Vivasvan is the particular name of the present predominating deity of the sun generally called Surya, the sun-god

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Expressions researched:
"He is generally called Surya" |"Hiranyagarbha" |"Surya-narayana" |"Vairaja" |"Vivasvan is the name of the present predominating deity of the sun." |"Vivasvan" |"Vivasvan. He is a person" |"in the sun there is a predominating deity named Vivasvan" |"the sun-god" |"there is sun-god"

Srimad-Bhagavatam

SB Canto 4

In each and every planet there is a predominating deity. It is understood from Bhagavad-gītā that in the sun there is a predominating deity named Vivasvān.
SB 4.22.54, Purport:

In each and every planet there is a predominating deity. It is understood from Bhagavad-gītā that in the sun there is a predominating deity named Vivasvān. Similarly, there is a predominating deity of the moon and of the various planets. Actually the predominating deities in all the other planets are descendants from the predominating deities of the sun and moon. On this planet earth there are two kṣatriya dynasties, and one comes from the predominating deity of the sun and the other from the predominating deity of the moon. These dynasties are known as Sūrya-vaṁśa and Candra-vaṁśa respectively. When monarchy existed on this planet, the chief member was one of the members of the Sūrya dynasty, or Sūrya-vaṁśa, and the subordinate kings belonged to the Candra-vaṁśa. However, Mahārāja Pṛthu was so powerful that he could exhibit all the qualities of the predominating deities in other planets.

In the modern age, people from earth have tried to go to the moon, but they have not been able to find anyone there, what to speak of meeting the moon's predominating deity. The Vedic literature, however, repeatedly informs us that the moon is full of highly elevated inhabitants who are counted amongst the demigods. We are therefore always in doubt about what kind of moon adventure the modern scientists of this planet earth have undertaken.

SB Canto 5

Sūrya is the life and soul of this universe, and there are innumerable universes for which a sun-god is the life and soul.
SB 5.20.46, Purport:

All living entities, including demigods, human beings, animals, birds, insects, reptiles, creepers and trees, depend upon the heat and light given by the sun-god from the sun planet. Furthermore, it is because of the sun's presence that all living entities can see, and therefore he is called dṛg-īśvara, the Personality of Godhead presiding over sight."

In this regard, Śrīla Viśvanātha Cakravartī Ṭhākura says, sūrya ātmā ātmatvenopāsyaḥ. The actual life and soul of all living entities within this universe is the sun. He is therefore upāsya, worshipable. We worship the sun-god by chanting the Gāyatrī mantra (oṁ bhūr bhuvaḥ svaḥ tat savitur vareṇyaṁ bhargo devasya dhīmahi). Sūrya is the life and soul of this universe, and there are innumerable universes for which a sun-god is the life and soul, just as the Supreme Personality of Godhead is the life and soul of the entire creation. We have information that Vairāja, Hiraṇyagarbha, entered the great, dull, material globe called the sun. This indicates that the theory held by so-called scientists that no one lives there is wrong. Bhagavad-gītā also says that Kṛṣṇa first instructed Bhagavad-gītā to the sun-god (imaṁ vivasvate yogaṁ proktavān aham avyayam (BG 4.1)). Therefore the sun is not vacant. It is inhabited by living entities, and the predominating deity is Vairāja, or Vivasvān. The difference between the sun and earth is that the sun is a fiery planet, but everyone there has a suitable body and can live there without difficulty.

Sri Caitanya-caritamrta

CC Madhya-lila

Vivasvān is the name of the present predominating deity of the sun. He is generally called Sūrya, the sun-god, but he also has his own particular name.
CC Madhya 21.60, Purport:

“When Kṛṣṇa was so informed, He immediately asked the doorman, "Which Brahmā? What is his name?" The doorman therefore returned and questioned Lord Brahmā."

From this verse we can understand that Brahmā is the name of the post and that the person occupying the post has a particular name also. From the Bhagavad-gītā: imaṁ vivasvate yogam (BG 4.1).

Vivasvān is the name of the present predominating deity of the sun. He is generally called Sūrya, the sun-god, but he also has his own particular name. The governor of the state is generally called rāja-pāla, but he also has his own individual name. Since there are hundreds and thousands of Brahmās with different names, Kṛṣṇa wanted to know which of them had come to see Him.

Lectures

Bhagavad-gita As It Is Lectures

The fourth chapter the Lord says that "In the long ago, first of all I described this karma-yoga to Vivasvān." Vivasvān means Sūrya, the sun-god, sun-god.
Lecture on BG 4.1 and Review -- New York, July 13, 1966:

So far we have discussed in the, up to third chapter. Now, today we shall begin in the fourth chapter, what Lord says to Kṛṣṇa, er, Arjuna. Now, "śrī-bhagavān uvāca:" The Lord says:

imaṁ vivasvate yogaṁ
proktavān aham avyayam
vivasvān manave prāha
manur ikṣvākave 'bravīt
(BG 4.1)

Now, this is very important. The fourth chapter the Lord says that "In the long ago, first of all I described this karma-yoga to Vivasvān." Vivasvān means Sūrya, the sun-god, sun-god.

There is one principal living entity who is called the sun-god, Sūrya Nārāyaṇa. Or, in the language of the Bhagavad-gītā, he is called Vivasvān.
Lecture on BG 4.1 and Review -- New York, July 13, 1966:

Just like this planet is predominant by earth only, similarly, there are varieties of planets in the universe. Some planet is predominant by air; some planet is predominant by water; some planet is predominant by fire. So similarly, the sun planet is predominated by fire. There are living entities also, and there is one principal living entity who is called the sun-god, Sūrya Nārāyaṇa. Or, in the language of the Bhagavad-gītā, he is called Vivasvān. In the language of Bhagavad-gītā.

Just like in every planet there is a chief man... Just like in your country, the chief man is President Johnson, similarly, in every planet, there is a chief man. Formerly, in this planet also, there was one king. We can get from Mahābhārata history that five thousand years before there was only one king of this planet, one flag, and one regiment. We get this information from Mahābhārata. Gradually, the world has divided into many states, and we can see hundreds of flags in the United States, er, Nations. But similarly, the example is that similarly, that in the sun planet there is a chief person who is called Vivasvān, who is called Vivasvān.

So Lord Kṛṣṇa says that "This science of karma-yoga, what I am just trying to explain to you, it is not a new thing, but first I spoke this karma-yoga to Vivasvān." Vivasvān means the sun-god. And then He says that vivasvān manave prāha: "Vivasvān"—means the sun-god—"again repeated the same thing to his son, who is called Manu."

At the present moment, the predominating Deity in the sun planet is called Vivasvān.
Lecture on BG Lecture -- Ahmedabad, December 8, 1972:

Kṛṣṇa said that "First of all, I described, I instructed this yoga system, bhakti-yoga system, Bhagavad-gītā, to Vivasvān, the sun-god, and the sun-god, whose name is Vivasvān..." The particular name is also given. It is not vague, that... At the present moment, the predominating Deity in the sun planet is called Vivasvān. So he spoke this Bhagavad-gītā philosophy to his son, vivasvān manave prā..., Manu. Manu is the original person of the human society. Manuṣya. Man. So Manu spoke to his son, Ikṣvāku. Mahārāja Ikṣvāku. He's the first person of the sūrya-vaṁśa. There are two kṣatriya families: one, candra-vaṁśa, coming from the Moon, and the other from the Sun, Vivasvān. So Mahārāja Ikṣvāku is the original personality in the sūrya-vaṁśa kṣatriyas in which Lord Rāmacandra appeared. So in this way, there is paramparā system.

Srimad-Bhagavatam Lectures

Just like we have got a president he has got a particular name, similarly, the president of the sun globe is called Sūrya, Sūryadeva. But he has got a particular name. So at the present moment, the predominating deity of the sun globe is called Vivasvān.
Lecture on SB 1.2.11 -- Tirupati, April 26, 1974:

When we say Brahman, impersonal Brahman, or when we speak Paramātmā, or when we speak of Bhagavān, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, there is no difference between these three terms. Just like sunshine and the sun globe and the sun-god. According to Bhagavad-gītā, we have got the name of the predominating deity in the sun globe. Imaṁ vivasvate yogaṁ proktavān aham avyayam (BG 4.1). This is said in the Bhagavad-gītā. First of all Kṛṣṇa says, "Long, long ago, millions of years ago, I spoke this philosophy of Bhagavad-gītā to Vivasvān." Vivasvān means the present predominating deity of the sun globe. Just like we have got a president, similarly, but he has got a particular name, similarly, the president of the sun globe is called Sūrya, Sūryadeva. But he has got a particular name.

So at the present moment, the predominating deity of the sun globe is called Vivasvān. So this Vivasvān or the sun-god and the sun globe and the sunshine, they are not different. All of them are light. Without light in the sun globe, how so much light is emanating? So therefore the inhabitants of the sun globe, their body is made of fire. Therefore everything is glowing. And we, from distant place, we see the sun globe also glowing. And the sunshine is also glowing.

Within the sun globe there is sun-god, Vivasvān. He is a person, Sūrya-nārāyaṇa.
Lecture on SB 2.9.4 -- Japan, April 22, 1972:

So you realize the Absolute Truth in different stages, in the beginning as impersonal Brahman, impersonal Brahman. Just like you realize the sun as impersonal sunlight, then localized sun globe. But if you are able to enter into the sun globe, then you see the sun-god, Vivasvān. It is up to your power. But actually, from the person, sun-god, the light is coming. This is practical. The sun-god... Within the sun globe there is sun-god, Vivasvān. He is a person, Sūrya-nārāyaṇa. And there are persons also in that globe. They are living in the Sūryaloka.