Mahārāja Priyavrata also had a second wife, in whom he begot three sons named Uttama, Raivata and Tāmasa. All of them were elevated to the post of Manu. Śukadeva Gosvāmī thus described how Mahārāja Priyavrata achieved liberation.
SB Canto 1
The Manus who are prominent within this universe are as follows: Yajña as Svāyambhuva Manu, Vibhu as Svārociṣa Manu, Satyasena as Uttama Manu, Hari as Tāmasa Manu, Vaikuṇṭha as Raivata Manu, Ajita as Cākṣuṣa Manu, Vāmana as Vaivasvata Manu (the present age is under the Vaivasvata Manu), Sārvabhauma as Sāvarṇi Manu, Ṛṣabha as Dakṣasāvarṇi Manu, Viṣvaksena as Brahma-sāvarṇi Manu, Dharmasetu as Dharma-sāvarṇi Manu, Sudhāmā as Rudra-sāvarṇi Manu, Yogeśvara as Deva-sāvarṇi Manu, and Bṛhadbhānu as Indra-sāvarṇi Manu. These are the names of one set of fourteen Manus covering 4,300,000,000 solar years as described above.
SB Canto 4
As stated in Bhagavad-gītā (BG 8.17):
- ahar yad brahmaṇo viduḥ
- rātriṁ yuga-sahasrāntāṁ
- te 'ho-rātra-vido janāḥ
"By human calculation, a thousand ages taken together is the duration of Brahmā's one day. And such also is the duration of his night." Brahmā's one day consists of one thousand cycles of the four yugas—Satya, Tretā, Dvāpara and Kali. In that one day there are fourteen manvantaras, and out of these manvantaras this Cākṣuṣa manvantara is the sixth. The various Manus existing in one day of Lord Brahmā are as follows: (1) Svāyambhuva, (2) Svārociṣa, (3) Uttama, (4) Tāmasa, (5) Raivata, (6) Cākṣuṣa, (7) Vaivasvata, (8) Sāvarṇi, (9) Dakṣasāvarṇi, (10) Brahma-sāvarṇi, ( 11) Dharma-sāvarṇi, (12) Rudra-sāvarṇi, (13) Deva-sāvarṇi and (14) Indra-sāvarṇi.
- Thus there are fourteen Manus in one day of Brahmā.
SB Canto 5
In his other wife, Mahārāja Priyavrata begot three sons, named Uttama, Tāmasa and Raivata. All of them later took charge of manvantara millenniums.
In every day of Brahmā there are fourteen manvantaras. The duration of one manvantara, the lifespan of one Manu, is seventy-one yugas, and each yuga is 4,320,000 years. Almost all the Manus selected to rule the manvantaras came from the family of Mahārāja Priyavrata. Three of them are particularly mentioned herein, namely Uttama, Tāmasa and Raivata.
SB Canto 8
This First Chapter of the Eighth Canto may be summarized as a description of four Manus, namely Svāyambhuva, Svārociṣa, Uttama and Tāmasa. After hearing descriptions of the dynasty of Svāyambhuva Manu until the end of the Seventh Canto, Mahārāja Parīkṣit desired to know about other Manus. He desired to understand how the Supreme Personality of Godhead descends-not only in the past but at the present and in the future-and how He acts in various pastimes as Manu. Since Parīkṣit Mahārāja was eager to know all this, Śukadeva Gosvāmī gradually described all the Manus, beginning with the six Manus who had appeared in the past.
Uttama, the son of Priyavrata, was the third Manu. Among his sons were Pavana, Sṛñjaya and Yajñahotra. During the reign of this Manu, the sons of Vasiṣṭha, headed by Pramada, became the seven saintly persons. The Satyas, Devaśrutas and Bhadras became the demigods, and Satyajit became Indra. From the womb of Sunṛtā, the wife of Dharma, the Lord appeared as Satyasena, and He killed all the Yakṣas and Rākṣasas who were fighting with Satyajit.
O King, the third Manu, Uttama, was the son of King Priyavrata. Among the sons of this Manu were Pavana, Sṛñjaya and Yajñahotra.
The brother of the third Manu, Uttama, was celebrated by the name Tāmasa, and he became the fourth Manu. Tāmasa had ten sons, headed by Pṛthu, Khyāti, Nara and Ketu.
The names of the fourteen Manus are as follows: (1) Svāyambhuva, (2) Svārociṣa, (3) Uttama, (4) Tāmasa, (5) Raivata, (6) Cākṣuṣa, (7) Vaivasvata, (8) Sāvarṇi, (9) Dakṣa-sāvarṇi, (10) Brahma-sāvarṇi, (11) Dharma-sāvarṇi, (12) Rudraputra (Rudra-sāvarṇi), (13) Raucya, or Deva-sāvarṇi, (14) and Bhautyaka, or Indra-sāvarṇi.
Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura, in his Anubhāṣya, gives a list of Manus and their fathers' names: (1) Svāyambhuva Manu, the son of Lord Brahmā; (2) Svārociṣa, the son of Svarocis, or Agni, the predominating deity of fire; (3) Uttama, the son of King Priyavrata; (4) Tāmasa, the brother of Uttama; (5) Raivata, the twin brother of Tāmasa; (6) Cākṣuṣa, the son of the demigod Cakṣus; (7) Vaivasvata, the son of Vivasvān, the sun-god (whose name is mentioned in the Bhagavad-gītā (4.1)); (8) Sāvarṇi, a son born to the sun-god and his wife Chāyā; (9) Dakṣa-sāvarṇi, the son of the demigod Varuṇa; (10) Brahma-sāvarṇi, the son of Upaśloka; (11–14) Rudra-sāvarṇi, Dharma-sāvarṇi, Deva-sāvarṇi and Indra-sāvarṇi, the sons of Rudra, Ruci, Satyasahā and Bhūti respectively.
Other Books by Srila Prabhupada
Teachings of Lord Caitanya
Because all the universes are produced simultaneously by the exhalation of the Mahā-Viṣṇu, no one can begin to calculate how many Manus are manifest at one time. Each Manu, however, is called by a different name. The first Manu is called Svāyambhuva, and he is the son of Brahmā. The second Manu, Svārociṣa, is the son of the predominating deity of fire. The third Manu is Uttama, and he is the son of King Priyavrata. The fourth Manu, Tāmasa, is the brother of Uttama. The fifth Manu, called Raivata, and the sixth Manu, Cākṣuṣa, are both brothers of Tāmasa, but Cākṣuṣa is the son of Cākṣu. The seventh Manu is called Vaivasvata, and he is the son of the sun-god. The eighth Manu is called Sāvarṇi, and he is also a son of the sun-god, born of a wife named Chāyā. The ninth Manu, Dakṣasāvarṇi, is the son of Varuna. The tenth Manu, Brahmasāvarṇi, is the son of Upaśloka. Four other Manus are known as Rudrasāvarṇi, Dharmasāvarṇi, Devasāvarṇi and Indrasāvarṇi.