanya-maṅgala, by Locana dāsa Ṭhākura, and Caitanya-bhāgavata. This latter work, by Vṛndāvana dāsa Ṭhākura, who was then considered the principal authority on Śrī Caitanya's life, was highly revered. While composing his important work, Vṛndāvana dāsa, fearing that it would become too voluminous, avoided elaborately describing many of the events of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu's life, particularly the later ones. Anxious to hear of these later pastimes, the devotees in Vṛndāvana requested Kṛṣṇadāsa Kavirāja Gosvāmī, whom they respected as a great saint and scholar, to compose a book narrating these episodes in detail. Upon this request, and with the permission and blessings of the Madana-mohana Deity of Vṛndāvana, he began compiling Śrī Caitanya-caritāmṛta, which, due to its literary excellence and philosophical thoroughness, is today universally regarded as the foremost work on the life and profound teachings of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu.

CC Preface:

The Upaniṣads confirm that one has to penetrate the dazzling effulgence of Brahman before one can see the real face of the Personality of Godhead.

Lord Caitanya therefore teaches direct worship of Lord Kṛṣṇa, who appeared as the foster child of the King of Vraja. He also teaches that the place known as Vṛndāvana is as good as Lord Kṛṣṇa because, Lord Kṛṣṇa being the Absolute Truth, there is no difference between Him and His name, qualities, form, pastimes, entourage and paraphernalia.

CC Introduction:

Usually God is seen as the almighty father who supplies the demands of His sons. The great devotees, however, sometimes treat God as a son in their execution of devotional service. The son demands, and the father and mother supply, and in supplying Kṛṣṇa the devotee becomes like a father or mother. Instead of taking from God, we give to God. It was in this relationship that Kṛṣṇa's mother, Yaśodā, told the Lord, “Here, eat this or You’ll die. Eat nicely.” In this way Kṛṣṇa, although the proprietor of everything, depends on the mercy of His devotee. This is a uniquely high level of friendship, in which the devotee actually believes himself to be the father or mother of Kṛṣṇa.

However, Lord Caitanya's greatest gift was His teaching that Kṛṣṇa can be treated as one's lover. In this relationship the Lord becomes so much attached to His devotee that He expresses His inability to reciprocate. Kṛṣṇa was so obliged to the gopīs, the cowherd girls of Vṛndāvana, that He felt unable to return their love. "I cannot repay your love," He told them. "I have no more assets to give." Devotional service on this highest, most excellent platform of lover and beloved, which had never been given by any previous incarnation or ācārya, was given by Caitanya Mahāprabhu.

CC Introduction:

Mahā-Viṣṇu is actually an expansion of Balarāma, who is Kṛṣṇa's first expansion and, in the Vṛndāvana pastimes, His brother. In the mahā-mantra—Hare Kṛṣṇa, Hare Kṛṣṇa, Kṛṣṇa Kṛṣṇa, Hare Hare/ Hare Rāma, Hare Rāma, Rāma Rāma, Hare Hare—the word "Rāma" refers to Balarāma. Since Lord Nityānanda is Balarāma, "Rāma" also refers to Lord Nityānanda. Thus Hare Kṛṣṇa, Hare Rāma addresses not only Kṛṣṇa and Balarāma but Lord Caitanya and Lord Nityānanda as well.

CC Introduction:

With verse 15, Kṛṣṇadāsa Kavirāja Gosvāmī begins offering his obeisances directly to Kṛṣṇa Himself. Kṛṣṇadāsa Kavirāja was an inhabitant of Vṛndāvana and a great devotee. He had been living with his family in Katwa, a small town in the district of Burdwan, in Bengal. He worshiped Rādhā-Kṛṣṇa with his family, and once when there was some misunderstanding among his family members about devotional service, he was advised by Nityānanda Prabhu in a dream to leave home and go to Vṛndāvana. Although he was very old, he started out that very night and went to live in Vṛndāvana. While he was there, he met some of the Gosvāmīs, principal disciples of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu. He was requested to write the Caitanya-caritāmṛta by the devotees of Vṛndāvana. Although he began this work at a very old age, by the grace of Lord Caitanya he finished it. Today it remains the most authoritative book on Caitanya Mahāprabhu's philosophy and life.

CC Introduction:

When this is established, in the sixteenth verse Kṛṣṇadāsa offers his obeisances to the functional Deity, Govinda. The Govinda Deity is called the functional Deity because He shows us how to serve Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa. The Madana-mohana Deity simply establishes that "I am Your eternal servant." With Govinda, however, there is actual acceptance of service. Govinda resides eternally in Vṛndāvana. In the spiritual world of Vṛndāvana the buildings are made of touchstone, the cows are known as surabhi cows, givers of abundant milk, and the trees are known as wish-fulfilling trees, for they yield whatever one desires. In Vṛndāvana Kṛṣṇa herds the surabhi cows, and He is worshiped by hundreds and thousands of gopīs, cowherd girls, who are all goddesses of fortune. When Kṛṣṇa descends to the material world, this same Vṛndāvana descends with Him, just as an entourage accompanies an important personage. Because when Kṛṣṇa comes His land also comes, Vṛndāvana is considered to exist beyond the material world. Therefore devotees take shelter of the Vṛndāvana in India, for it is considered to be a replica of the original Vṛndāvana. Although one may complain that no kalpa-vṛkṣa, wish-fulfilling trees, exist there, when the Gosvāmīs were there, kalpa-vṛkṣa were present. It is not that one can simply go to such a tree and make demands; one must first become a devotee. The Gosvāmīs would live under a tree for one night only, and the trees would satisfy all their desires. For the common man this may all seem very wonderful, but as one makes progress in devotional service, all this can be realized.

CC Introduction:

Vṛndāvana is actually experienced as it is by persons who have stopped trying to derive pleasure from material enjoyment. "When will my mind become cleansed of all hankering for material enjoyment so I will be able to see Vṛndāvana?" one great devotee asks. The more Kṛṣṇa conscious we become and the more we advance, the more everything is revealed as spiritual. Thus Kṛṣṇadāsa Kavirāja Gosvāmī considered the Vṛndāvana in India to be as good as the Vṛndāvana in the spiritual sky, and in the sixteenth verse of the Caitanya-caritāmṛta he describes Rādhārāṇī and Kṛṣṇa as seated beneath a wish-fulfilling tree in Vṛndāvana, on a throne decorated with valuable jewels. There Kṛṣṇa's dear gopī friends serve Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa by singing, dancing, offering betel nuts and refreshments, and decorating Their Lordships with flowers. Even today in India people decorate swinging thrones and re-create this scene during the month of July–August. Generally at that time people go to Vṛndāvana to offer their respects to the Deities there.

CC Introduction:

Finally Kṛṣṇadāsa Kavirāja Gosvāmī offers his blessings to his readers in the name of the Gopīnātha Deity, who is Kṛṣṇa as master and proprietor of the gopīs. When Kṛṣṇa played upon his flute, all the gopīs, or cowherd girls, were attracted by the sound and left their household duties, and when they came to Him, He danced with them. These activities are all described in the Tenth Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam. These gopīs were childhood friends of Kṛṣṇa, and many were married, for in India the girls are generally married by the age of twelve. The boys, however, are not married before eighteen, so Kṛṣṇa, who was fifteen or sixteen at the time, was not married. Nonetheless, He called these girls from their homes and invited them to dance with Him. That dance is called the rāsa-līlā dance, and it is the most elevated of all the Vṛndāvana pastimes. Kṛṣṇa is therefore called Gopīnātha because He is the beloved master of the gopīs.

CC Adi-lila

CC Adi 1 Summary:

The First Chapter of Śrī Caitanya-caritāmṛta begins with fourteen Sanskrit verses that describe the Absolute Truth. Then the next three Sanskrit verses describe the principal Deities of Vṛndāvana, namely, Śrī Rādhā-Madana-mohana, Śrī Rādhā-Govindadeva and Śrī Rādhā-Gopīnāthajī. The first of the fourteen verses is a symbolic representation of the Supreme Truth, and the entire First Chapter is in actuality devoted to this single verse, which describes Lord Caitanya in His six different transcendental expansions.

CC Adi 1.16, Translation:

In a temple of jewels in Vṛndāvana, underneath a desire tree, Śrī Śrī Rādhā-Govinda, served by Their most confidential associates, sit upon an effulgent throne. I offer my humble obeisances unto Them.

CC Adi 1.19, Translation and Purport:

These three Deities of Vṛndāvana (Madana-mohana, Govinda and Gopīnātha) have absorbed the heart and soul of the Gauḍīya Vaiṣṇavas (followers of Lord Caitanya). I worship Their lotus feet, for They are the Lords of my heart.

The author of Śrī Caitanya-caritāmṛta offers his respectful obeisances unto the three Deities of Vṛndāvana named Śrī Rādhā-Madana-mohana, Śrī Rādhā-Govindadeva and Śrī Rādhā-Gopīnāthajī. These three Deities are the life and soul of the Bengali Vaiṣṇavas, or Gauḍīya Vaiṣṇavas, who have a natural aptitude for residing in Vṛndāvana.

CC Adi 1.19, Purport:

Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu explained this mode of devotional service in three stages, and therefore these worshipable Deities were installed in Vṛndāvana by different Gosvāmīs. They are very dear to the Gauḍīya Vaiṣṇavas there, who visit the temples at least once a day. Besides the temples of these three Deities, many other temples have been established in Vṛndāvana, such as the temple of Rādhā-Dāmodara of Jīva Gosvāmī, the temple of Śyāmasundara of Śyāmānanda Gosvāmī, the temple of Gokulānanda of Lokanātha Gosvāmī, and the temple of Rādhā-ramaṇa of Gopāla Bhaṭṭa Gosvāmī. There are seven principal temples over four hundred years old that are the most important of the five thousand temples now existing in Vṛndāvana.

CC Adi 1.47, Purport:

Śrīla Sanātana Gosvāmī is the ideal spiritual master, for he delivers one the shelter of the lotus feet of Madana-mohana. Even though one may be unable to travel on the field of Vṛndāvana due to forgetfulness of his relationship with the Supreme Personality of Godhead, he can get an adequate opportunity to stay in Vṛndāvana and derive all spiritual benefits by the mercy of Sanātana Gosvāmī. Śrī Govindajī acts exactly like the śikṣā-guru (instructing spiritual master) by teaching Arjuna the Bhagavad-gītā. He is the original preceptor, for He gives us instructions and an opportunity to serve Him. The initiating spiritual master is a personal manifestation of Śrīla Madana-mohana vigraha, whereas the instructing spiritual master is a personal representative of Śrīla Govindadeva vigraha. Both of these Deities are worshiped at Vṛndāvana. Śrīla Gopīnātha is the ultimate attraction in spiritual realization.

CC Adi 1.53, Purport:

The words paścād aham indicate that the Lord exists after the dissolution of the cosmic manifestation. When the material world is dissolved, the Lord still exists personally in the Vaikuṇṭhas. During the creation the Lord also exists as He is in the Vaikuṇṭhas, and He also exists as the Supersoul within the material universes. This is confirmed in the Brahma-saṁhitā (5.37). Goloka eva nivasati: although He is perfectly and eternally present in Goloka Vṛndāvana in Vaikuṇṭha, He is nevertheless all-pervading (akhilātma-bhūtaḥ).

CC Adi 1.55, Purport:

Because of his development of transcendental attachment for the Supreme Lord, a surrendered soul feels the presence of his beloved everywhere, and all his senses are engaged in the loving service of the Lord. His eyes are engaged in seeing the beautiful couple Śrī Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa sitting on a decorated throne beneath a desire tree in the transcendental land of Vṛndāvana. His nose is engaged in smelling the spiritual aroma of the lotus feet of the Lord.

CC Adi 1.57, Translation and Purport:

"All glories to Cintāmaṇi and my initiating spiritual master, Somagiri. All glories to my instructing spiritual master, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who wears peacock feathers in His crown. Under the shade of His lotus feet, which are like desire trees, Jayaśrī (Rādhārāṇī) enjoys the transcendental mellow of an eternal consort."

This verse is from the Kṛṣṇa-karṇāmṛta, which was written by a great Vaiṣṇava sannyāsī named Bilvamaṅgala Ṭhākura, who is also known as Līlāśuka. He intensely desired to enter into the eternal pastimes of the Lord, and he lived at Vṛndāvana for seven hundred years in the vicinity of Brahma-kuṇḍa, a still-existing bathing tank in Vṛndāvana. The history of Bilvamaṅgala Ṭhākura is given in a book called Śrī-vallabha-digvijaya. He appeared in the eighth century of the Śaka Era in the province of Draviḍa and was the chief disciple of Viṣṇu Svāmī. In a list of temples and monasteries kept in Śaṅkarācārya's monastery in Dvārakā, Bilvamaṅgala is mentioned as the founder of the Dvārakādhīśa temple there. He entrusted the service of his Deity to Hari Brahmacārī, a disciple of Vallabha Bhaṭṭa.

CC Adi 1.64, Purport:

Perfect servitors of the Lord are considered His personal associates, whereas devotees endeavoring to attain perfection are called neophytes. Among the associates, some are attracted by the opulences of the Personality of Godhead, and others are attracted by nuptial love of Godhead. The former devotees are placed in the realm of Vaikuṇṭha to render reverential devotional service, whereas the latter devotees are placed in Vṛndāvana for the direct service of Śrī Kṛṣṇa.

CC Adi 1.79-80, Translation:

The energies (consorts) of the Supreme Lord are of three kinds: the Lakṣmīs in Vaikuṇṭha, the queens in Dvārakā and the gopīs in Vṛndāvana. The gopīs are the best of all, for they have the privilege of serving Śrī Kṛṣṇa, the primeval Lord, the son of the King of Vraja.

CC Adi 1.85-86, Translation:

Śrī Kṛṣṇa and Balarāma, the Personalities of Godhead, who formerly appeared in Vṛndāvana and were millions of times more effulgent than the sun and moon, have arisen over the eastern horizon of Gauḍadeśa (West Bengal), being compassionate for the fallen state of the world.

CC Adi 2.19, Purport:

The sun is situated in a specific location but is reflected in countless jewels and appears in innumerable localized aspects. Similarly, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, although eternally present in His transcendental abode, Goloka Vṛndāvana, is reflected in everyone's heart as the Supersoul. In the Upaniṣads it is said that the jīva (living entity) and the Paramātmā (Supersoul) are like two birds sitting in the same tree. The Supersoul engages the living being in executing fruitive work as a result of his deeds in the past, but the Paramātmā has nothing to do with such engagements. As soon as the living being ceases to act in terms of fruitive work and takes to the service of the Lord (the Paramātmā), coming to know of His supremacy, he is immediately freed from all designations, and in that pure state he enters the kingdom of God, known as Vaikuṇṭha.

CC Adi 3.16, Purport:

After His appearance, Lord Kṛṣṇa thought that He had not distributed the transcendental personal dealings with His devotees in dāsya, sakhya, vātsalya and mādhurya. One may understand the science of the Supreme Personality of Godhead from the Vedic literatures and thus become a devotee of the Lord and worship Him within the regulative principles described in the scriptures, but one will not know in this way how Kṛṣṇa is served by the residents of Vrajabhūmi. One cannot understand the dealings of the Lord in Vṛndāvana simply by executing the ritualistic regulative principles mentioned in the scriptures. By following scriptural injunctions one may enhance his appreciation for the glories of the Lord, but there is no chance for one to enter into personal dealings with Him. Giving too much attention to understanding the exalted glories of the Lord reduces the chance of one's entering into personal loving affairs with the Lord. To teach the principles of such loving dealings, the Lord decided to appear as Lord Caitanya.

CC Adi 4.1, Purport:

One can ascertain the meaning of this Sanskrit śloka only when one is endowed with the causeless mercy of Lord Caitanya. Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa, being the absolute Personality of Godhead, cannot be exposed to the mundane instruments of vision. He reserves the right not to be exposed by the intellectual feats of nondevotees. Notwithstanding this truth, even a small child can easily understand Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa and His transcendental pastimes in the land of Vṛndāvana by the grace of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu.

CC Adi 4.19, Purport:

The Vṛndāvana pastimes demonstrated that although generally people worship God with reverence, the Lord is more pleased when a devotee thinks of Him as his pet son, personal friend or most dear fiance and renders service unto Him with such natural affection.

CC Adi 4.23, Translation and Purport:

“"Devotional service rendered to Me by the living beings revives their eternal life. O My dear damsels of Vraja, your affection for Me is your good fortune, for it is the only means by which you have obtained My favor."

Pure devotional service is represented in the activities of the residents of Vrajabhūmi (Vṛndāvana). During a solar eclipse, the Lord came from Dvārakā and met the inhabitants of Vṛndāvana at Samanta-pañcaka. The meeting was intensely painful for the damsels of Vrajabhūmi because Lord Kṛṣṇa had apparently left them to reside at Dvārakā. But the Lord obligingly acknowledged the pure devotional service of the damsels of Vraja by speaking this verse (SB 10.82.44).

CC Adi 4.30, Purport:

In Goloka Vṛndāvana there is an exchange of love known as parakīya-rasa. It is something like the attraction of a married woman for a man other than her husband. In the material world this sort of relationship is most abominable because it is a perverted reflection of the parakīya-rasa in the spiritual world, where it is the highest kind of loving affair. Such feelings between the devotee and the Lord are presented by the influence of yogamāyā.

CC Adi 4.33, Purport:

Many realized souls, such as Raghunātha dāsa Gosvāmī and King Kulaśekhara, have recommended with great emphasis that one develop this spontaneous love of Godhead, even at the risk of transgressing all the traditional codes of morality and religiosity. Śrī Raghunātha dāsa Gosvāmī, one of the six Gosvāmīs of Vṛndāvana, has written in his prayers called the Manaḥ-śikṣā that one should simply worship Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa with all attention. Na dharmaṁ nādharmaṁ śruti-gaṇa-niruktaṁ kila kuru: one should not be much interested in performing Vedic rituals or simply following rules and regulations.

CC Adi 4.50, Purport:

Of the four kinds of reciprocation of loving service—dāsya, sakhya, vātsalya and mādhurya—mādhurya is considered the fullest. But the conjugal relationship is further divided into two varieties, namely svakīya and parakīya. Svakīya is the relationship with Kṛṣṇa as a formally married husband, and parakīya is the relationship with Kṛṣṇa as a paramour. Expert analysts have decided that the transcendental ecstasy of the parakīya mellow is better because it is more enthusiastic. This phase of conjugal love is found in those who have surrendered to the Lord in intense love, knowing well that such illicit love with a paramour is not morally approved in society. The risks involved in such love of Godhead make this emotion superior to the relationship in which such risk is not involved. The validity of such risk, however, is possible only in the transcendental realm. Svakīya and parakīya conjugal love of Godhead have no existence in the material world, and parakīya is not exhibited anywhere in Vaikuṇṭha, but only in the portion of Goloka Vṛndāvana known as Vraja.

CC Adi 4.50, Purport:

Some devotees think that Kṛṣṇa is eternally the enjoyer in Goloka Vṛndāvana but only sometimes comes to the platform of Vraja to enjoy parakīya-rasa. The six Gosvāmīs of Vṛndāvana, however, have explained that Kṛṣṇa's pastimes in Vraja are eternal, like His other activities in Goloka Vṛndāvana. Vraja is a confidential part of Goloka Vṛndāvana. Kṛṣṇa exhibited His Vraja pastimes on the surface of this world, and similar pastimes are eternally exhibited in Vraja in Goloka Vṛndāvana, where parakīya-rasa is ever existent.

CC Adi 4.56, Purport:

Everything in the Absolute is inconceivable in relative existence. Therefore in relative cognizance it is very difficult to assimilate this truth of the oneness between the potent and the potency. The philosophy of inconceivable oneness and difference propounded by Lord Caitanya is the only source of understanding for such intricacies of transcendence.

In fact, Rādhārāṇī is the internal potency of Śrī Kṛṣṇa, and She eternally intensifies the pleasure of Śrī Kṛṣṇa. Impersonalists cannot understand this without the help of a mahā-bhāgavata devotee. The very name "Rādhā" suggests that Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī is eternally the topmost mistress of the comforts of Śrī Kṛṣṇa. As such, She is the medium transmitting the living entities' service to Śrī Kṛṣṇa. Devotees in Vṛndāvana therefore seek the mercy of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī in order to be recognized as loving servitors of Śrī Kṛṣṇa.

CC Adi 4.81, Purport:

The plenary expansions of Kṛṣṇa's personality are called vaibhava-vilāsa and vaibhava-prakāśa, and Rādhā’s expansions are similarly described. The goddesses of fortune are Her vaibhava-vilāsa forms, and the queens are Her vaibhava-prakāśa forms. The personal associates of Rādhārāṇī, the damsels of Vraja, are direct expansions of Her body. As expansions of Her personal form and transcendental disposition, they are agents of different reciprocations of love in the pastimes of Lord Kṛṣṇa, under the supreme direction of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī. In the transcendental realm, enjoyment is fully relished in variety. The exuberance of transcendental mellows is increased by the association of a large number of personalities similar to Rādhārāṇī, who are also known as gopīs or sakhīs. The variety of innumerable mistresses is a source of relish for Śrī Kṛṣṇa, and therefore these expansions from Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī are necessary for enhancing the pleasure potency of Śrī Kṛṣṇa. Their transcendental exchanges of love are the superexcellent affairs of the pastimes in Vṛndāvana. By these expansions of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī’s personal body, She helps Lord Kṛṣṇa taste the rāsa dance and other, similar activities. Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī, being the central petal of the rāsa-līlā flower, is also known by the names found in the following verses.

CC Adi 4.105, Purport:

Svarūpa Dāmodara has been identified as Lalitā-devī, the second expansion of Rādhārāṇī. However, text 160 of Kavi-karṇapūra's authoritative Gaura-gaṇoddeśa-dīpikā describes Svarūpa Dāmodara as the same Viśākhā-devī who serves the Lord in Goloka Vṛndāvana. Therefore it is to be understood that Śrī Svarūpa Dāmodara is a direct expansion of Rādhārāṇī who helps the Lord experience the attitude of Rādhārāṇī.

CC Adi 4.106, Purport:

Lord Caitanya's heart was full of the feelings of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī, and His appearance resembled Hers. Svarūpa Dāmodara has explained His attitude as rādhā-bhāva-mūrti, the attitude of Rādhārāṇī. One who engages in sense gratification on the material platform can hardly understand rādhā-bhāva, but one who is freed from the demands of sense gratification can understand it. Rādhā-bhāva must be understood from the Gosvāmīs, those who are actually controllers of the senses. From such authorized sources it is to be known that the attitude of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī is the highest perfection of conjugal love, which is the highest of the five transcendental mellows, and it is the complete perfection of love of Kṛṣṇa.

These transcendental affairs can be understood on two platforms. One is called elevated, and the other is called superelevated. The loving affairs exhibited in Dvārakā are the elevated form. The superelevated position is reached in the manifestations of the pastimes of Vṛndāvana. The attitude of Lord Caitanya is certainly superelevated.

CC Adi 4.108, Purport:

So-called devotees like the sahajiyās cheaply imagine they are meeting Kṛṣṇa in Vṛndāvana. Such thinking may be useful, but actually meeting Kṛṣṇa is possible through the attitude of separation taught by Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu.

CC Adi 4.155, Translation:

(The gopīs said:) "O friends, those eyes that see the beautiful faces of the sons of Mahārāja Nanda are certainly fortunate. As these two sons enter the forest, surrounded by Their friends, driving the cows before Them, They hold Their flutes to Their mouths and glance lovingly upon the residents of Vṛndāvana. For those who have eyes, we think there is no greater object of vision."

CC Adi 4.189, Purport:

The situation of the gopīs is perplexing, for although they did not want personal happiness, it was imposed upon them. The solution to this perplexity is that Śrī Kṛṣṇa's sense of happiness is limited by the happiness of the gopīs. Devotees at Vṛndāvana therefore try to serve the gopīs, namely Rādhārāṇī and Her associates. If one gains the favor of the gopīs, he easily gains the favor of Kṛṣṇa because on the recommendation of the gopīs Kṛṣṇa at once accepts the service of a devotee. Lord Caitanya, therefore, wanted to please the gopīs instead of Kṛṣṇa. But His contemporaries misunderstood Him, and for this reason Lord Caitanya renounced the order of householder life and became a sannyāsī.

CC Adi 4.216, Translation:

"O Pārtha, in all the three planetary systems, this earth is especially fortunate, for on earth is the town of Vṛndāvana. And there the gopīs are especially glorious because among them is My Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī."

CC Adi 4.217, Purport:

It is said that the gopīs are divided into five groups, namely the sakhīs, nitya-sakhīs, prāṇa-sakhīs, priya-sakhīs and parama-preṣṭha-sakhīs. All these fair-complexioned associates of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī, the Queen of Vṛndāvana-dhāma, are expert artists in evoking erotic sentiments in Kṛṣṇa. The parama-preṣṭha-sakhīs are eight in number, and in the ecstatic dealings of Kṛṣṇa and Rādhā they side sometimes with Kṛṣṇa and at other times with Rādhārāṇī, just to create a situation in which it appears that they favor one against the other. That makes the exchange of mellows more palatable.

CC Adi 4.257, Translation:

“The sage Bharata has said that the mellows of lover and beloved are equal. But he does not know the mellows of My Vṛndāvana.

CC Adi 5 Summary:

In Kṛṣṇaloka is a transcendental place known as Śvetadvīpa or Vṛndāvana. Below Kṛṣṇaloka in the spiritual sky are the Vaikuṇṭha planets. On each Vaikuṇṭha planet a four-handed Nārāyaṇa, expanded from the first quadruple manifestation, is present. The Personality of Godhead known as Śrī Balarāma in Kṛṣṇaloka is the original Saṅkarṣaṇa (attracting Deity), and from this Saṅkarṣaṇa expands another Saṅkarṣaṇa, called Mahā-saṅkarṣaṇa, who resides in one of the Vaikuṇṭha planets.

CC Adi 5 Summary:

On the Vaikuṇṭha planet in every universe is an ocean of milk, and within that ocean is an island called Śvetadvīpa, where Lord Viṣṇu lives. Therefore this chapter describes two Śvetadvīpas-one in the abode of Kṛṣṇa and the other in the ocean of milk in every universe. The Śvetadvīpa in the abode of Kṛṣṇa is identical with Vṛndāvana-dhāma, which is the place where Kṛṣṇa appears Himself to display His loving pastimes. In the Śvetadvīpa within every universe is a Śeṣa form of Godhead who serves Viṣṇu by assuming the form of His umbrella, slippers, couch, pillows, garments, residence, sacred thread, throne and so on.

CC Adi 5 Summary:

In this chapter the author has described the history of his leaving home for a personal pilgrimage to Vṛndāvana and his achieving all success there. In this description it is revealed that the author's original paternal home and birthplace were in the district of Katwa, in the village of Jhāmaṭapura, which is near Naihāṭī. Kṛṣṇadāsa Kavirāja's brother invited Śrī Mīnaketana Rāmadāsa, a great devotee of Lord Nityānanda, to his home, but a priest named Guṇārṇava Miśra did not receive him well, and Kṛṣṇadāsa Kavirāja Gosvāmī’s brother, not recognizing the glories of Lord Nityānanda, also took sides with the priest. Therefore Rāmadāsa became sorry, broke his flute and went away. This was a great disaster for the brother of Kṛṣṇadāsa Kavirāja Gosvāmī. But on that very night Lord Nityānanda Prabhu Himself graced Kṛṣṇadāsa Kavirāja Gosvāmī in a dream and ordered him to leave on the next day for Vṛndāvana.

CC Adi 5.17, Translation:

Śrī Gokula, the highest of all, is also called Vraja, Goloka, Śvetadvīpa and Vṛndāvana.

CC Adi 5.18, Purport:

"While chanting the mantra, one should always remember the spiritual world, which is very extensive and full of desire trees that can yield anything one desires. Below that Vaikuṇṭha region is the potential material energy, which causes the material manifestation." The places of the pastimes of Lord Kṛṣṇa, such as Dvārakā, Mathurā and Vṛndāvana, eternally and independently exist in Kṛṣṇaloka. They are the actual abodes of Lord Kṛṣṇa, and there is no doubt that they are situated above the material cosmic manifestation.

CC Adi 5.18, Purport:

The abode known as Vṛndāvana or Gokula is also known as Goloka. The Brahma-saṁhitā states that Gokula, the highest region of the kingdom of God, resembles a lotus flower with thousands of petals. The outer portion of that lotuslike planet is a square place known as Śvetadvīpa. In the inner portion of Gokula there is an elaborate arrangement for Śrī Kṛṣṇa's residence with His eternal associates such as Nanda and Yaśodā. That transcendental abode exists by the energy of Śrī Baladeva, who is the original whole of Śeṣa, or Ananta. The tantras also confirm this description by stating that the abode of Śrī Anantadeva, a plenary portion of Baladeva, is called the kingdom of God. Vṛndāvana-dhāma is the innermost abode within the quadrangular realm of Śvetadvīpa, which lies outside of the boundary of Gokula Vṛndāvana.

CC Adi 5.18, Purport:

From the authoritative evidence cited by Jīva Gosvāmī we may conclude that Kṛṣṇaloka is the supreme planet in the spiritual sky, which is far beyond the material cosmos. For the enjoyment of transcendental variety, the pastimes of Kṛṣṇa there have three divisions, and these pastimes are performed in the three abodes Dvārakā, Mathurā and Gokula. When Kṛṣṇa descends to this universe, He enjoys the pastimes in places of the same name. These places on earth are nondifferent from those original abodes, for they are facsimiles of those original holy places in the transcendental world. They are as good as Śrī Kṛṣṇa Himself and are equally worshipable. Lord Caitanya declared that Lord Kṛṣṇa, who presents Himself as the son of the King of Vraja, is worshipable, and that Vṛndāvana-dhāma is equally worshipable.

CC Adi 5.40, Purport:

In considering the quadruple forms of the absolute Personality of Godhead, known as Vāsudeva, Saṅkarṣaṇa, Pradyumna and Aniruddha, the impersonalists, headed by Śrīpāda Śaṅkarācārya, have interpreted the aphorisms of the Vedānta-sūtra in a way suitable for the impersonalist school. To provide the intrinsic import of such aphorisms, however, Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī, the leader of the six Gosvāmīs of Vṛndāvana, has properly replied to the impersonalists in his Laghu-bhāgavatāmṛta, which is a natural commentary on the aphorisms of the Vedānta-sūtra.

CC Adi 5.132, Purport:

"When pure devotees of the Lord like Vasudeva are greatly disturbed by dangerous demons like Kaṁsa, Lord Kṛṣṇa joins with all His pastime expansions, such as the Lord of Vaikuṇṭha, and, although unborn, becomes manifest, just as fire becomes manifest by the friction of araṇi wood." Araṇi wood is used to ignite a sacrificial fire without matches or any other flame. Just as fire appears from araṇi wood, the Supreme Lord appears when there is friction between devotees and nondevotees. When Kṛṣṇa appears, He appears in full, including within Himself all His expansions, such as Nārāyaṇa, Vāsudeva, Saṅkarṣaṇa, Aniruddha and Pradyumna. Kṛṣṇa is always integrated with His other incarnations, like Nṛsiṁhadeva, Varāha, Vāmana, Nara-Nārāyaṇa, Hayagrīva and Ajita. In Vṛndāvana Lord Kṛṣṇa sometimes exhibits the functions of such incarnations.

CC Adi 5.195, Translation:

"O my dear Kṛṣṇadāsa, do not be afraid. Go to Vṛndāvana, for there you will attain all things."

CC Adi 5.196, Translation:

After saying this, He directed me toward Vṛndāvana by waving His hand. Then He disappeared with His associates.

CC Adi 5.198, Translation:

I thought about what I had seen and heard and concluded that the Lord had ordered me to proceed to Vṛndāvana at once.

CC Adi 5.199, Translation:

That very second I started for Vṛndāvana, and by His mercy I reached there in great happiness.

CC Adi 5.200, Translation:

All glory, all glory to Lord Nityānanda Balarāma, by whose mercy I have attained shelter in the transcendental abode of Vṛndāvana!

CC Adi 5.204, Purport:

Śrīla Narottama dāsa Ṭhākura, who is famous for his poetic composition known as Prārthanā, has lamented in one of his prayers, "When will Lord Nityānanda be merciful upon me so that I will forget all material desires?" Śrīla Narottama dāsa Ṭhākura confirms that unless one is freed from material desires to satisfy the needs of the body and senses, one cannot understand the transcendental abode of Lord Kṛṣṇa, Vṛndāvana. He also confirms that one cannot understand the loving affairs of Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa without going through the direction of the six Gosvāmīs. In another verse Narottama dāsa Ṭhākura has stated that without the causeless mercy of Nityānanda Prabhu, one cannot enter into the affairs of Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa.

CC Adi 5.212, Translation:

Lord Madana Gopāla, the chief Deity of Vṛndāvana, is the enjoyer of the rāsa dance and is directly the son of the King of Vraja.

CC Adi 5.218-219, Translation:

On an altar made of gems in the principal temple of Vṛndāvana, amidst a forest of desire trees, Lord Govinda, the son of the King of Vraja, sits upon a throne of gems and manifests His full glory and sweetness, thus enchanting the entire world.

CC Adi 5.223, Purport:

Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī, in his Laghu-bhāgavatāmṛta, has quoted from the Padma Purāṇa, where it is stated that Lakṣmī-devī, the goddess of fortune, after seeing the attractive features of Lord Kṛṣṇa, was attracted to Him, and to get the favor of Lord Kṛṣṇa she engaged herself in meditation. When asked by Kṛṣṇa why she engaged in meditation with austerity, Lakṣmī-devī answered, "I want to be one of Your associates like the gopīs in Vṛndāvana." Hearing this, Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa replied that it was quite impossible. Lakṣmī-devī then said that she wanted to remain just like a golden line on the chest of the Lord. The Lord granted the request, and since then Lakṣmī has always been situated on the chest of Lord Kṛṣṇa as a golden line. The austerity and meditation of Lakṣmī-devī are also mentioned in Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (10.16.36), where the Nāga-patnīs, the wives of the serpent Kāliya, in the course of their prayers to Kṛṣṇa, said that the goddess of fortune, Lakṣmī, also wanted His association as a gopī and desired the dust of His lotus feet.

CC Adi 5.224, Translation and Purport:

"My dear friend, if you are indeed attached to your worldly friends, do not look at the smiling face of Lord Govinda as He stands on the bank of the Yamunā at Keśīghāṭa. Casting sidelong glances, He places His flute to His lips, which seem like newly blossomed twigs. His transcendental body, bending in three places, appears very bright in the moonlight."

This is a verse quoted from the Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu (1.2.239) in connection with practical devotional service. Generally people in their conditioned life engage in the pleasure of society, friendship and love. This so-called love is lust, not love. But people are satisfied with such a false understanding of love. Vidyāpati, a great and learned poet of Mithilā, has said that the pleasure derived from friendship, society and family life in the material world is like a drop of water, but our hearts desire pleasure like an ocean. Thus the heart is compared to a desert of material existence that requires the water of an ocean of pleasure to satisfy its dryness. If there is a drop of water in the desert, one may indeed say that it is water, but such a minute quantity of water has no value. Similarly, in this material world no one is satisfied in the dealings of society, friendship and love. Therefore if one wants to derive real pleasure within his heart, he must seek the lotus feet of Govinda. In this verse Rūpa Gosvāmī indicates that if one wants to be satisfied in the pleasure of society, friendship and love, he need not seek shelter at the lotus feet of Govinda, for if one takes shelter under His lotus feet he will forget that minute quantity of so-called pleasure. One who is not satisfied with that so-called pleasure may seek the lotus feet of Govinda, who stands on the shore of the Yamunā at Keśītīrtha, or Keśīghāṭa, in Vṛndāvana and attracts all the gopīs to His transcendental loving service.

CC Adi 5.228, Translation:

All the groups of Vaiṣṇavas who live in Vṛndāvana are absorbed in chanting the all-auspicious name of Kṛṣṇa.

CC Adi 5.231, Translation:

Lord Nityānanda said, "In Vṛndāvana all things are possible." Here I have explained His brief statement in detail.

CC Adi 5.232, Translation and Purport:

I have attained all this by coming to Vṛndāvana, and this was made possible by the mercy of Lord Nityānanda.

All the inhabitants of Vṛndāvana are Vaiṣṇavas. They are all-auspicious because somehow or other they always chant the holy name of Kṛṣṇa. Even though some of them do not strictly follow the rules and regulations of devotional service, on the whole they are devotees of Kṛṣṇa and chant His name directly or indirectly. Purposely or without purpose, even when they pass on the street they are fortunate enough to exchange greetings by saying the name of Rādhā or Kṛṣṇa. Thus directly or indirectly they are auspicious.

The present city of Vṛndāvana has been established by the Gauḍīya Vaiṣṇavas since the six Gosvāmīs went there and directed the construction of their different temples. Of all the temples in Vṛndāvana, ninety percent belong to the Gauḍīya Vaiṣṇava sect, the followers of the teachings of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu and Nityānanda, and seven temples are very famous. The inhabitants of Vṛndāvana do not know anything but the worship of Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa. In recent years some unscrupulous so-called priests known as caste gosvāmīs have introduced the worship of demigods privately, but no genuine and rigid Vaiṣṇavas participate in this. Those who are serious about the Vaiṣṇava method of devotional activities do not take part in such worship of demigods.

CC Adi 6.14-15, Purport:

There are two kinds of research to find the original cause of creation. One conclusion is that the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the all-blissful, eternal, all knowing form, is indirectly the cause of this cosmic manifestation and directly the cause of the spiritual world, where there are innumerable spiritual planets known as Vaikuṇṭhas, as well as His personal abode, known as Goloka Vṛndāvana. In other words, there are two manifestations—the material cosmos and the spiritual world. As in the material world there are innumerable planets and universes, so in the spiritual world there are also innumerable spiritual planets and universes, including the Vaikuṇṭhas and Goloka. The Supreme Lord is the cause of both the material and spiritual worlds. The other conclusion, of course, is that this cosmic manifestation is caused by an inexplicable unmanifested void. This argument is meaningless.

CC Adi 6.42, Purport:

"Dear Lord, always remembering Your childhood pastimes at Vṛndāvana is better for us than aspiring to merge into the impersonal Brahman. During Your childhood pastimes You liberated the two sons of Kuvera and made them great devotees of Your Lordship. Similarly, I wish that instead of giving me liberation You may award me such devotion unto You."

CC Adi 6.61, Translation and Purport:

"Wherever we wander in the material universe under the influence of karma by the will of the Lord, may our auspicious activities cause our attraction to Lord Kṛṣṇa to increase."

These verses from Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (10.47.66–67) were spoken by the denizens of Vṛndāvana, headed by Mahārāja Nanda and his associates, to Uddhava, who had come from Mathurā.

CC Adi 6.62, Translation:

Lord Kṛṣṇa's friends in Vṛndāvana, headed by Śrīdāmā, have pure fraternal affection for Lord Kṛṣṇa and have no idea of His opulences.

CC Adi 6.65-66, Translation:

Even the beloved girlfriends of Lord Kṛṣṇa in Vṛndāvana, the gopīs, the dust of whose feet was desired by Śrī Uddhava and who are more dear to Kṛṣṇa than anyone else, regard themselves as Kṛṣṇa's maidservants.

CC Adi 6.67, Translation:

"O Lord, remover of the afflictions of the inhabitants of Vṛndāvana! O hero of all women! O Lord who destroy the pride of Your devotees by Your sweet, gentle smile! O friend! We are Your maidservants. Please fulfill our desires and show us Your attractive lotus face."

CC Adi 6.68, Translation and Purport:

"O Uddhava! It is indeed regrettable that Kṛṣṇa resides in Mathurā. Does He remember His father's household affairs and His friends, the cowherd boys? O great soul! Does He ever talk about us, His maidservants? When will He lay on our heads His aguru-scented hand?"

This verse appears in Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (10.47.21), in the section known as the Bhramara-gītā. When Uddhava came to Vṛndāvana, Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī, in complete separation from Kṛṣṇa, sang like this.

CC Adi 7.8, Translation and Purport:

Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, is the supreme enjoyer in the rāsa dance. He is the leader of the damsels of Vraja, and all others are simply His associates.

The word rāsādi-vilāsī ("the enjoyer of the rāsa dance") is very important. The rāsa dance can be enjoyed only by Śrī Kṛṣṇa because He is the supreme leader and chief of the damsels of Vṛndāvana. All others are His devotees and associates. Although no one can compare with Śrī Kṛṣṇa, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, there are many unscrupulous rascals who imitate the rāsa dance of Śrī Kṛṣṇa. They are Māyāvādīs, and people should be wary of them. The rāsa dance can be performed only by Śrī Kṛṣṇa and no one else.

CC Adi 7.17, Purport:

Those who engage in the service of Lord Nityānanda Prabhu and Lord Advaita Prabhu generally have relationships of parental love, fraternity, servitude and neutrality. When such devotees develop great attachment for Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, they too become situated within the intimate circle of devotees in conjugal love.” This gradual development of devotional service is described by Śrī Narottama dāsa Ṭhākura as follows:

gaurāṅga balite habe pulaka śarīra
hari hari balite nayane ba’be nīra
āra kabe nitāicāṅda karuṇā karibe
saṁsāra-vāsanā mora kabe tuccha habe
viṣaya chāḍiyā kabe śuddha habe mana
kabe hāma heraba śrī-vṛndāvana
rūpa-raghunātha-pade ha-ibe ākuti
kabe hāma bujhaba śrī-yugala-pirīti

"When will there be eruptions on my body as soon as I chant the name of Lord Caitanya, and when will there be incessant torrents of tears as soon as I chant the holy names Hare Kṛṣṇa? When will Lord Nityānanda be merciful toward me and free me from all desires for material enjoyment? When will my mind be completely freed from all contamination of desires for material pleasure? Only at that time will it be possible for me to understand Vṛndāvana. Only if I become attached to the instructions given by the six Gosvāmīs, headed by Rūpa Gosvāmī and Raghunātha dāsa Gosvāmī, will it be possible for me to understand the conjugal love of Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa." By attachment to the devotional service of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu, one immediately comes to the ecstatic position. When he develops his love for Nityānanda Prabhu he is freed from all attachment to the material world, and at that time he becomes eligible to understand the Lord's pastimes in Vṛndāvana.

CC Adi 7.40, Translation:

While Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu was passing through Vārāṇasī on His way to Vṛndāvana, the Māyāvādī sannyāsī philosophers blasphemed against Him in many ways.

CC Adi 7.149, Purport:

Prabodhānanda Sarasvatī wrote a number of books, among which are the Caitanya-candrāmṛta, Rādhā-rasa-sudhā-nidhi, Saṅgīta-mādhava, Vṛndāvana-śataka and Navadvīpa-śataka.

CC Adi 7.160, Translation and Purport:

After thus delivering the people in general, the Lord desired to leave Vārāṇasī. After instructing Śrī Sanātana Gosvāmī, He sent him toward Vṛndāvana.

The actual purpose of Lord Caitanya's stay at Vārāṇasī after coming back from Vṛndāvana was to meet Sanātana Gosvāmī and teach him. Sanātana Gosvāmī met Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu after the Lord's return to Vārāṇasī, where the Lord taught him for two months about the intricacies of Vaiṣṇava philosophy and Vaiṣṇava activities. After completely instructing him, He sent him to Vṛndāvana to execute His orders. When Sanātana Gosvāmī went to Vṛndāvana, there were no temples. The city was lying vacant like an open field. Sanātana Gosvāmī sat down on the bank of the Yamunā, and after some time he gradually constructed the first temple; then other temples were constructed, and now the city is full of temples, numbering about five thousand.

CC Adi 7.161, Translation:

Because the city of Vārāṇasī was always full of tumultuous crowds, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, after sending Sanātana to Vṛndāvana, returned to Jagannātha Purī.

CC Adi 7.164, Translation and Purport:

Lord Caitanya dispatched the two generals Rūpa Gosvāmī and Sanātana Gosvāmī to Vṛndāvana to preach the bhakti cult.

When Rūpa Gosvāmī and Sanātana Gosvāmī went to Vṛndāvana, there was not a single temple, but by their preaching they were gradually able to construct various temples. Sanātana Gosvāmī constructed the Madana-mohana temple, and Rūpa Gosvāmī constructed the Govindajī temple. Similarly, their nephew Jīva Gosvāmī constructed the Rādhā-Dāmodara temple, Śrī Gopāla Bhaṭṭa Gosvāmī constructed the Rādhā-ramaṇa temple, Śrī Lokanātha Gosvāmī constructed the Gokulānanda temple, and Śyāmānanda Gosvāmī constructed the Śyāmasundara temple.

CC Adi 7.171, Purport:

Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu wanted to preach the saṅkīrtana movement of love of Kṛṣṇa throughout the entire world, and therefore during His presence He inspired the saṅkīrtana movement. Specifically, He sent Rūpa Gosvāmī and Sanātana Gosvāmī to Vṛndāvana and Nityānanda to Bengal and personally went to South India.

CC Adi 8 Summary:

One should seriously and sincerely continue to chant the Pañca-tattva names śrī-kṛṣṇa-caitanya prabhu-nityānanda śrī-advaita gadādhara śrīvāsādi-gaura-bhakta-vṛnda. All these ācāryas will bestow their causeless mercy upon a devotee and gradually purify his heart. When he is actually purified, automatically he will experience ecstasy in chanting the Hare Kṛṣṇa mahā-mantra. Previous to the composition of Śrī Caitanya-caritāmṛta, Śrīla Vṛndāvana dāsa Ṭhākura wrote a book called Śrī Caitanya-bhāgavata. Only those subjects which were not discussed by Śrīla Vṛndāvana dāsa Ṭhākura in his Caitanya-bhāgavata have been taken up by Kṛṣṇadāsa Kavirāja Gosvāmī to be depicted in Śrī Caitanya-caritāmṛta. In his very old age, Kṛṣṇadāsa Kavirāja Gosvāmī went to Vṛndāvana, and by the order of Śrī Madana-mohanajī he wrote Śrī Caitanya-caritāmṛta. Thus we are now able to relish its transcendental bliss.

CC Adi 8.19, Purport:

If a devotee wants simple liberation, he gets it very easily from the Supreme Personality of Godhead, as confirmed by Bilvamaṅgala Ṭhākura. Muktiḥ svayaṁ mukulitāñjali sevate ’smān: for a devotee, mukti is not very important because mukti is always standing on his doorstep waiting to serve him in some way. A devotee, therefore, must be attracted by the behavior of the inhabitants of Vṛndāvana, who live in a relationship with Kṛṣṇa. The land, water, cows, trees and flowers serve Kṛṣṇa in śānta-rasa, His servants serve Him in dāsya-rasa, and His cowherd friends serve Him in sakhya-rasa. Similarly, the elder gopīs and gopas serve Kṛṣṇa as father and mother, uncle and other relatives, and the young gopīs, the cowherd girls, serve Kṛṣṇa in conjugal love.

CC Adi 8.31, Purport:

One should first take shelter of Gaura-Nityānanda in order to reach, ultimately, Rādhā-Kṛṣṇa. Śrīla Narottama dāsa Ṭhākura sings in this connection:

gaurāṅga balite ha’be pulaka śarīra
hari hari balite nayane ba’be nīra
āra kabe nitāi-cāṅdera karuṇā karibe
saṁsāra-vāsanā mora kabe tuccha habe
viṣaya chāḍiyā kabe śuddha habe mana
kabe hāma heraba śrī-vṛndāvana

In the beginning one should very regularly chant Śrī Gaurasundara's holy name and then chant the holy name of Lord Nityānanda. Thus one's heart will be cleansed of impure desires for material enjoyment. Then one can approach Vṛndāvana-dhāma to worship Lord Kṛṣṇa. Unless one is favored by Lord Caitanya and Nityānanda, there is no need to go to Vṛndāvana, for unless one's mind is purified, he cannot see Vṛndāvana, even if he goes there. Actually going to Vṛndāvana involves taking shelter of the six Gosvāmīs by reading the Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu, Vidagdha-mādhava, Lalita-mādhava and the other books that they have given. In this way one can understand the transcendental loving affairs between Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa. Kabe hāma bujhaba se yugala-pirīti. The conjugal love between Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa is not an ordinary human affair; it is fully transcendental. In order to understand Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa, worship Them and engage in Their loving service, one must be guided by Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, Nityānanda Prabhu and the six Gosvāmīs, Lord Caitanya's direct disciples.

CC Adi 8.49, Translation:

The devotees of Vṛndāvana were all very anxious to hear those pastimes.

CC Adi 8.50, Translation:

In Vṛndāvana, in a great place of pilgrimage underneath the desire trees, is a golden throne bedecked with jewels.

CC Adi 8.60, Purport:

Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura writes in his Anubhāṣya, “Śrī Ananta Ācārya is one of the eternal associates of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu. Previously, during the advent of Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa, Ananta Ācārya was Sudevī, one of the eight gopīs. This is stated in the Gaura-gaṇoddeśa-dīpikā (165), as follows: anantācārya-gosvāmī yā su-devī purā vraje. "Ananta Ācārya Gosvāmī was formerly Sudevī-gopī in Vraja (Vṛndāvana)."

CC Adi 8.66, Translation:

Govinda Gosāñi, the priest engaged in the service of Lord Govinda in Vṛndāvana, was a disciple of Kāśīśvara Gosāñi. There was no servant more dear to the Govinda Deity.

CC Adi 8.66, Purport:

It is said in the Gaura-gaṇoddeśa-dīpikā (137) that the servant of Kṛṣṇa in Vṛndāvana named Bhṛṅgāra descended as Kāśīśvara Gosāñi during the pastimes of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu.

CC Adi 8.71, Translation:

In Vṛndāvana there were also many other great devotees, all of whom desired to hear the last pastimes of Lord Caitanya.

CC Adi 8.73, Translation:

Having received the order of the Vaiṣṇavas but being anxious within my heart, I went to the temple of Madana-mohana in Vṛndāvana to ask His permission also.

CC Adi 9 Summary:

A summary of Chapter Nine has been given as follows by Śrīla Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura in his Amṛta-pravāha-bhāṣya. In this chapter the author of Śrī Caitanya-caritāmṛta has devised a figurative example by describing "the desire tree of bhakti." He considers Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu, who is known as Viśvambhara, to be the gardener of this tree because He is the main personality who has taken charge of it. As the supreme enjoyer, He enjoyed the fruits Himself and distributed them as well. The seed of the tree was first sown in Navadvīpa, the birth site of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu, and then the tree was brought to Puruṣottama-kṣetra (Jagannātha Purī), and then to Vṛndāvana.

CC Adi 9.41, Purport:

Human life is especially meant for God realization, as stated in the Vedānta-sūtra: athāto brahma jijñāsā. Anyone who takes birth in the land of India (Bhārata-varṣa) has the special privilege of being able to take advantage of the instruction and guidance of the Vedic civilization. He automatically receives the basic principles of spiritual life, for 99.9% of the Indian people, even simple village farmers and others who are neither educated nor sophisticated, believe in the transmigration of the soul, believe in past and future lives, believe in God, and naturally want to worship the Supreme Personality of Godhead or His representative. These ideas are the natural inheritance of a person born in India. India has many holy places of pilgrimage, such as Gayā, Benares, Mathurā, Prayāga, Vṛndāvana, Haridvāra, Rāmeśvaram and Jagannātha Purī, and still people go there by the hundreds and thousands.

CC Adi 10.14, Translation and Purport:

Puṇḍarīka Vidyānidhi, the third big branch, was so dear to Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu that in his absence Lord Caitanya Himself would sometimes cry.

In the Gaura-gaṇoddeśa-dīpikā (54), Śrīla Puṇḍarīka Vidyānidhi is described as the father of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī in kṛṣṇa-līlā. Caitanya Mahāprabhu therefore treated him as His father. Puṇḍarīka Vidyānidhi's father was known as Bāṇeśvara or, according to another opinion, Śuklāmbara Brahmacārī, and his mother's name was Gaṅgādevī. According to one opinion, Bāṇeśvara was a descendant of Śrī Śivarāma Gaṅgopādhyāya. The original home of Puṇḍarīka Vidyānidhi was in East Bengal (now Bangladesh), in a village near Dacca named Bāghiyā, which belonged to the Vārendra group of brāhmaṇa families. Sometimes these Vārendra brāhmaṇas were at odds with another group known as Rāḍhīya brāhmaṇas, and therefore Puṇḍarīka Vidyānidhi's family was ostracized and at that time was not living as a respectable family.

Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura writes in his Anubhāṣya, “One of the members of this family is living in Vṛndāvana and is named Sarojānanda Gosvāmī. One special characteristic of this family is that each of its members had only one son or no son at all, and therefore the family was not very expansive.

CC Adi 10.35, Purport:

Pradyumna Brahmacārī is described in the Antya-līlā, Second Chapter, of Śrī Caitanya-caritāmṛta. He was a great devotee of Lord Caitanya, who changed his name to Nṛsiṁhānanda. While coming from the house of Rāghava Paṇḍita at Pānihāṭi to the house of Śivānanda, Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu appeared in the heart of Nṛsiṁhānanda Brahmacārī. To acknowledge this, Nṛsiṁhānanda Brahmacārī used to accept as eatables the food of three Deities, namely Jagannātha, Nṛsiṁhadeva and Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu. This is stated in the Caitanya-caritāmṛta, Antya-līlā, Second Chapter, verses 48 through 78. Upon receiving information that Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu was proceeding toward Vṛndāvana from Kuliyā, Nṛsiṁhānanda absorbed himself in meditation and by his mental activities began constructing a very nice road from Kuliyā to Vṛndāvana. All of a sudden, however, he broke his meditation and told the other devotees that this time Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu would not go to Vṛndāvana but would travel only as far as the place known as Kānāi Nāṭaśālā. This is described in Madhya-līlā, Chapter One, verses 155 through 162.

CC Adi 10.38, Purport:

It is said that Śuklāmbara Brahmacārī was one of the wives of the yajñic brāhmaṇas during the time of Lord Kṛṣṇa's pastimes in Vṛndāvana. Lord Kṛṣṇa begged food from the wives of the yajñic brāhmaṇas, and Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu performed a similar pastime by begging rice from Śuklāmbara Brahmacārī.

CC Adi 10.53, Purport:

When Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu appeared in the house of Rāghava Paṇḍita while going to Vṛndāvana, Gadādhara dāsa went to see Him, and Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu was so glad that He put His foot on his head. When Gadādhara dāsa Prabhu was present in Eṅḍiyādaha, he established a Bāla Gopāla mūrti for worship there. Śrī Mādhava Ghoṣa performed a drama known as Dāna-khaṇḍa with the help of Śrī Nityānanda Prabhu and Śrī Gadādhara dāsa. This is explained in the Caitanya-bhāgavata (Antya 5.318–94).

CC Adi 10.60, Purport:

Śrīla Śivānanda Sena has been described by Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Mahārāja as follows: “Śivānanda Sena was a resident of Kumārahaṭṭa, which is also known as Hālisahara, and was a great devotee of the Lord. About one and a half miles from Kumārahaṭṭa is another village, known as Kāṅcaḍāpāḍā, in which there are Gaura-Gopāla Deities installed by Śivānanda Sena, who also established a temple of Kṛṣṇarāya that is still existing. Śivānanda Sena was the father of Paramānanda Sena, who was also known as Purī dāsa or Kavi-karṇapūra. Paramānanda Sena wrote in his Gaura-gaṇoddeśa-dīpikā (176) that two of the gopīs of Vṛndāvana, whose former names were Vīrā and Dūtī, combined to become his father. Śrīla Śivānanda Sena guided all the devotees of Lord Caitanya who went from Bengal to Jagannātha Purī, and he personally bore all the expenses for their journey. This is described in the Caitanya-caritāmṛta, Madhya-līlā, Chapter Sixteen, verses 19 through 27.

CC Adi 10.62, Purport:

Karṇapūra wrote many books that are important in Vaiṣṇava literature, such as the Ānanda-vṛndāvana-campū, Alaṅkāra-kaustubha, Gaura-gaṇoddeśa-dīpikā and the great epic Caitanya-candrodaya-nāṭaka. He was born in the year 1448 Śakābda (A.D. 1526). He continually wrote books for ten years, from 1488 until 1498.

CC Adi 10.67, Purport:

When Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu started His civil disobedience movement in defiance of the Kazi, Śrīdhara danced in jubilation. The Lord used to drink water from his water jug. Śrīdhara presented a squash to Śacīdevī to cook before Lord Caitanya took sannyāsa. Every year he went to see Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu at Jagannātha Purī. According to Kavi-karṇapūra, Śrīdhara was a cowherd boy of Vṛndāvana whose name was Kusumāsava.

CC Adi 10.78-79, Purport:

Cirañjīva and Sulocana were both residents of Śrīkhaṇḍa, where their descendants are still living. Of Cirañjīva's two sons, the elder, Rāmacandra Kavirāja, was a disciple of Śrīnivāsa Acārya and an intimate associate of Narottama dāsa Ṭhākura. The younger son was Govinda dāsa Kavirāja, the famous Vaiṣṇava poet. Cirañjīva's wife was Sunandā, and his father-in-law was Dāmodara Sena Kavirāja. Cirañjīva previously lived on the bank of the Ganges River, in the village of Kumāranagara. The Gaura-gaṇoddeśa-dīpikā (207) states that he was formerly Candrikā in Vṛndāvana.

CC Adi 10.84, Purport:

When Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu visited the village of Rāmakeli, He met Vallabha there. Later, Śrī Rūpa Gosvāmī, after meeting Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, resigned from government service, and when he went to Vṛndāvana to meet Lord Caitanya, Vallabha accompanied him. The meeting of Rūpa Gosvāmī and Vallabha with Caitanya Mahāprabhu at Allahabad is described in the Madhya-līlā, Chapter Nineteen.

Actually, it is to be understood from the statement of Sanātana Gosvāmī that Śrī Rūpa Gosvāmī and Vallabha went to Vṛndāvana under the instructions of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu. First they went to Mathurā, where they met a gentleman named Subuddhi Rāya, who maintained himself by selling dry fuel wood. He was very pleased to meet Śrī Rūpa Gosvāmī and Anupama, and he showed them the twelve forests of Vṛndāvana. Thus they lived in Vṛndāvana for one month and then again went to search for Sanātana Gosvāmī.

CC Adi 10.84, Purport:

Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī could compose verses according to the desires of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, and by His direction he wrote two books named Lalita-mādhava and Vidagdha-mādhava. Lord Caitanya desired the two brothers, Sanātana Gosvāmī and Rūpa Gosvāmī, to publish many books in support of the Vaiṣṇava religion. When Sanātana Gosvāmī met Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, the Lord advised him also to go to Vṛndāvana.

CC Adi 10.84, Purport:

Somehow or other Sanātana Gosvāmī reached Vārāṇasī and met Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu at the house of Candraśekhara. By the order of the Lord, Sanātana Gosvāmī was cleanly shaved and his dress changed to that of a mendicant, or bābājī. He put on old garments of Tapana Miśra's and took prasādam at the house of a Maharashtrian brāhmaṇa. Then, in discourses with Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu, the Lord Himself explained everything about devotional service to Sanātana Gosvāmī. He advised Sanātana Gosvāmī to write books on devotional service, including a book of directions for Vaiṣṇava activities, and to excavate the lost places of pilgrimage in Vṛndāvana. Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu gave him His blessings to do all this work and also explained to Sanātana Gosvāmī the import of the ātmārāma verse from sixty-one different angles of vision.

CC Adi 10.84, Purport:

Sanātana Gosvāmī went to Vṛndāvana by the main road, and when he reached Mathurā he met Subuddhi Rāya. Then he returned to Jagannātha Purī through Jhārikhaṇḍa (Jharkhanda), the Madhya Pradesh jungle. At Jagannātha Purī he decided to give up his body by falling down beneath a wheel of the Jagannātha ratha, but Caitanya Mahāprabhu saved him. Then Sanātana Gosvāmī met Haridāsa Ṭhākura and heard about the disappearance of Anupama. Sanātana Gosvāmī later described the glories of Haridāsa Ṭhākura. Sanātana observed the etiquette of Jagannātha's temple by going along the beach to visit Lord Caitanya, although it was extremely hot due to the sun. He requested Jagadānanda Paṇḍita to give him permission to return to Vṛndāvana. Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu praised the character of Sanātana Gosvāmī, and He embraced Sanātana, accepting his body as spiritual. Sanātana Gosvāmī was ordered by Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu to live at Jagannātha Purī for one year. When he returned to Vṛndāvana after that time, he again met Rūpa Gosvāmī, and both brothers remained in Vṛndāvana to execute the orders of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu.

The place where Śrī Rūpa Gosvāmī and Sanātana Gosvāmī formerly lived has now become a place of pilgrimage. It is generally known as Gupta Vṛndāvana, or hidden Vṛndāvana, and is situated about eight miles south of English Bazaar. There the following places are still visited: (1) the temple of the Śrī Madana-mohana Deity, (2) the Keli-kadamba tree, under which Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu met Sanātana Gosvāmī at night and (3) Rūpasāgara, a large pond excavated by Śrī Rūpa Gosvāmī. A society named Rāmakeli-saṁskāra-samiti was established in 1924 to repair the temple and renovate the pond.

CC Adi 10.85, Purport:

In the Gaura-gaṇoddeśa-dīpikā (195) it is said that Śrīla Jīva Gosvāmī was formerly Vilāsa-mañjarī gopī. From his very childhood Jīva Gosvāmī was greatly fond of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam. He later came to Navadvīpa to study Sanskrit, and, following in the footsteps of Śrī Nityānanda Prabhu, he circumambulated the entire Navadvīpa-dhāma. After visiting Navadvīpa-dhāma he went to Benares to study Sanskrit under Madhusūdana Vācaspati, and after finishing his studies in Benares he went to Vṛndāvana and took shelter of his uncles, Śrī Rūpa and Sanātana.

CC Adi 10.85, Purport:

After the disappearance of Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī and Sanātana Gosvāmī in Vṛndāvana, Śrīla Jīva Gosvāmī became the ācārya of all the Vaiṣṇavas in Bengal, Orissa and the rest of the world, and it is he who used to guide them in their devotional service. In Vṛndāvana he established the Rādhā-Dāmodara temple, where, after retirement, we had the opportunity to live from 1962 until 1965, when we decided to come to the United States of America. When Jīva Gosvāmī was still present, Śrīla Kṛṣṇadāsa Kavirāja Gosvāmī compiled his famous Caitanya-caritāmṛta. Later, Śrīla Jīva Gosvāmī inspired Śrīnivāsa Ācārya, Narottama dāsa Ṭhākura and Duḥkhī Kṛṣṇadāsa to preach Kṛṣṇa consciousness in Bengal. Jīva Gosvāmī was informed that all the manuscripts that had been collected from Vṛndāvana and sent to Bengal for preaching purposes were plundered near Viṣṇupura, in Bengal, but later he received the information that the books had been recovered.

CC Adi 10.85, Purport:

Unfortunately, in Vṛndāvana and Navadvīpa it has become fashionable among sahajiyās, in their debauchery, to find an unmarried sexual partner to live with to execute so-called devotional service in parakīya-rasa. Foreseeing this, Śrīla Jīva Gosvāmī supported svakīya-rasa, and later all the Vaiṣṇava ācāryas also approved of it. Śrīla Jīva Gosvāmī was never opposed to the transcendental parakīya-rasa, nor has any other Vaiṣṇava disapproved of it. Śrīla Jīva Gosvāmī strictly followed his predecessor gurus and Vaiṣṇavas, Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī and Sanātana Gosvāmī, and Śrīla Kṛṣṇadāsa Kavirāja Gosvāmī accepted him as one of his instructor gurus.

CC Adi 10.87, Translation:

Extending to the borders of the river Sindhu and the Himalayan Mountain valleys, these two branches expanded throughout India, including all the places of pilgrimage, such as Vṛndāvana, Mathurā and Haridvāra.

CC Adi 10.90, Translation and Purport:

In accordance with the directions of the revealed scriptures, both Gosvāmīs excavated the lost places of pilgrimage and inaugurated the worship of Deities in Vṛndāvana.

The spot where we now find Śrī Rādhā-kuṇḍa was an agricultural field during the time of Caitanya Mahāprabhu. A small reservoir of water was there, and Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu bathed in that water and pointed out that originally Rādhā-kuṇḍa existed in that location. Following His directions, Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī and Sanātana Gosvāmī renovated Rādhā-kuṇḍa. This is one of the brilliant examples of how the Gosvāmīs excavated lost places of pilgrimage. Similarly, it is through the endeavor of the Gosvāmīs that all the important temples in Vṛndāvana were established. Originally there were seven important Gauḍīya Vaiṣṇava temples established in Vṛndāvana, namely the Madana-mohana temple, Govinda temple, Gopīnātha temple, Śrī Rādhāramaṇa temple, Rādhā-Śyāmasundara temple, Rādhā-Dāmodara temple and Gokulānanda temple.

CC Adi 10.93, Translation:

He rendered confidential service to the Lord for sixteen years at Jagannātha Purī, and after the disappearance of both the Lord and Svarūpa Dāmodara, he left Jagannātha Purī and went to Vṛndāvana.

CC Adi 10.94, Translation and Purport:

Śrīla Raghunātha dāsa Gosvāmī intended to go to Vṛndāvana to see the lotus feet of Rūpa and Sanātana and then give up his life by jumping from Govardhana Hill.

Jumping from the top of Govardhana Hill is a system of suicide especially performed by saintly persons. After the disappearance of Lord Caitanya and Svarūpa Dāmodara, Raghunātha dāsa Gosvāmī keenly felt separation from these two exalted personalities and therefore decided to give up his life by jumping from Govardhana Hill in Vṛndāvana. Before doing so, however, he wanted to see the lotus feet of Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī and Sanātana Gosvāmī.

CC Adi 10.95, Translation:

Thus Śrīla Raghunātha dāsa Gosvāmī came to Vṛndāvana, visited Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī and Sanātana Gosvāmī and offered them his obeisances.

CC Adi 10.101, Translation:

Śrī Raghunātha dāsa Gosvāmī took three baths daily in the Rādhā-kuṇḍa lake. As soon as he found a Vaiṣṇava residing in Vṛndāvana, he would embrace him and give him all respect.

CC Adi 10.105, Purport:

Śrī Gopāla Bhaṭṭa Gosvāmī was later initiated by his uncle, the great sannyāsī Prabodhānanda Sarasvatī. Both the father and the mother of Gopāla Bhaṭṭa Gosvāmī were extremely fortunate, for they dedicated their entire lives to the service of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu. They allowed Gopāla Bhaṭṭa Gosvāmī to go to Vṛndāvana, and they gave up their lives thinking of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu. When Lord Caitanya was later informed that Gopāla Bhaṭṭa Gosvāmī had gone to Vṛndāvana and met Śrī Rūpa and Sanātana Gosvāmī, He was very pleased, and He advised Śrī Rūpa and Sanātana to accept Gopāla Bhaṭṭa Gosvāmī as their younger brother and take care of him. Śrī Sanātana Gosvāmī, out of his great affection for Gopāla Bhaṭṭa Gosvāmī, compiled the Vaiṣṇava smṛti named Hari-bhakti-vilāsa and published it under his name. Under the instruction of Śrīla Rūpa and Sanātana, Gopāla Bhaṭṭa Gosvāmī installed one of the seven principal Deities of Vṛndāvana, the Rādhāramaṇa Deity. The sevaits (priests) of the Rādhāramaṇa temple belong to the Gauḍīya-sampradāya.

CC Adi 10.105, Purport:

In the beginning of the Bhagavat-sandarbha there are similar statements by Śrīla Jīva Gosvāmī. Śrīla Gopāla Bhaṭṭa Gosvāmī compiled a book called Sat-kriyā-sāra-dīpikā, edited the Hari-bhakti-vilāsa, wrote a foreword to the Ṣaṭ-sandarbha and a commentary on the Kṛṣṇa-karṇāmṛta, and installed the Rādhāramaṇa Deity in Vṛndāvana. In the Gaura-gaṇoddeśa-dīpikā (184) it is mentioned that his previous name in the pastimes of Lord Kṛṣṇa was Anaṅga-mañjarī. Sometimes he is also said to have been an incarnation of Guṇa-mañjarī. Śrīnivāsa Ācārya and Gopīnātha Pūjārī were two of his disciples.

CC Adi 10.110, Purport:

Śubhānanda, who formerly lived in Vṛndāvana as Mālatī, was one of the kīrtana performers who danced in front of the Ratha-yātrā car during the Jagannātha festival. It is said that he ate the foam that came out of the mouth of the Lord while He danced before the Ratha-yātrā car. Īśāna was the personal servant of Śrīmatī Śacīdevī, who showered her great mercy upon him. He was also very dear to Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu.

CC Adi 10.111, Purport:

Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura writes in his Anubhāṣya, "Subuddhi Miśra, who was formerly Guṇacūḍā in Vṛndāvana, installed Gaura-Nityānanda Deities in a temple in the village known as Belagān, which is about three miles away from Śrīkhaṇḍa. His present descendant is known as Govindacandra Gosvāmī."

CC Adi 10.115, Purport:

The three brothers Govinda, Mādhava and Vāsudeva Ghoṣa all belonged to a kāyastha family. Govinda established the Gopīnātha temple in Agradvīpa, where he resided. Mādhava Ghoṣa was expert in performing kīrtana. No one within this world could compete with him. He was known as the singer of Vṛndāvana and was very dear to Śrī Nityānanda Prabhu.

CC Adi 10.138, Purport:

Govinda was the personal servant of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu. In the Gaura-gaṇoddeśa-dīpikā (137) it is stated that the servants formerly named Bhṛṅgāra and Bhaṅgura in Vṛndāvana became Kāśīśvara and Govinda in Caitanya Mahāprabhu's pastimes. Govinda always engaged in the service of the Lord, even at great risk.

CC Adi 10.146, Purport:

Balabhadra Bhaṭṭācārya acted as a brahmacārī, or personal assistant of a sannyāsī. A sannyāsī is not supposed to cook. Generally a sannyāsī takes prasādam at the house of a gṛhastha, and a brahmacārī helps in this connection. A sannyāsī is supposed to be a spiritual master and a brahmacārī his disciple. Balabhadra Bhaṭṭācārya acted as a brahmacārī for Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu when the Lord toured Mathurā and Vṛndāvana.

CC Adi 10.152-154, Translation:

The prominent devotees at Vārāṇasī were the physician Candraśekhara, Tapana Miśra and Raghunātha Bhaṭṭācārya, Tapana Miśra's son. When Lord Caitanya came to Vārāṇasī after seeing Vṛndāvana, for two months He lived at the residence of Candraśekhara Vaidya and accepted prasādam at the house of Tapana Miśra.

CC Adi 10.157, Translation:

Later, by the order of Lord Caitanya, Raghunātha went to Vṛndāvana and remained there under the shelter of Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī.

CC Adi 10.158, Purport:

Raghunātha Bhaṭṭācārya, or Raghunātha Bhaṭṭa Gosvāmī, one of the six Gosvāmīs, was the son of Tapana Miśra. Born in approximately 1425 Śakābda (A.D. 1503), he was expert in reciting Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, and in Antya-līlā, Chapter Thirteen, it is stated that he was also expert in cooking; whatever he cooked would be nectarean. Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu was greatly pleased to accept the food that he cooked, and Raghunātha Bhaṭṭa used to take the remnants of food left by Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu. Raghunātha Bhaṭṭācārya lived for eight months in Jagannātha Purī, after which Lord Caitanya ordered him to go to Vṛndāvana to join Śrī Rūpa Gosvāmī. Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu asked Raghunātha Bhaṭṭācārya not to marry but to remain a brahmacārī, and He also ordered him to read Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam constantly. Thus he went to Vṛndāvana, where he engaged in reciting Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam to Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī.

CC Adi 11.21, Translation and Purport:

All the associates of Lord Nityānanda were formerly cowherd boys in Vrajabhūmi. Their symbolic representations were the horns and sticks they carried, their cowherd dress and the peacock plumes on their heads.

Jāhnavā-mātā is also within the list of Lord Nityānanda's followers. She is described in the Gaura-gaṇoddeśa-dīpikā (66) as Anaṅga-mañjarī of Vṛndāvana. All the devotees who are followers of Jāhnavā-mātā are counted within the list of Śrī Nityānanda Prabhu's devotees.

CC Adi 11.26, Purport:

Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura writes in his Anubhāṣya, “It is said that Gaurīdāsa Paṇḍita was always patronized by King Kṛṣṇadāsa, the son of Harihoḍa. Gaurīdāsa Paṇḍita lived in the village of Śāligrāma, which is situated a few miles from the railway station Muḍāgāchā, and later he came to reside in Ambikā-kālanā. It is stated in the Gaura-gaṇoddeśa-dīpikā (128) that formerly he was Subala, one of the cowherd boyfriends of Kṛṣṇa and Balarāma in Vṛndāvana. Gaurīdāsa Paṇḍita was the younger brother of Sūryadāsa Sarakhela, and with the permission of his elder brother he shifted his residence to the bank of the Ganges, living there in the town known as Ambikā-kālanā.

CC Adi 11.31, Purport:

It is said that for some time Paṇḍita Dhanañjaya was in a saṅkīrtana party under the direction of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, and then he went to Vṛndāvana. Before going to Vṛndāvana, he lived for some time in a village named Sāṅcaḍāpāṅcaḍā, which is six miles south of the Memārī railway station. Sometimes this village is also known as "the place of Dhanañjaya" (Dhanañjayera Pāṭa). After some time, he left the responsibility for worship with a disciple and went back to Vṛndāvana. After returning from Vṛndāvana to Śītala-grāma, he established a Deity of Gaurasundara in the temple. The descendants of Paṇḍita Dhanañjaya still live in Śītala-grāma and look after the temple worship.”

CC Adi 11.40, Purport:

It is ascertained that Kānu Ṭhākura was born some time in the Bengali year 942 (A.D. 1535). It is said that he took birth on the Ratha-yātrā day. Because he was a great devotee of Lord Kṛṣṇa from the very beginning of his life, Śrī Nityānanda Prabhu gave him the name Śiśu Kṛṣṇadāsa. When he was five years old he went to Vṛndāvana with Jāhnavā-mātā, and the Gosvāmīs, upon seeing the ecstatic symptoms of Kānu Ṭhākura, gave him the name Kānāi Ṭhākura.

CC Adi 11.41, Purport:

Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura writes in his Anubhāṣya, “The Gaura-gaṇoddeśa-dīpikā (129) states that Uddhāraṇa Datta Ṭhākura was formerly the cowherd boy of Vṛndāvana named Subāhu.

CC Adi 12.17, Purport:

Advaita Prabhu married in the beginning of the fifteenth century Śakābda (late fifteenth century A.D.). When Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu wanted to visit the village of Rāmakeli while going from Jagannātha Purī to Vṛndāvana during the Śakābda years 1433 and 1434 (A.D. 1511 and 1512), Acyutānanda was only five years old.

CC Adi 12.57, Purport:

The Gaura-gaṇoddeśa-dīpikā (140) describes that Vāsudeva Datta was formerly Madhuvrata, a singer in Vṛndāvana.

CC Adi 12.58, Purport:

According to the Gaura-gaṇoddeśa-dīpikā (195), Bhāgavata Ācārya formerly lived in Vṛndāvana as Śveta-mañjarī.

CC Adi 12.82, Translation and Purport:

The eleventh branch of Gadādhara Gosvāmī was Bhūgarbha Gosāñi, and the twelfth was Bhāgavata dāsa. Both of them went to Vṛndāvana and resided there for life.

Bhūgarbha Gosāñi, formerly known as Prema-mañjarī, was a great friend of Lokanātha Gosvāmī, who constructed the temple of Gokulānanda, one of the seven important temples of Vṛndāvana—namely those of Govinda, Gopīnātha, Madana-mohana, Rādhāramaṇa, Śyāmasundara, Rādhā-Dāmodara and Gokulānanda—which are authorized institutions of Gauḍīya Vaiṣṇavas.

CC Adi 12.85, Purport:

Kṛṣṇadāsa Brahmacārī was formerly among the group of sakhīs known as the aṣṭa-sakhīs. His name was Indulekhā. Kṛṣṇadāsa Brahmacārī lived in Vṛndāvana. There is a tomb in the Rādhā-Dāmodara temple known as Kṛṣṇadāsa's tomb. Some say that this is the tomb of Kṛṣṇadāsa Brahmacārī, and others say it is that of Kṛṣṇadāsa Kavirāja Gosvāmī. In either case we offer our respects because both of them were expert in distributing love of Godhead to the fallen souls of this age.

CC Adi 12.87, Purport:

It is said that when Maṅgala Ṭhākura was constructing a road from Bengal to Jagannātha Purī, he found a Deity of Rādhāvallabha while digging a lake. At that time he was living in the locality of Kāṅdaḍā, in the village named Rāṇīpura. The śālagrāma-śilā personally worshiped by Maṅgala Ṭhākura still exists in the village of Kāṅdaḍā. A temple has been constructed there for the worship of Vṛndāvana-candra. Maṅgala Ṭhākura had three sons—Rādhikāprasāda, Gopīramaṇa and Śyāmakiśora. The descendants of these three sons are still living.”

CC Adi 12.88, Translation and Purport:

Śivānanda Cakravartī, the thirty-third branch, who always lived in Vṛndāvana with firm conviction, is considered an important branch of Gadādhara Paṇḍita.

The Gaura-gaṇoddeśa-dīpikā (183) mentions that Śivānanda Cakravartī was formerly Lavaṅga-mañjarī. The Śākhā-nirṇaya, written by Yadunandana dāsa, also names other branches of Gadādhara Paṇḍita, as follows: (1) Mādhavācārya, (2) Gopāla dāsa, (3) Hṛdayānanda, (4) Vallabha Bhaṭṭa (the Vallabha-sampradāya, or Puṣṭimārga-sampradāya, is very famous), (5) Madhu Paṇḍita (this famous devotee lived near Khaḍadaha, in the village known as Sāṅibonā-grāma, about two miles east of the Khaḍadaha station, and constructed the temple of Gopīnāthajī in Vṛndāvana), (6) Acyutānanda, (7) Candraśekhara, (8) Vakreśvara Paṇḍita, (9) Dāmodara, (10) Bhagavān Ācārya, (11) Ananta Ācāryavarya, (12) Kṛṣṇadāsa, (13) Paramānanda Bhaṭṭācārya, (14) Bhavānanda Gosvāmī, (15) Caitanya dāsa, (16) Lokanātha Bhaṭṭa (this devotee, who lived in the village of Tālakhaḍi in the district of Yaśohara (Jessore) and constructed the temple of Rādhāvinoda, was the spiritual master of Narottama dāsa Ṭhākura and a great friend of Bhūgarbha Gosvāmī), (17) Govinda Ācārya, (18) Akrūra Ṭhākura, (19) Saṅketa Ācārya, (20) Pratāpāditya, (21) Kamalākānta Ācārya, (22) Yādava Ācārya and (23) Nārāyaṇa Paḍihārī (a resident of Jagannātha Purī).

CC Adi 13 Summary:

The Thirteenth Chapter describes Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu's appearance. The entire Ādi-līlā describes Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu's household life, and similarly the Antya-līlā describes His life in the sannyāsa order. Within the Lord's antya-līlā, the first six years of His sannyāsa life are called the madhya-līlā. During this time, Caitanya Mahāprabhu toured southern India, went to Vṛndāvana, returned from Vṛndāvana and preached the saṅkīrtana movement.

CC Adi 13.12, Translation:

Of these last twenty-four years, He spent the first six continuoually touring India, sometimes in South India, sometimes in Bengal and sometimes in Vṛndāvana.

CC Adi 13.36, Translation:

Beginning from Cape Comorin and extending through Bengal to Vṛndāvana, during these six years He toured all of India, chanting, dancing and distributing love of Kṛṣṇa.

CC Adi 13.41, Translation and Purport:

As Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī talked inconsistently when She met Uddhava, so also Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu relished, both day and night, such ecstatic talk in the mood of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī.

In this connection one should refer to Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī’s soliloquy after meeting Uddhava in Vṛndāvana. Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu presented a similar picture of such ecstatic imaginary talking. Full of jealousy and madness symptomizing neglect by Kṛṣṇa, Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī, criticizing a bumblebee, talked just like a madwoman. Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, in the last days of His pastimes, exhibited all the symptoms of such ecstasy. In this connection one should refer to the Fourth Chapter of the Ādi-līlā, verses 107 and 108.

CC Adi 13.61, Purport:

On Baṅkima Rāya's right side is a deity of Jāhnavā, and on His left side is Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī. The priests of the temple describe that Lord Nityānanda Prabhu entered within the body of Baṅkima Rāya and that the deity of Jāhnavā-mātā was therefore later placed on the right side of Baṅkima Rāya. Afterwards, many other Deities were installed within the temple. On another throne within the temple are Deities of Muralīdhara and Rādhā-Mādhava. On another throne are Deities of Manomohana, Vṛndāvana-candra and Gaura-Nitāi. But Baṅkima Rāya is the Deity originally installed by Nityānanda Prabhu.

CC Adi 13.61, Purport:

In this temple there is an arrangement to offer food to the Deity on the basis of seventeen seers (about thirty-four pounds) of rice and necessary vegetables. The present priestly order of the temple belongs to the family of Gopījana-vallabhānanda, one of the branches of Nityānanda Prabhu. There is a land settlement in the name of the temple, and income from this land finances the expenditures for the temple. There are three parties of priestly gosvāmīs who take charge of the temple management, one after another. A few steps from the temple is a place known as Viśrāmatalā, where it is said that Nityānanda Prabhu in His childhood used to enjoy sporting with His boyfriends by enacting the rāsa-līlā and various other pastimes of Vṛndāvana.

CC Adi 13.61, Purport:

The place where Nityānanda Prabhu appeared is called Garbhavāsa. There is an allotment of about forty-three bighās (fourteen acres) of land to continue the worship in a temple there. The Mahārāja of Dinājapura donated twenty bighās of land (about six and a half acres) in this connection. It is said that near the place known as Garbhavāsa, Hāḍāi Paṇḍita conducted a primary school. The priests of this place, listed in a genealogical table, were as follows: (1) Śrī Rāghavacandra, (2) Jagadānanda dāsa, (3) Kṛṣṇadāsa, (4) Nityānanda dāsa, (5) Rāmadāsa, (6) Vrajamohana dāsa, (7) Kānāi dāsa, (8) Gauradāsa, (9) Śivānanda dāsa and (10) Haridāsa. Kṛṣṇadāsa belonged to the Ciḍiyā-kuñja at Vṛndāvana. The date of his disappearance is Kṛṣṇa-janmāṣṭamī. Ciḍiyā-kuñja is a place now managed by the gosvāmīs of Śṛṅgāra-ghāṭa in Vṛndāvana. They are also known as belonging to the Nityānanda family, most probably on the basis of their relationship with Kṛṣṇadāsa.

CC Adi 13.86, Purport:

Lord Kṛṣṇa, as the eternal son of Yaśodāmayī, is always present in Vṛndāvana. The pastimes of Lord Kṛṣṇa are continuously going on within both this material world and the spiritual world. In such pastimes, the Lord always thinks Himself the eternal son of mother Yaśodā and father Nanda Mahārāja. In the Tenth Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, Chapter Six, verse 43, it is stated, "When magnanimous, broad-hearted Nanda Mahārāja came back from a tour, he immediately took his son Kṛṣṇa on his lap and experienced transcendental bliss by smelling His head." Similarly, in the Tenth Canto, Ninth Chapter, verse 21, it is said, "This Personality of Godhead, appearing as the son of a cowherd damsel, is easily available and understandable to devotees, whereas those who are under the concept of bodily life, even though they are very much advanced in austerity and penance, or even though they are great philosophers, are unable to understand Him."

CC Adi 17.234, Translation:

Hearing this reply, the Lord said in ecstasy, "Go on talking! Go on talking!" Thus Śrīvāsa described the transcendental mellows of the pastimes of Śrī Vṛndāvana.

CC Adi 17.235, Translation:

In the beginning Śrīvāsa Ṭhākura described the transcendental sweetness of Vṛndāvana's pastimes. Hearing this, the Lord felt great and increasing jubilation in His heart.

CC Adi 17.236, Translation:

Thereafter the Lord again and again asked him, "Speak on! Speak on!" Thus Śrīvāsa again and again described the pastimes of Vṛndāvana, vividly expanding them.

CC Adi 17.237, Translation:

Śrīvāsa Ṭhākura extensively explained how the gopīs were attracted to the forests of Vṛndāvana by the vibration of Kṛṣṇa's flute and how they wandered together in the forest.

CC Adi 17.334, Translation:

I offer my respectful obeisances to all the residents of Vṛndāvana. I wish to place their lotus feet on my head in great humbleness.

Compiled byMadhuGopaldas +
Completed sectionsALL +
Date of first entryJuly 10, 0010 JL +
Date of last entryJuly 11, 0010 JL +
Total quotes143 +
Total quotes by sectionBG: 0 +, SB: 0 +, CC: 143 +, OB: 0 +, Lec: 0 +, Conv: 0 + and Let: 0 +