The politician present his manifesto before the public and convinces voters about his service capacity. The voter also gives the politician his valuable vote on expectation that the politician will give service to the society. The shopkeeper serves the customer and the artisan serves the capitalist. The capitalist serves his family and the family serves the head man in terms of the eternal capacity of eternal being. In this way we can see no living being is exempted from the practice of rendering service to other living being, and therefore we can conclude that service is a thing which is the constant companion of the living being, and therefore it may be safely concluded that rendering of service by a living being is the eternal religion of the living being. When a man professes to belong to a particular type of faith with reference to the particular time and circumstances of birth, and thus one claims to be a Hindu, a Muslim, a Christian, Buddhist, or any other sect, and sub-sect, such designations are non-sanātana-dharma.
Other living entities (Lectures)
Bhagavad-gita As It Is Lectures
So even if we have violated the jāti-dharma and kula-dharma... That is a fact. We have done so. There is no denying this fact. Every one of us, we have done that. Then what is the next duty or remedy? Because we have violated everything. So that, for that purpose, in the Bhāgavata gives you direction. Here is the verse: devarṣi-bhūtāptaṁ nṛṇāṁ pitṟṇām (SB 11.5.41). Pitṛ, pitṛ piṇḍodaka-kriyāḥ. So we are obliged to offer piṇḍa and water to the pitṛs. But here is an, what is called, an outlet. Devarṣi, we are indebted to the devatās. Ṛṣis, we are indebted to the great sages. Devarṣi, devarṣi bhūtānām. We are indebted to so many other living entities, bhūtānām, and nṛṇāṁ. We are also indebuted to the human society. Nṛṇāṁ, pitṟṇām. We are indebted to the pitṛs, forefather. Pitṟṇām. So na kiṅkarā nāyam ṛṇī ca rājan. One becomes freed from the servitude of all these personalities, devarsi-bhūtāpta nṛṇāṁ pitṟṇām (SB 11.5.41). How he can become? Sarvātmā yaḥ śaraṇaṁ śaraṇyam.
Even from that example. You see? And because the river waters comes and, I mean to say, merges into the sea water, that does not mean the river, all rivers are stopped. The rivers are there. Another example: now, there are many aquatic animals within the water. They are also... Now, as the drop of the water emerges from the sea water and again merges into the sea water, so that is a nice example, but these fishes, these aquatic animals, they are also born in that water. Nobody has given these aquatic animals from anywhere else. They are... They have taken their birth from that water. They are also born of the water. Just like the drops of the water also born of the water, similarly, these living aquatic animals, they are also born of the water. Now, the drop of the water merges into the water and loses his existence—that does not mean—there are other living entities within the water, millions and billions—they also lose their identity. They keep their identity.
That is the version. Nityo nityānāṁ cetanaś cetanānām eko bahūnāṁ yo vidadhāti kāmān, tam ātma-sthaṁ ye 'nupaśyanti dhīrās teṣāṁ śāntiḥ śāśvatī netareṣām. This is the version from Kaṭhopaniṣad. Nityo nityānām. He's the supreme eternal amongst all the other eternals. Cetanaś cetanānām. He's the supreme living force amongst all other living forces. Eko bahūnāṁ yo vidadhāti kāmān. That one, singular number, eka, He is providing, maintaining, all other living entities. Tam ātma-stham. He is also in everyone's heart. Īśvaraḥ sarva-bhūtānāṁ hṛd-deśe arjuna tiṣṭhati (BG 18.61). Tam ātma-sthaṁ ye 'nupaśyanti dhīrāḥ. Anyone who can perceive His presence, dhīra, very highly learned or very gentle, dhīra... Dhīra means who is not disturbed. He's called dhīra. And there are others who are called adhīra. Adhīra means those who are disturbed. So those who are in the material world, they are always disturbed. And those who are on the spiritual platform, they are dhīra. Dhīrādhīra.
So this so-called birth and death is due to the covering of māyā. The marginal potency. We are... Kṛṣṇa has got many potencies. Parāsya śaktir vividhaiva śrūyate (Cc. Madhya 13.65, purport). That is the Vedic instruction. The Absolute Truth has multi-energies. Whatever we see... Parasya brahmaṇaḥ śaktis tathedam akhilaṁ jagat. Whatever little we are seeing, that is simply distribution of the energy of the Supreme. Exactly the same way: the sunshine and the sun globe, and the sun-god. Sun-god, from him... Not only sun-god, there are other living entities also. Their body is glowing. They have got fiery body. As we have got earthly body... Earth is prominent in this planet. Similarly, in the sun planet, the fire is prominent. As earth is one of the five elements, fire is also another one of the five elements. These things will be explained that the soul is never burned by the fire.
Now, so, so long we have got our, this material body... We have several times discussed this point, that all our miseries, distresses, are due to this body. There are three kinds of distresses—adhyātmika, adhibhautika, and adhidaivika: distresses due to this body and mind; distresses due to the other living entities; and distresses which is beyond our power, distresses, natural distresses, adhidaivika, distresses offered by the supernatural power. So three kinds of distresses we are suffering always. There is no, I mean to say, rescue either from the three, or at least from one or two. There is always... It is going on. So one who is situated in this pure consciousness platform, his symptoms will be like this, that duḥkheṣv anudvigna-manāḥ: "He is not disturbed by all these three kinds of miseries," miseries pertaining to the body and the mind, miseries due to other living entities, and miseries due to the natural disturbances, natural disturbance. Now, nature's disturbance: all of a sudden, there is flood; all of a sudden, there is heavy snowfall; all of a sudden, there is famine; all of a sudden, there is so many things which we have no control. We have no control. This is called supernatural disturbances. And disturbances offered by other living entities. We are living in the society with many other living entities, both man and animal, and there is possibility of miseries due to other living entities' behavior upon me. And besides that, due to my this bodily construction, either I have some mental agony or some bodily agony, or so many things.
So Bhagavad-gītā says that yajña-śiṣṭāśinaḥ santo mucyante sarva-kilbiṣaiḥ. Sarva-kilbiṣaiḥ. Sarva-kilbiṣaiḥ. Kilbiṣa means sinful reaction, sinful reaction, "Tit for tat," good reaction or bad reaction. But one who eats after offering to the Supreme Lord, he is not under the regulation of reaction. Whatever we eat... Even we eat, that, we have got to repay for that. Now, the Sanskrit word, the flesh... Flesh, Sanskrit word, is called māṁsa. Māṁsa. The māṁsa means..., mām means "me," and sa means "he." "So I am eating some animal; so in my next life that animal will eat me." That is called māṁsa. So now, apart from animal... Don't think that those who are vegetarian, they are free from all these reaction. No. They are also. They are also. The law is that one has to repay which he is taking the help from other living entities. That is the law of karma. So either you eat vegetables or either you eat flesh, you have to repay that. But yajña-śiṣṭāśinaḥ santo mucyante sarva-kilbiṣaiḥ. The Bhagavad-gītā says that if you eat the remnants after offering sacrifice to the Lord, then you, not only you are free from all reaction, but you do not eat anything sinful. That is the direction of Bhagavad-gītā.
So consciously or unconsciously, we are committing. Suppose I am not willingly killing any animal, but unconsciously I am killing so many living entities by my walking, by my so many things. They are called pañca-yajñas in the Vedic... So, and even if we do not kill animals, simply by eating vegetables, they are also life. It does not mean that vegetarians are not killing. They are also killing. The law is that a living entity lives by killing other living entities. That is the law. Those who have got hands, they are killing those who have got legs. Just like man is killing animal. The animal is eating the grass, those who have no legs. So this is the law. But our thing is that we have to offer yajña. Killing of animal does not mean that if a man kills a cow or goat for eating, he is killing, and those who are vegetarian, they are not killing. They are also killing. A vegetable has also got life. So it is not the question of killing. It is the question of offering yajña. It is the question of offering yajña.
Tamāla Kṛṣṇa: Purport: "A person who is fully Kṛṣṇa conscious and by his acts in Kṛṣṇa consciousness is fully satisfied, no longer has anything to perform as his duty. Due to his becoming Kṛṣṇa conscious all the dirty things within are instantly cleansed, ordinarily an effect of many, many thousands of yajña performances. By such clearing of consciousness one becomes fully confident of his eternal position in relationship with the Supreme. His duty thus becomes self-illuminated by the grace of the Lord and therefore he no longer has anything to do in terms of the Vedic injunctions. Such a Kṛṣṇa conscious person is no longer interested in material activities and no longer takes pleasure in material arrangements like wine, women and similar infatuations."
Eighteen: "A self-realized man has no purpose to fulfill in the discharge of his prescribed duties, nor has he any reason not to perform such work. Nor has he any need to depend on any other living being (BG 3.18)."
Nineteen: "Therefore without being attached to the fruits of activities, one should act as a matter of duty, for by working without attachment one attains the Supreme (BG 3.19)."
Purport: "This Supreme is the Personality of Godhead for the devotees and liberation for the impersonalist. A person acting for Kṛṣṇa or in Kṛṣṇa consciousness, under proper guidance and without attachment to the result of the work is certainly making progress towards the supreme goal of life. Indirectly Arjuna is told that he should fight the battle of Kurukṣetra without attachment in the interest of Kṛṣṇa because Kṛṣṇa wanted him to fight. To be a good man or a nonviolent man is also a personal attachment, but to act on behalf of the Supreme..."
Prabhupāda: Yes, to be good man, this consciousness is, "I am very good man." Or to bad man, "I am very bad man." But if you become Kṛṣṇa conscious, "I am neither good man or bad man. I am Kṛṣṇa's man." That's all. Finished. Finished. All business. "I am Kṛṣṇa's man." That's all. If Kṛṣṇa wants to kill you, I'll kill you. If Kṛṣṇa says you do that, I'll do that. That's all. So I am Kṛṣṇa's man. So he's immediately transcendental to all goodness or badness.
Tamāla Kṛṣṇa: Eighteen: "A self-realized man has no purpose to fulfill in the discharge of his prescribed duties nor has he any reason not to perform such work. Nor has he any need to depend on any other living being (BG 3.18)."
Prabhupāda: This is very important. What is actually self-realization? All processes, religious process, yoga practice, philosophical speculation or anything for self-realization, any method, what is the purpose? And what is the ultimate goal of the self-realization? That ultimate goal is to understand that "I am eternal servant of God, Kṛṣṇa." That's all. This is self-realization. So long one is identifying oneself with this material world, with this body, with this mind, it is not self-realization. Self-realization means that I am spirit, and the Supreme Lord is also spirit, so I am part and parcel of the Supreme.
Another thing, one should not think "Because I am in Kṛṣṇa consciousness, therefore oh, I shall not rise early in the morning." This is prescribed duty for one who is... No. You have to do that. Loka-saṅgraha. So he practically has no duty, but to show example to the general mass of people, he has got so many duties. Even Kṛṣṇa. Kṛṣṇa is the Supreme Personality of Godhead, He was also going to a school to study. He accepted spiritual master. He was offering respect to His elderly brother in relationship. So he does not... A self-realized person is always engaged in Kṛṣṇa consciousness, but he does not deviate with the prescribed duties also, because others will follow. Others will also, "Oh, I am also self-realized." Therefore one has to do.
Nor has he any need to depend on any other living being. He is free because he knows that "I am part and parcel of Kṛṣṇa, so I'm dependent on Kṛṣṇa. Kṛṣṇa is providing millions and trillions of living entities. Why not me? I am directly engaged in Kṛṣṇa's service." This is the position of self-realized. Nārāyaṇa-parāḥ sarve na kutaścana bibhyati (SB 6.17.28). Go on.
And what are these miseries? They are called adhyātmika, adhibhautika and adhidaivika. Adhyātmika means miseries pertaining to this body and mind. Just like today we are feeling too hot. Why? Due to this body. And next moment I shall feel not very happy. My mind is disturbed. So there are miseries due to this body and due to the mind. This is called adhyātmika. And then again, adhibhautika. Adhibhautika. Some other living entity. Just like here, you are hearing the barking of the dog, "Gow! Gow!" always. So it is sometimes disturbing. So such kind of miseries offered by other living being is called adhibhautika. We have got so many miseries. And then adhidaivika. Daivika means miseries offered by the supernatural power. Just like there is earthquake, famine, pestilence, war. So we are always... There are three headings of miseries, and we are, either we are suffering either from the three all, or at least one. There must be. This is the nature of our life in this material existence. But we are trying to make a solution of it. That is our struggle for existence. But that solution cannot be made by our teeny brain. That solution can be made only when we take to the shelter of Kṛṣṇa, the Supreme Lord.
Therefore the Lord comes Himself just to convince us that "This is not your real life. This material existence, you are suffering. Why you should suffer? You are My sons." Just like Lord Jesus Christ, he also told that "I am the son of God." He's happy. So everyone, you can become similarly happy as soon as you are reinstated in your position. The whole Bhagavad-gītā is meant for convincing me, I mean to say, conditioned souls. We are conditioned. Just like, just like under awkward circumstances we are always, always conditioned life. We are not free. Some condition is there, either state condition or nature's condition or condition left by other living entity or condition laid down by my own body. So we are always in condition.
He can eat the whole world, but you cannot do that. You must follow his instruction, "Thou shall not kill." You must have discrimination. You are human beings; you are not cats and dogs. You must have discrimination, what to eat, what to not eat. Because we have to eat some other living entity, it does not mean that I shall eat my sons and daughters. "Discrimination is the best part of valor." So far we are concerned, we are eating certainly vegetable, but not directly. We eat kṛṣṇa-prasādam. Kṛṣṇa says, patraṁ puṣpaṁ phalaṁ toyaṁ yo me bhaktyā prayacchati: (BG 9.26) "Anyone who offers Me with love and affection vegetables, grains, milk, I eat." So if there is any sin for eating vegetables, that is Kṛṣṇa's sin, not our sin. We take the prasādam. We are teaching people to eat kṛṣṇa-prasādam. We are not teaching people to become vegetarian or nonvegetarian. That is not our business. After all, we have to eat, so if we eat kṛṣṇa-prasādam... That is stated, yajña-śiṣṭāśinaḥ santo mucyante sarva-kilbiṣaiḥ: "If you accept prasādam which is offered to God, then you are free from all sinful resultant action."
Lord Kṛṣṇa says that "every man is following My path, indirectly or directly." The supreme position of the Lord is that He is in the supreme absolute position, and every other living being, they are all subordinate. In the Vedic Upaniṣad it is clearly stated, nityo nityānāṁ cetanaś cetanānām eko bahūnāṁ vidadhāti kāmān (Kaṭha Upaniṣad 2.2.13). This is the natural law in any society, in any community, in any country, even in the animal society.
If you go to the forest there are societies of different animals: elephant society, tiger society, deer society, jackal society, wolf society. Even in the birds, you'll find, the birds of the same feather flock together. This is the natural way. You'll find that all the pigeons, they flock together, not the crows and the pigeons flock together. The ducks, they flock together. Similarly, this is the natural way, and there... In every group there is a leader.
Just like there are three kinds of miserable condition always. This boy is fanning me. Why? There is little miserable condition here. We are feeling too hot. So again, if you go outside, you may feel too cold. So either inside or outside, you are in miserable condition. This is called adhyātmika.
Then adhibhautika. Just like we tried to stop the child disturbing. So the child is another living entity, I am another living entity, but she is causing some disturbance. Not the child, there are other living entities. In your country, of course, it is very less. In our India it is very prominent—mosquitoes, flies, bugs. They give trouble. Or some enemy or some other animal attacks you. This is called adhibhautika.
Adhyātmika, adhibhautika, then adhidaivika. Adhidaivika means all of a sudden there is earthquake or famine or too much rain or no rain. Daivika means it is... We have no control over it. So there are so many. These are the big heading of miserable condition: adhyātmika, adhibhautika, adhidaivika. And there are many, many other categories.
Similarly if we serve Kṛṣṇa, we get all our necessities, energy, automatically. Yathā taror mūla-niṣecanena (SB 4.31.14). The example, just like pouring water on the root of the tree, the energy is immediately supplied to the leaves, to the twigs, to the branches, to everywhere immediately. Similarly simply by serving Kṛṣṇa or God you supply all other parts, you serve all other parts. There is no question of serving differently. The ... everything automatically comes.
Sympathy not only for human being, even for the animals the sympathy comes. God consciousness, Kṛṣṇa consciousness is so nice. Without God consciousness, without Kṛṣṇa consciousness, without Kṛṣṇa consciousness, the sympathy for other living entities is very limited. But with God consciousness, with Kṛṣṇa consciousness, the sympathy for other living entities is full. That is the system.
Just like if I accept God as my father, then I am the son. Then my business will be to ask only for my necessities from the father. That is my business. But if I become father of Kṛṣṇa, then from the beginning of His childhood, my business will be to serve Kṛṣṇa. The father, the parents, they serve the child from the beginning of his birth. Therefore this concept of Nanda-Yaśodā or Devakī and Vasudeva is very sublime. They... Kṛṣṇa... Yaśodā, mother, she is thinking that "If I do not feed Kṛṣṇa sumptuously, He will die." She is thinking that Kṛṣṇa... She forgets that Kṛṣṇa, the Supreme Lord, is subsisting the three world, everywhere. Nityo nityānāṁ cetanaś cetanānām eko bahūnāṁ vidadhāti kāmān (Kaṭha Upaniṣad 2.2.13). That only one God is supplying the necessities of all other living entities. Now this, that same, very same Personality of Godhead has become the son of Yaśodā, and she is thinking that "If I do not feed Kṛṣṇa nicely, He will die." This is love. This is love. She has forgotten that the Supreme Personality of Godhead has taken, has appeared before him (her) as his (her) little child, as her little child. But she forgets.
But we are missing the opportunity. Nature has given us the opportunity, possessing this human form of body after evolution, 8,400,000 different types of bodies, but there is no cultivation of this knowledge how this evolution is taking place, how many different species of life there are. We can see, but we don't see very seriously. I see there is a tree in front of my house and it is also a living entity. I am also living entity. I have got very nice house, apartment, living very comfortably, and the other living being, the tree, a few yards from me, he cannot move an inch. He has to stand up in scorching heat, in cold. He cannot protest. If you cut, he cannot cry. Of course, he feels, but he cannot do anything. This is also life and I am also life, so why these differences? But they do not consider, "How he has got this life, and how I have got this life?" There is no university education wherefrom they are coming, no knowledge. Still, they are passing on as great scientist, great philosopher. This is the position.
So this is going on. Something misery are due to the body, something miserable due to the mind, something miserable due to the nature. All of a sudden, it becomes very cold. All of a sudden, it becomes very hot, warm. Nature. All of a sudden, there is great snowfall. All of sudden, there is earthquake. So many miseries, due to nature, due to body, due to mind, and due to other living entities. Oh, somebody attacks me with dagger. A tiger attacks me with his jaws. So many difficulties, miseries in every step. Padaṁ padaṁ yad vipadāṁ na teṣām (SB 10.14.58). So we should remember this. But due to the illusion, being covered by the illusion, we don't take account of these miseries. But we must remember that we are always in miseries. An intelligent person who is developed in consciousness, he inquires, "Why I am in miseries? I do not want miseries. Why I am in miseries?" When this question arises, then there is chance of becoming Kṛṣṇa conscious. You will find how one becomes, comes to Kṛṣṇa consciousness. You will find, later verses. Catur-vidhā bhajante māṁ sukṛtino 'rjuna.
So by indulging in sinful life it is not possible to understand Kṛṣṇa. That is, Kṛṣṇa also says in various places in the Bhagavad-gītā. I have repeatedly informed you, yeṣām anta-gataṁ pāpam. One who is completely free from all sinful life... Janānāṁ puṇya-karmaṇām. This is puṇya-karma, not to indulge in illicit sex life, not to indulge in nonvegetarian diet, not to indulge in gambling, and not to indulge in intoxicants. So catur-vidhā bhajante māṁ sukṛtino 'rjuna ārto arthārthī jñānī jijñāsuḥ. Four kinds of men who are actually leading pious life, such persons... (applause) Hare Kṛṣṇa. Such persons, when they are distressed... Ārta means distressed. We have go so many distresses in this material life: tri-tāpa, three kinds of distresses, pertaining to the body, pertaining to the mind, distresses offered by other living entities. Adhibhautika, adhyātmika, adhidaivika. We are always in distress; that is a fact. But there is a covering influence of māyā that even in distressed condition, we think that we are happy. That is covering influence of māyā.
And another condition is you have to live under threefold miseries, that miserable conditions pertaining to the body and mind... Even if you are opulent externally, if you are sick, if your mind is not in proper condition, you suffer. That is called adhyātmika. And there are other miseries offered by other living entities. Just like some friend all of a sudden becomes your enemy and he tries to inflict some injuries upon you. You are full of anxieties. This is called adhibhautika. Even there is no enmity, there are so many living entities, just like bugs, mosquitos, other animals. They are always prepared to give us trouble. This is called adhibhautika. Adhyātmika, adhibhautika, and adhidaivika, which is beyond your... Every miserable condition is beyond your control, but especially adhidaivika, famine, pestilence, overflood, no rain, scarcity. This is called adhidaivika. So this is called conditioned life.
So if you have got perfect knowledge, that is described here that jñānaṁ vijñāna-sahitam, if you have got perfect knowledge, then the result will be yaj jñātvā. If you possess that perfect knowledge, then mokṣyase aśubhāt. These conditions we don't want. That is the real fact. We don't want any miserable condition due to my mind, due to my body, or due to other living entities or natural disturbances, birth, death, old age, disease. We don't want. These are inauspicities of life. But if you have got perfect knowledge, then Kṛṣṇa says that you become liberated from all these inauspicities. That is the subject matter of this chapter.
Therefore Kṛṣṇa says that this knowledge is rāja-vidyā. We have got different departments of knowledge, university and institutes. But nowhere this subject matter is discussed, or there is any department. There are... Suppose medical department. What is the medical department? To give us relief from diseased condition. But there is no department which discusses how to become free from all diseases.
We can see that the sunshine is resting on the sun globe. Sun globe is localized, but sunshine is very big. It is distributed all over the universe. But that does not mean that sunshine is more important than the sun globe. The sun globe is important, and the still more important is the sun-god. Within the sun globe there is sun-god, Vivasvān. He is a person. And there is also other living entities, their, all their bodies are made of fire. Here in the material science, they sterilize. They, they are under the impression that when there is too strong temperature, the microbes die, or when there is too cold, the microbes die. There are two kinds of sterilization: either by increasing the heat or decreasing the heat, below zero. But Bhagavad-gītā, from Bhagavad-gītā we understand, adāhyo 'yam: soul is never killed in fire, neither it is killed by extreme coldness. Nityaḥ śāśvato 'yam. Spirit cannot be counteracted by any material reaction. That is spirit.
Oṁ namo bhagavate vāsudevāya. We are reading one chapter from Bhagavad-gītā, thirteenth chapter. The subject matter is nature, the enjoyer, and consciousness. In Sanskrit it is called kṣetra-kṣetra-jña. Kṣetra means the field. Just like an agriculturist. They work on the field. The worker or the agriculturist owns the land, and he works there, and according to his labor he enjoys the fruits. Similarly, we have been given this body as the field of activity. Every one of us, not only human being, but also other living entities...
There are eight million four hundred thousand forms of living entities. Jalajā nava-lakṣāṇi. In the water there are nine hundred thousand forms of living entity. Then, jalajā nava-lakṣāṇi sthāvarā lakṣa-viṁśati. Sthāvarāḥ means the living entities who cannot move, just like the trees, plants, grass, vegetables. They are standing in one place. They are also called "having no leg." Ahastāni sahastānām apadāni catuṣ-padām. This is nature's law, that the living entities which have no hands, they are eatable for the living entities who have hands. Ahastāni sahastānām apadāni catuṣ-padām. And the living entities which cannot move, they are the food for the living entities which has got four legs. Phalgūni mahatāṁ tatra jīvo jīvasya jīvanam.
So both Kṛṣṇa and the living entity are sitting in one tree. That is stated in the Upaniṣad. Two birds are sitting in one tree. One is eating the fruit of the tree and other is simply witnessing. The witnessing bird is Kṛṣṇa. And the bird who is eating the fruits of the tree, he is the living entity. The Māyāvādī philosophers, they cannot distinguish between the jīva soul, jīvātmā, and Paramātmā. They know it, but because they are monists, to establish their theory, they say there is no two, there is one. No. Kṛṣṇa says two. One kṣetrajñaḥ, the jīvātmā, and the other kṣetrajñaḥ He is, Kṛṣṇa. The difference between the two is that the individual living entity knows only about his kṣetra, body, but the other living entity, the supreme living entity, He knows all the bodies, everywhere, anywhere, throughout the whole creation. Sarvasya cāhaṁ hṛdi sanniviṣṭo (BG 15.15). This is the difference.
He's the seed-giving father. Therefore, all living entities are Kṛṣṇa's part and parcel. It is foolishness to say that other living entities, other than the human being, they have no soul. It is foolishness. They have got soul. Every... Even the ant has got soul, even the microbe has got soul, even the germ has got soul, everyone has got soul. But they have got different types of body only, outward. Therefore Kṛṣṇa says, yac ca yadrk ca. How they have got different types of bodies? So these, subject matters are very subtle things.
Just like the hog. The hog can eat stool very nicely, very nicely. But although we say that everything is food, we can eat... Then you eat the stool? You cannot eat. He has got the influence that he can eat the stool very nicely. Therefore we should not consider that all living entities are of the same status. They have different status. You cannot say because the other living entity is eating something abominable, therefore I can also eat, it is eatable. No, you cannot do that. If you eat, you will be diseased. Therefore, it is called, "one man's food is another man's poison." Prabhavaś ca. One can eat anything. Not anything. Nobody can eat anything. His allotted food.
Just like a landlord has got hundreds of house, and each house is occupied by one tenant, but the landlord is occupier of all the houses, similarly, in each body there are two living entities. One living entity is the soul, individual soul, and the other living entity is the Supreme Lord. Īśvaraḥ sarva-bhūtānāṁ hṛd-deśe 'rjuna tiṣṭhati (BG 18.61). He is situated, both of them are situated within this heart. Hṛd-deśe, it is pointed out. Now, you have got... you, everyone knows, from the heart the energy is distributed to the whole body, and as soon as the heart stops to work, no more body existing. Everyone will know. Therefore the heart is the office, sitting office, of both the soul and the Supersoul. Ātmā and Paramātmā.
So one has to understand the Supreme Absolute Truth both outside and inside. Antar bahiś ca bhūtānām acaraṁ caram eva. There are two things. Some of them are moving, or with life, and some of them are not moving. Even living beings... Here it is called bhūtānām. Bhūtānām means living entities. So there are some living entities which are moving, just like we. Cats, dogs, human beings, and flies, and so many living beings, they are moving. And other living beings, just like trees, plants, they are standing one place. Sthāvara-jaṅgama. Sthāvara means one place. Caram acaram. Sūkṣmatvāt, in every living being there is the Supreme Lord. Aṇḍāntara-stha-paramāṇu-cayāntara-stham (Bs. 5.35). Even within the atom. Sūkṣmatvāt avijñeyam. Because it is so small, minute... That minute means that Kṛṣṇa's part and parcel. Kṛṣṇa is the gigantic virāṭ or vibhu, and we living entities, we are aṇu. Sūkṣmatvāt. So... (aside:) Don't talk.
In the human form of life there are two classes of men. First of all living being. Amongst the living being there are some living being which can move or can walk from one place to another. And there are certain other living beings which cannot move, just like the trees, plants. They are also living being, but they are standing in one place for many thousands of years. They have no independence to move. Now, in the moving living beings there are so many. The flies, the insects, the reptiles, the birds, the beast. In this way, by evolutionary process, one after another, one comes to the form of human being. This human being is therefore very, very rare. After going through 8,400,000 species of life, one comes to this human form of life.
So here is the chance of getting freedom from this evolutionary process. Bahūnāṁ janmanām ante (BG 7.19). After many, many births, we have got. Why? Now, to become civilized. What is civilization? Civilization... The Aryans are called civilized. Why? Aryan means going forward. And what is the destination of going forward? The destination is to understand the original cause of creation, God. Janmādy asya yataḥ (SB 1.1.1). That is the Vedānta philosophy. Janmādy asya yataḥ. The original cause from where everything is coming into being, by whose management everything is maintained, and after annihilation everything will enter into Him—that is the original person. So human form of life is meant for understanding the original cause of all causes. That is human form of life. Inquisitiveness. And others, less than human being, just like lower animals, cats and dogs, not to speak of the trees and plants... They are standing in one place, and other living beings, even the insects, birds, beasts, they haven't got sufficient intelligence. (aside:) No, this water, drinking. Sufficient intelligence to understand "What I am? Why I am suffering?" Everyone is suffering. That's a fact. The whole struggle for existence is going on.
Now, the next question would be... According to Vedic information, the original person is Lord Brahmā. When there was creation, the first created being was Lord Brahmā. Then from Brahmā, all other living entities expanded. This is the creation understanding. So one may mistake, "Then Lord Brahmā is, the Supreme Personality of Godhead because He has no..., nobody knew that by whom born Lord Brahmā was born." It may be questioned like that. But Brahmā is not the original source of everything. Although he has created this universe, he is not the original source. Therefore it is explained here that the original person is Vāsudeva, or Kṛṣṇa, and He gave intelligence to Brahmā to create this universe. But if we put this argument that "Brahmā was alone. How he took instruction from the superior person?" therefore it is said, tene brahma hṛdā: "The Supreme Personality of Godhead Vāsudeva instructed him from within the heart." That is not only for Brahmā. That is not the only prerogative of Brahmā. Kṛṣṇa, we have already stated, is seated in everyone's heart. If you want to consult Him, He can give you instruction. The only thing is that you have to become qualified like Brahmā so that you can received instruction from Him within the heart. And what is that qualification?
On account of this material body, we have got three-fold miseries within this material world. One is called adhyātmika. Adhyātmika means miserable condition due to this material body and the mind. The... another miserable condition is adhibhautika: miserable condition offered by other living entities. And the third miserable condition is which is offered by the nature, just like earthquake, famine, pestilence and so many other things on which we have no control. We have no control in any kind of miserable condition, especially the miserable condition offered by nature. We cannot avoid it. So therefore here it is said that if you take up this religious system—means how to love God—then you will be transcendental to all this miserable condition of material existence. And these information, these practices, are given in the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam which is compiled by, not by any ordinary person, but śrīmad-bhāgavate mahā-muni-kṛte, the greatest sage, Vyāsadeva. He has given us. In ordinary literatures they are full of mistakes and cheating and illusion and imperfectness.
So there are different types of bodies within this material world. We can compare. Just like ant's body, a fly's body, and my body. A fly's body may remain for few years, or, few hours. So our body may remain for few years. And similarly, there are other living entities like Brahmā, their body remains for a few decades. But every body, each body, is subjected to this law of nature: birth, death, disease, and old age. So God's body is not like that. It is eternal. Here in this material world we can possess a body which may exist for millions of years, but that does not mean it is eternal. It is not eternal. But God's body is eternal. Therefore, in the Vedic language, when it is said, nirākāra-nirākāra means "who has no form"—it does not mean that God has no form. He has got form, but His form is different from this form upon which you have got experience. Our experience is whatever form we can think of, even Brahma's form, that is liable to be annihilated. But God's form is not like that. So when in the Vedic language it is said, nirākāra—means nir, nir means "not," and ākāra means "form"—that means "God's form is not like ours." It is not that He has no form. He has form, but His form is different from ours.
What is the perfection of life? The perfection of life means to get out of this material condition and to be situated in our original, spiritual life. Originally we are all spiritual spark, we all, sitting here, not only we, human beings, even other living entities, everyone—the trees, the plants, the aquatics, birds, beasts, insects, microbes, everyone. Wherever you'll find living symptoms, they are all part and parcel of God. But according to their karma, according to their pious and impious activities, they have been obliged to accept a certain type of body. That is in the hands of nature. Your science will not help. Your science will not help. It will be considered by the material nature.
You can see that we human being, civilized man, we have got business, industry, to solve our economic problems, but we human beings are very small quantity. Out of 8,400,000 species of life, forms of life, only 400,000 species of life are human being. Out of them, mostly seventy-five percent are uncivilized, maybe twenty-five percent civilized. So except these so-called civilized twenty-five percent human being, other living entities have no problem for eating, sleeping, mating. We have created. Because we are so-called civilized, we have created the problems for eating, sleeping, mating. Otherwise there is already arrangement for everyone by God. Eko bahūnāṁ vidadhāti kāmān. In Africa there are thousands of thousands of elephants. They are eating at a time fifty kilos of foodstuff. But they are eating; God is supplying. They are also living. They have got sleeping accommodation. They have got mating arrangements.
So to become Kṛṣṇa conscious, that is the highest perfection of life. Paraṁ Brahman. Paraṁ Brahman. Brahman, impersonal effulgence. Just like the sunshine. Then localized sun, the sun globe. Then further, if you able to enter the sun globe, you'll find there is a predominating deity. There are also cities and palaces—everything, just like this planet. But this planet is made prominently of earth, and that planet is one of the elements, material elements, earth, water, fire, air. So if this planet is made of earth, why not other planet made of fire? What is the scientific reason to deny it? Because I cannot live in the fire, it does not mean other living entities cannot live there. There are different kinds of living entities. Just like you cannot live within the water, within the ocean, but there are other living entities... Just like fish. They live very comfortably within the water. So why should we conclude that there is no life in the sun planet or moon planet? This is not perfect knowledge. From Vedic books we can understand that this moon planet is one of the heavenly planets and people live there. They are demigods. Their duration of life is very long. And one can go to that planet by performing the rituals.
Pradyumna: (leads chanting, etc.)
- sama-śīlā bhajanti vai
- (SB 1.2.27)
Translation: "Those who are in the modes of passion and ignorance worship the forefathers, other living beings and the demigods who are in charge of cosmic activities, for they are urged by a desire to be materially benefited with women, wealth, power and aristocratic birth."
- sama-śīlā bhajanti vai
Śriyaiśvarya-prajā. (aside:) Stop that. Śrī means beauty, aiśvarya means riches, opulence, and praja means progeny, sons, grandsons, great-grandsons. In Bengal there is a proverb, nāti nāti sagye bhati(?): "If one can see grandson of the grandson, his life is successful." His door to heaven is open now. Nāti means grandson, and nāti's nāti, grandson. That means six generations. So people like this—good family and full of beautiful women and very good bank balance, motorcars—then life is successful. Śriyaiśvarya-prajepsavaḥ. But who are after this śriyaiśvarya-prajepsavaḥ? That is explained: rajas-tamaḥ-prakṛtayaḥ. Rajas-tamaḥ-prakṛtayaḥ, those who are influenced by the modes of passion and ignorance.
So dhīrāṇāṁ vartma. Because people must be first of all gentle. Then talk of Kṛṣṇa and God consciousness. If he is animal, what he can understand? This is Vedic system. Dhīrāṇām. Dhīra means must be gentle, perfectly gentle. Must address all woman as "mother." Mātṛvat para-dāreṣu para-dravyeṣu loṣṭravat. This is the training, that one should consider other's wife as mother, and others' money as like garbage in the street. Nobody cares for it. Similarly, one's other's money should not be touched. Even it is somebody has forgotten his purse, moneybag on the street, nobody will touch it. Let the man come back and take it. That is civilization. Para-dravyeṣu loṣṭravat, ātmavat sarva-bhūteṣu. And treating all other living entities as oneself. If somebody pinches me, I feel pain. Why shall I pinch other? If somebody cuts my throat, I become so sorry or so aggrieved. Why shall I cut the throat of other animals? This is civilization. This is Vedic civilization. And not that go on killing animals like anything and hunt upon the woman, topless woman, make business. This is not civilization. This is not human civilization.
So that was being observed formerly. As soon as there was some discrepancy in the brahminical culture... Brahminical culture means the aim of advancement of civilization is spiritual realization, self-realization, Viṣṇu. Ultimately, Lord Viṣṇu, the Supreme Personality of Godhead. That is the prerogative. That is a special chance for the human being. This chance is not for any other living being. So for this purpose, there are so many rules and regulation: Manu-saṁhitā, the social system, the political system, the spiritual system, so many things. Everything chalked with an aim: how to understand Brahman. Brahma jānāti iti brāhmaṇaḥ. As soon as one understands what is Brahman, Para-brahman, Kṛṣṇa—Kṛṣṇa is Para-brahman—then his life is perfect. That was the aim.
Pradyumna: "That is the omnipotency of the Lord. One who foolishly considers Nārāyaṇa like other living beings should take a lesson from this."
Prabhupāda: Yes. Therefore in the śāstra it is forbidden, that don't compare with Nārāyaṇa. Don't be on equal footing with Nārāyaṇa. It is not possible. But the rascals, big, big swamis, they are exclaiming that: daridra-nārāyaṇa. Nārāyaṇa has become daridra. Manufactured word. Where is this word daridra-nārāyaṇa in the śāstras? But they have manufactured. That Nārāyaṇa has become daridra and He has come to my door to beg. Nārāyaṇa is the master of Lakṣmī, sahasra-śata-lakṣmī, and He has now become daridra, poverty-stricken. These foolish things are going on.
So even there is no bhūta-hatyā... That is called pañca-sūnā-yajña, five kinds of imperceptible sinful activities. Just like when we are walking on the street, there are many ants and germs, they are being killed. I do not know, I do not wish to kill, but they are being killed. When you are igniting fire, in the fireplace, there are so many small ants. So as soon as you ignite, all those small ants—you cannot see—they die. Similarly, when you keep water, there are so many microbes and other living entities. So as you press on it, they die. Similarly, pestle and mortar. In India the system, they don't purchase...Those who are rigid family, they do not purchase these powdered spices. No. They bring whole spices and they smash it with mortar and pestle. That is very nice. So doing that smashing work, you kill so many animals. In breathing, you kill so many animals. In drinking water, you kill so many animals. This is bhūta-hatyā. You are killing.
Jāyate. Now jāyate, one who takes birth... Just like the other day I was speaking... One Indian girl, she has given birth to a child in America. So because that child is born in America, she becomes naturally American national. So if this fact is to be accepted, that anyone who takes birth on the land of America, he becomes immediately American, and the American government takes charge for his protection, so why this is restricted only for the human child? If this is definition, prajā, "one who takes birth," so the animals also take birth. The trees also take birth. So many other animals, other living entities, they also take birth. So yes, therefore, they are all prajās. Not only... Miserly, you limit your prajā conception, national conception, within the human society only, you expand it. Even it is taken nationally, anyone who takes birth in this land, he is national. Either human being or animal or tree or plant. That is the definition of prajā.
That is the ways of this material nature. The ways of material nature is that you cannot remain in comfort. That is not possible. By laws of nature... Tri-tāpa-yatana, three kinds of miseries, adhyātmika, adhibhautika, adhidaivika, they must be there always. Just like I am your spiritual master. You have kept me very nicely, to your best capacity, but I am coughing. I am coughing. So even if we are situated in one kind of comfortable position, then another uncomfort will come and attack. That is called tri division. Adhyātmika, adhibhautika, adhidaivika. Or there is no cough, or there is no trouble, but you receive on very unsatisfactory letter from a friend; you become very sorry. This is called adhyātmika, pertaining to the mind, pertaining to the body. Adhyātmika. Adhibhautika: troubles offered by other living entities; and adhidaivika, trouble offered by the higher authorities. Just like excessive heat. You cannot control. Excessive cold.
Therefore it is said, there are three kinds of miserable conditions: daiva, bhūta, ātmā. Daiva means adhidaivika, and bhūta means adhibhautika, and ātmā means adhyātmika. Three kinds of miseries. Adhyātmika, pertaining to your body and mind. Body, we have got, we have got experience, so many bodily troubles, anxieties. If not body, mental. These are called adhyātmika. Then adhibhautika. I am peaceful, but another neighbor, or another animal, will give me some trouble. I am peacefully sitting here, but these flies are giving me trouble unnecessarily. I have to take precaution. So there are flies, mosquitoes, at night so many other animals, they come. Besides that, my brother, my friend, they are also prepared to give me trouble. Some way or other, other living entities causing some painful condition. This is called adhibhautika. And adhidaivika. Daivika, painful condition created by the demigods. Just like there is hurricane all of a sudden. So many trees falls down, sometimes cottages devastated, overflood, excessive rain, overflood, famine, pestilence. You have no control. You cannot control. You can simply say, "In future." That's all. But there is no control.
So the, not only it is the question of Arjuna or Kṛṣṇa, everyone of us. In the Upaniṣad it is said that Paramātmā, Kṛṣṇa, and the living entity they are sitting on the same tree, samāni vṛkṣe. One living entity is eating the fruit of the tree, and the other living entity is simply witnessing, anumantā. So Kṛṣṇa, He's situated in everyone's heart, īśvaraḥ sarva-bhūtānāṁ hṛd-deśe 'rjuna tiṣṭhati (BG 18.61). Because without His sanction, the living entity cannot do anything. Sarvasya cāhaṁ hṛdi sanniviṣṭo (BG 15.15), Kṛṣṇa says that "I am seated in everyone's heart." So, the living entity wants to do something out of his own whims, Kṛṣṇa says, or Kṛṣṇa gives good consultation that "This will not make you happy, don't do this." But he is persistent, he will do it. Then Kṛṣṇa sanctions, Paramātmā, "All right, you do it, at your risk." This is going on. Everyone of us (is) very intimately connected with Kṛṣṇa, and Kṛṣṇa is sitting in everyone's heart. Kṛṣṇa is so kind, that He is simply waiting, "When this rascal will turn his face towards Me." He simply is, he is so kind. But we living entities, we are so rascal, we shall turn our face to everything except Kṛṣṇa. This is our position.
Kṛṣṇa said that "This philosophy, this Bhagavad-gītā yoga system, I first of all explained to the sun-god, whose name is Vivasvān." He spoke the same principle to his son Manu, and Manu also spoke the same principle to his son, Ikṣvāku. So Ikṣvāku came from the sun planet. He happens to be the grandson of Vivasvān. So how you can say that in the sun planet there is no possibility of life? We get the history. And if you say that "In fire how one can live?" No. As we see that in water some other living entities can live, similarly, I may not be able to live in the fire, but there are other living entities who can live there. That should be the right conclusion. Because fire is as good another material element as the water is. As water is also one of the material elements, fire is also one of the eight material elements.
So there are different grades of life. It is called mṛtyu-loka. This material world is called mṛtyu-loka: "where everyone dies." But there are grades of duration of life. One living entity has got four minutes life, another, ten minutes, another, hundred minutes. Then days. One day, hundred days. Then year. One year, or four year, or five year, or utmost, hundred years, on this planet. So the human being can live up to utmost hundred years, but in other planets there are other living entities, demigods. And the highest, the topmost planet is Brahmaloka. And you have learned from Bhagavad-gītā, in the Brahmaloka, the duration of life, to our calculation, is very, very long. Sahasra-yuga-paryantam ahar yad brahmaṇo viduḥ (BG 8.17). In the Brahmaloka, the duration of twelve hours, our twelve hours, morning to evening, that is many millions of years to our calculation. So even if you go to that planet Brahmaloka, as you are trying to go to the moon planet... From śāstra we understand in the moon planet, they live up to ten thousands of years according to heavenly calculation. In each planet, in each society, the calculation is different.
Just like the police department. What is the meaning of police department? Why government spends so much money for police department? Just to keep law and order. There must be. As soon as there is disobedience of law and order, immediately police department must go and punish and arrest. We can experience these things. Similarly, by God's side, there is such department, police department. That is māyā, Durgādevī. Durgādevī, you have seen. Most of you might not have seen Durgādevī's picture, with trident, trident in the hand. The asura is being attacked by the trident. So this trident means threefold miseries. You have seen the picture, mother, Goddess Durgā is piercing the trident just here on the heart. This trident means threefold miseries: adhyātmika, adhibhautika, adhidaivika. I have several times explained: pertaining to the body and mind, pertaining to the other living entities, adhibhautika, adhidaivika, pertaining to the nature's disturbance.
So, "Are you suffering some pains on account of your body or mind?" This is called adhyātmika. Adhyātmika means the body. The body and the mind. That's called adhyātmika. Adhibhautika, sufferings offered by other living entities. And adhidaivika. Adhidaivika means sufferings offered by the demigods. Just like famine, pestilence, earthquake. You have no hand. You may be a very big, big scientist, but when this trembling of the earth, "Oh, God save us, God save us, God save us." (laughter) Yes. Even that sputnik... Our scientist... Where is scientist? What is that, sputnik? They were asking, "God shall...?"
But God is the whole family. Eko yo bahūnāṁ vidadhāti. He's supplying food to the elephants. We are, we are so much advanced in civilization that because we cannot take care of a child, therefore we are killing child even within the womb of mother, abortion. We are so unfit. But God, you see, He's feeding millions of elephants in the Africa. Not only elephants, there are so many. Out of 8,400,000 species of life, there are 8,000,000 species of life nonhuman being, the majority—the birds, beasts, reptiles, trees, so many other living entities. But they have no business. They have no occupation, profession, to maintain themselves. So who is maintaining them? Who is there? Eko yo bahūnāṁ vidadhāti kāmān. Even if within your room, there is a little hole, sometimes you'll find thousands of ants coming out. Have you got this experience? And who is feeding them? Who is supplying them food? They are living within that hole, millions, and hundreds and thousands of ants, but they're also eating, they're also sleeping, they have got their wife, they have got their children. But who is supplying food? So in this way, if you analyze that everything is being maintained by the Supreme Personality of Godhead, that is real understanding of Kṛṣṇa consciousness, how Kṛṣṇa is great, or God is great. So that is a real civilization of life, to understand, to appreciate, to appreciate the greatness of God. That is real civilization.
So here it is said apaśyatām ātma-tattvam (SB 2.1.2). One who has no information of the spiritual world, they are interested in these newspaper and magazines. Apaśyatām ātma-tattvaṁ gṛheṣu gṛha-medhinām. Gṛheṣu means they have an impact of understanding. This is my body. Or this is my society. Or this is my community. Or this is my nation. Or this is my humanitarian. They can expand. But what is the... Even if you take the whole human society, what is the value? If you take all living entities, there are so many other living entities. Not only human beings, there are animals, thirty thousand species of animals. Not thirty thousand, thirty hundred thousand. Similarly, twenty hundred thousand species of living entities who are called the trees, plants. So where is the knowledge of all this? Suppose if one is naturalist, what knowledge he has got? He can study a thousand species of plants and trees, but there are two millions of plants and trees. Just try to understand how much meager a small quantity of knowledge you have got. It is practically not possible. But at least one must know that this material world, this material body is not myself. At least this self-realization should be there. Otherwise, we remain animals.
Since there is no deterioration, there is no past, present and future in the estimation of time. It is clearly stated in this verse that the influence of time is conspicuous by its absence. The whole material existence is manifested by actions and reactions of elements which make up the influence of time prominent in the matter of past, present and future. There are no such actions and reactions of cause and effects there. So the cycle of birth, growth, existence, transformations, deterioration and annihilation or the six material changes are nonexistent there. It is the unalloyed manifestation of the energy of the Lord without any illusion as experienced here in the material world. The whole Vaikuṇṭha existence proclaims that everyone there is a follower of the Lord. The Lord is the chief leader there without any competition of leadership, and the people in general are all followers of the Lord. It is confirmed in the Vedas therefore that the Lord is the chief leader and all other living entities are subordinate to Him."
Prabhupāda: Nityo nityānāṁ cetanaś cetanānām (Kaṭha Upaniṣad 2.2.13).
Pradyumna: "It is confirmed in the Vedas therefore that the Lord is the chief leader and all other living entities are subordinate to Him as only the Lord..."
Prabhupāda: So we have accepted the original leader, Kṛṣṇa. Why should we follow the nonsense leader who has no perfect knowledge? We have accepted the supreme leader. That is our advantage. Then?
Pradyumna: "...as only the Lord satisfies all the needs of all other living entities."
Prabhupāda: And He is so able leader that He supplies everything. He is not a false leader. Then?
Pradyumna: That is the end of the purport.
Prabhupāda: That's all. So stick to this leader. Don't deviate. That's all.
Devotee: All glories to Śrīla Prabhupāda. (end)
So there are different varieties of planets. That is God's creation. This is also God's creation, that is also God's creation, but I cannot go there. Land is God's creation, water is God's creation, but you cannot live in the water, and the fish cannot live on the land. Similarly, although there are millions and trillions of planets within this universe, you have to live in that particular planet where you are destined to live. That is condition. You cannot go to the sun planet or moon planet. Otherwise what is the meaning of conditioned life? Conditioned life means you are given opportunity to live on this planet, or the other living entities, they have been given opportunity to live in the sun planet. So they cannot come and live here, and we cannot go there and live there. This is called conditioned life. You must live under condition. You are not free. Otherwise they are attempting so much to go to the moon planet. But we are doubtful whether they are actually going. But no benefit has been derived by this excur... Simply you have spoiled your energy, time and money.
This is the inquisitiveness, knowledge. Tāpa-traya. Tāpa-traya means three kinds of miserable condition: adhyātmika, adhibhautika, adhidaivika. We are suffering always. Ātmā means body and mind—even soul. But soul is aloof from body and mind, but he is absorbed. On account of material contamination, the soul feels the pains and pleasure of mind and body on account of contact. So this is called adhyātmika. And adhibhautika, pains given by other living entities. Even if you sit down silently, without any, mean, cares, still, the mosquito will come and bite you. Or the bugs will come and bite you at night. And there are other, dogs and cats and envious persons, serpents. So many enemies. Even if you want to remain peaceful, the other living entities will not allow you to remain peaceful. This is material existence. You have got this body. From the body you'll have to suffer. At least, you have to suffer śītoṣṇa. When it is scorching heat, you'll have to suffer. Why you are running on this fan? Because you are feeling heat, extraordinary. Therefore you invented this fan. Or mosquito curtain. Just struggle. This is called adhibhautika.
So there cannot be anyone without suffering. That is not possible. There are three kinds of suffering: adhyātmika, adhibhautika, adhidaivika. Adhyātmika means pertaining to the body and mind. "I have got headache today. I have got some pain here in the back. My mind is not very much settled up today. I cannot talk with you." These kind of sufferings are called adhyātmika, pertaining to the body and the mind. And there are sufferings adhibhautika. Just like at night, unnecessarily, the dogs bark, and we cannot sleep. This is called adhibhautika, suffering imposed by other living entities—the mosquitos, the bugs. Then enemies. Suffering. Just like some of our enemies, they are hindering sanctioning this temple. So this is called adhibhautika. And besides that, big, big sufferings there are. Then adhidaivika, accident, which you have no control over. No sufferings you have control. That is not possible.
A devotee, sthāvara-jaṅgama... Sthāvara means which cannot move. Just like tree, it cannot move, or a mountain, it does not move. And jaṅgama means moving. Just like we are moving, animals are moving, and other, so many other, living entities, they are moving. So a advanced devotee, he sees both of them, the standing, immovable and movable, but he does not see immovable or movable; he sees Kṛṣṇa. There is another statement in the Brahma-saṁhitā, premāñjana-cchurita-bhakti-vilocanena santaḥ sadaiva hṛdayeṣu vilokayanti (Bs. 5.38). Sadaiva means always. Sadā eva, sadaiva. Who sees? Now, one who is devotee, one who is fully absorbed in love of Godhead, premāñjana-cchurita, or whose eyes are anointed with love of Godhead. Not this eye. Premāñjana-cchurita-bhakti-vilo... That bhakti required. Premāñjana-cchurita-bhakti-vilocanena (Bs. 5.38). Santaḥ, saintly person, sadaiva hṛdayeṣu vilokayanti. That is the position of santaḥ, always seeing Kṛṣṇa. He does not see anything else except Kṛṣṇa everywhere, but in everything, everywhere, the energy of Kṛṣṇa.
So, so far in this material conception of life there are two puruṣas, one, the living entity, and the other is the Supersoul. So above this... Living entity is the adhama-puruṣa, and the Supersoul is the madhyama-puruṣa, and Kṛṣṇa, or the Supreme Personality of Godhead, is uttama-puruṣa, the Supreme. And in this material world the adhama-puruṣa is called also nitya-baddha. Similarly, there are other living entities in the spiritual world, they are called nitya-mukta or nitya-siddha. They never come in this material world. Just like Rūpa Gosvāmī. In his Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu, he describes some comparison, that the sea fishes, they never come to the river. The river fishes sometimes go to the sea, but the sea fishes, they never come to the river. Similarly, there are living entities in the spiritual world. They never come in this material world. Their number is greater, at least three times greater than all the living entities within this material world. And the Supersoul, He is also living entity, but superior, Supersoul. Soul and Supersoul.
So this planet—we are talking of this planet—this planet is called Bhāratavarṣa. And Mahārāja Ṛṣabhadeva was the emperor of this planet. Before retirement, He instructed his children, His one hundred sons, "My dear boys, this human form of life," na ayaṁ deha, "this body..." Nāyaṁ deho deha-bhājāṁ nṛloke. Deha-bhājām means there are other living entities also. There are 8,400,000 different forms of living entities. Out of them, only 400,000 forms of bodies are human beings. Out of the 400,000 species of human beings, mostly they are uncivilized. And out of them, a very few men are civilized. And out of many civilized persons, a very few know what is Vedic knowledge. And out of many persons who know Vedic knowledge, they do not act according to the Vedic instructions. And out of many such persons, there are very few persons who act accordingly to the Vedic instruction.
So how it should be utilized? He says, kaṣṭān kāmān arhate, arhate viḍ-bhujāṁ ye. Kaṣṭān. Kaṣṭān means very, very hard labor, kaṣṭān. And kāmān means necessities of life we require. The necessities of this body, that is required. We want to eat something, we must have a shelter to live, Bhāgavata.-bhaya, and we must defend from the enemies or from the attack of other living beings. Kaṣṭān kāmān. So we require all these things, but not very hard labor, working day and night. That is for the lower animal. Kaṣṭān kāmān na arhate viḍ bhujāṁ ye. As the animal is working very hard day and night for meeting their necessities of life, the human form of life is not meant for that purpose. This is the basic principle of instruction. Ayaṁ deha. This deha, this body, is meant for higher purposes, not for simply meeting the necessities of life. This is the basic principle of instruction. They have no other way. The cats and dogs and hogs, they are working day and night where to find out some stool and eat it, and as soon as the body is filled, then sense gratification, sex life This is going on in the lower class of animal life.
Similarly, our present existence, conditional life, is due to this material body. I'll not expand my lecture, how we are suffering from this material body, but several times I have explained that this body is subjected to so many conditions. Just like adhyātmika we have got some bodily pains, mental inequilibrium and so many things. That is called adhyātmika, pertaining to the body and the mind, sufferings. Similarly, there are sufferings imposed by other living entities. Similarly, there are sufferings imposed by natural phenomena. So because we have got this body, we are subjected to threefold miseries of life. And we are hankering after eternal life, blissful life, life of knowledge. If you want to attain that perfectional stage of life, which is called brahma-saukhyam—Brahman, Brahman means the greatest—then you have to follow some regulative principles of austerity so that your existence will be purified and, Ṛṣabhadeva says, then you'll be eligible to enjoy eternal life. Brahma-saukhyam anantam (SB 5.5.1). Anantam means unlimited. We are hankering after happiness, but due to our material condition, the happiness is not eternal, neither blissful. But there is life where happiness is eternal, never disturbed. Unlimited. There is life of full knowledge. There is life of full bliss. And there is life of eternal.
Therefore intelligent devotee they do not ask like the unintelligent devotee go to the church and pray to God, "Give us our daily bread." He's God's servant, and He will not get your bread? You have to ask from God? No. God is giving bread to the eight million other living entities. Birds, beast, tigers, elephants, they are not going to the church for asking bread. But they are getting it. So if God is supplying everyone's food, why He shall not supply you? He is supplying you. So we should not go to God for begging some material benefit. That is not actual devotion. We shall go to God for begging how one can be engaged in His service. That should be the begging: "Hare Kṛṣṇa," means... Hare means "O the energy of God and Kṛṣṇa. O Kṛṣṇa, Lord Kṛṣṇa, please engage me in Your service." This is Hare Kṛṣṇa. Hare Kṛṣṇa, Hare Kṛṣṇa, Kṛṣṇa Kṛṣṇa, Hare Hare/ Hare Rāma, Hare Rāma, Rāma Rāma, Hare Hare. It is simply praying, "O my Lord Kṛṣṇa, O Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī, Kṛṣṇa's energy, kindly engage me in Your service." That's all. Finished all business. This is Vaiṣṇava. So Vaiṣṇava has no necessity. He knows that "I have no necessity. My only business is to serve Kṛṣṇa." Therefore he is happy in all conditions.
So brahmacārī is taught that how he should behave in society, what is the aim of life. That is brahmacārī. Mātṛvat para-dāreṣu para-dravyeṣu loṣṭravat. And other's property just like garbage. Nobody goes... But that I have seen nowadays garbage is also tackled(?). I have seen in Hong Kong one woman is finding out something valuable from the garbage. This is Kali-yuga. It is untouchable, but still people are trying to get something from the garbage. So downtrodden, this Kali-yuga. So mātṛvat para-dāreṣu para-dravyeṣu loṣṭravat ātmavat sarva-bhūteṣu. All other living entities think like yourself. That means your pains and pleasure that you feel, you should take others pains and pleasure. Not that you protect yourself from all danger and you cut the throat of the poor animals on the plea that it has no soul. This is not education. This is education, that whether the animal has soul or not soul, we shall consider later on. But when knife is on my throat I cry, and he also cries. Why shall I say that it has no soul and let me kill it? So that means he does not know how to see other living entity like himself. Buddha philosophy is based on this, that whatever you feel pain you should not inflict to others. This is education. Mātṛvat para-dāreṣu para-dravyeṣu loṣṭravat.
All these are condemned things. Vṛttim āsthitaḥ. He became situated in this profession for earning his livelihood. Because he lost sadācāra, he must be coming... You'll find this. As soon as there is no sadācāra, people will be addicted to all these means. Any way get money. Bandy-akṣaiḥ kaitavaiś cauryair garhitāṁ vṛttim āsthitaḥ. Why? Now, bibhrat kuṭumbam. He is thinking that "I have to maintain my family, my children, so any way I must get money." So bibhrat kuṭumbam. Kuṭumbam aśuciḥ, unclean. This is unclean method, aśuci. And yatayām āsa dehinaḥ. And as soon as one takes all this profession, it means his business will be to give trouble to the all living entities. Yatayām āsa dehinaḥ. Dehinaḥ means one who has accepted this material body. So he will not hesitate to kill anyone because he is practiced to give pains and misery to other living entities, and what to speak of killing animals under the plea, "The animal has no soul"? This rascaldom will go on.
Para-dravyeṣu loṣṭravat. And other's property? Just like garbage. Nobody goes. But I have seen. Nowadays garbage is also tackled. I have seen in Hong Kong, one woman is finding out something valuable from the garbage. This is Kali-yuga. It is untouchable, but still, people are trying to get something from the garbage, so downtrodden, this Kali-yuga. So mātṛvat para-dāreṣu para-dravyeṣu loṣṭravat, ātmavat sarva-bhūteṣu: "All other living entities think like yourself." That means your pains and pleasure, as you feel, you should take up others' pains and pleasure, not that you protect yourself from all danger and you cut the throat of the poor animals on the plea that it has no soul. This is not education. This is education, that whether the animal has soul or not soul we shall consider later on. But when knife is on my throat I cry, and he also cries. Why shall I say that "It has no soul, and let me kill it"? So that means he does not know how to see other living entities like himself. Buddha philosophy is based on this, that "Whatever you feel, pain, you should not inflict to others." This is education. Mātṛvat para-dāreṣu para-dravyeṣu loṣṭravat ātmavat. So this is moral education, and in the śāstra it is also said that there are seven mothers.
So we should be very careful. This is... This human form of life is a chance to make your choice, whether you are to go on being punished like this in different forms of life or whether you shall go back to home, back to Godhead. Here is the chance. Manuṣyānāṁ sahasreṣu kaścid yatati siddhaye (BG 7.3). Out of many millions and millions of persons, one is intelligent enough, he can inquire that "Why I am suffering?" Everyone is suffering. That's a fact. Only the rascals, they think, "We're enjoying." Everyone is suffering. This is a place for suffering. Duḥkhālayam aśāśvatam (BG 8.15), Kṛṣṇa says, who has created this place. It is a place of suffering. Every moment you are suffering due to this body, due to the mind, due to the suffering imposed by other living entities. The mosquito will bite, the flies will disturb you, the bugs are there, and then the dogs will bark unnecessarily. You are passing, and his business is barking. Ha? "Bow! Bow! Bow!" (laughter) So this is also suffering. You don't like the next door the dog is barking.
Therefore Sanātana Gosvāmī, he was minister of the then Muhammadan government. So he presented himself to Caitanya Mahāprabhu that: ke āmi, kene āmāya jāre tāpa-traya. This is the intelligence, that "I am undergoing constantly some sort of distresses due to this body, due to this mind, due to distresses inflicted by other living entities, and due to natural disturbances. A combination of distresses. But I don't want all these distresses." Everyone is aware. He doesn't want distresses, but it is enforced. This should be the question, to... When one accepts the spiritual master... Caitanya Mahāprabhu, Sanātana Gosvāmī, he is by his practical example, he said that one should go and inquire from the spiritual master that "Why I am in this condition of life, always suffering?" Tri-tāpa yātanā. But we have become so dull, like the animals. The animals, they cannot question. They are suffering. Everyone knows animal life is full of suffering, but they cannot realize. But a human being can realize. And when the question comes, when he becomes intelligent enough that "Why I am suffering?" then his human life begins. Otherwise, he is animal.
According to Vedic knowledge, brāhmaṇa, old men, child, woman, and cow—they have no fault. They are free. They are not within this jurisdiction of law. So therefore cow-killing, brāhmaṇa-killing, woman-killing, and elderly-person-killing, they are accepted as the great sinful activities. So gurv-agny-atithi-vṛddhānāṁ śūśrūṣur anahaṅkṛtaḥ. Anahaṅkṛtaḥ, not with any pride or puffedness, anahaṅkṛtaḥ, very humbly. Sarva-bhūta-suhṛtam. This is the most exalted qualification, to become well-wisher of all living entities, not that we open hospitals for the human being and we send the cows to the slaughterhouse or poor animals should be slaughtered. That is not suhṛt sarva-bhūtānām. That is partiality and it has no meaning. If you become envious to other living entities and if you become friend of particular living entity, that is not good qualification. Suhṛdaḥ sarva-bhūtānāṁ. Sarva-bhūtaḥ-suhṛt sādhu. He is sādhu. Sādhavaḥ sādhu-bhūṣaṇāḥ. These are the qualification of a sādhu. Suhṛdaḥ sarva-bhūtānām. Sādhavaḥ sādhu-bhūṣaṇāḥ. Everything is described in the Vedic literature, all description.
Great learned scholars, realized soul, liberated soul, they have given us Vedic literature. There are different types of explanation, just like main is the Manu-saṁhitā. In the Manu-saṁhitā it is said that if a man kills, then he should be also killed. No excuse. From Manu-saṁhitā the hanging or killing of a murderer, that is enjoined. That is there. Maharṣibhiḥ. A killer of other animals or other living entities, he must be killed. This is Manu-saṁhitā. This is showing the mercy. When a king orders a murderer to be hanged, that is king's mercy. It is said in the Manu-saṁhitā. He is not to be excused. Life for life. Now imagine how many lives we are killing every day. We have now become very civilized. We are maintaining slaughterhouses, thousands and thousands, up-to-date machine, how to kill the animals. This is our advancement of civilization, and they are all sinful activities, pāpāni. And not only killing. There are so many institution how to cheat, how to take your money by tricks, how to kidnap others' wife, how..., so many things, simply sinful activities. Simply. Of course, there are different grades of sinful activities.
" So there is arrangement. All those thousands of people assembled in the market, they have got their sleeping place. They have got their eating place. So by arrangement. There is arrangement. Similarly, there may be millions and millions of living entities; God has arrangement. If you calculate the human population and other living entities, the human population, especially the civilized human beings, are nothing in comparison to other living entities. There are millions and billions of living entities even in this store. If you find out a small hole, you will find millions of ants coming. They are also living entities. And who is arranging for their food? You are not very much busy to... Although it is your duty. That is also Bhāgavata communism. Bhāgavata communism says that even if you have got a lizard in your room, you must give him something to eat. If you have got a serpent in your room, you must give it something to eat. Nobody in your house should starve. You see? This is Bhāgavata communism, not that "Only my brother and sister will not starve, and other animals should be killed." This is not communism. Here is communism. This is Kṛṣṇa consciousness communism, that a Kṛṣṇa conscious person is thinking even for the ant, even for the lizard, even for the serpent. That is real communism.
Acyutānanda: Another question. (break—repeating question) This is a world of śakti or energy. There is a worldwide rise in prices of energy resources, like oil, coal, gas, and electricity. This means that there is a depletion of these energy resources. Naturally, there will be worldwide destruction of mankind and other living beings and materials in the near future. What are your views?
Prabhupāda: So yes, these material things, they are energies. That is described in the Bhagavad-gītā. Bhūmir āpo 'nalo vāyuḥ khaṁ mano buddhir eva ca, bhinnā me prakṛtir aṣṭadhā (BG 7.4). The petrol is also another form of Kṛṣṇa's energy. Parasya śaktir vividhaiva śrūyate (Cc. Madhya 13.65, purport). Any energy. There are many millions of energies. Na tasya kāryaṁ kāraṇaṁ ca vidyate. Kṛṣṇa has nothing to do because everything is being done by His energy. Although He is the ultimate source of everything, but He is doing everything by His energy. Parasya śaktir vividhaiva śrūyate svabhāvikī jñāna-bala-kriyā ca. And it appears that it is being automatically done. Not. It is not automatically done. It is done by Kṛṣṇa's energy. So this material energy is also Kṛṣṇa's energy. It is not a different energy. Kṛṣṇa says, bhūmir āpo 'nalo vāyuḥ. Now, this petrol is liquid thing, so āpa. It is a kind of liquid thing, āpa, so it is Kṛṣṇa's energies. So our Vaiṣṇava philosophy is that Kṛṣṇa's energies should be utilized for Kṛṣṇa. This is Kṛṣṇa consciousness. So everything can be utilized for service of Kṛṣṇa. So when you use this petrol for Kṛṣṇa's, spreading Kṛṣṇa consciousness, if we can use one thousand or one hundred thousand motor cars using petrol for spreading Kṛṣṇa consciousness, that is the proper utilization of petrol. (applause)
Harikeśa: ...tam, Seventh Canto, Sixth Chapter, verse number two. "In this human form of life there is chance to go back to home, back to Godhead. Therefore every living entity, especially in this human form of life must be engaged in devotional service. This devotional service is natural because Lord Viṣṇu, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the master of the soul, the Supersoul, is the most beloved being of all other living beings."
Prabhupāda: When the Deity door is open?
Akṣayānanda: We are waiting, Śrīla Prabhupāda.
Prabhupāda: Why? Why you... No waiting.
Akṣayānanda: It's scheduled to open right now.
Prabhupāda: So why waiting?
Akṣayānanda: We're going to wait for your convenience.
Akṣayānanda: For your convenience.
Prabhupāda: No, no. My convenience is not there. We can see later on.
Pradyumna: "Translation: The human form of life affords one a chance to return home, back to Godhead. Therefore every living entity, especially in the human form of life, must engage in devotional service to the lotus feet of Lord Viṣṇu. This devotional service is natural because Lord Viṣṇu, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, is the most beloved, the master of the soul, and the well-wisher of all other living beings."
- yathā hi puruṣasyeha
- viṣṇoḥ pādopasarpaṇam
- yadā eṣa sarva-bhūtānāṁ
- priya ātmeśvaraḥ suhṛt
- (SB 7.6.2)
Jayādvaita: Could all the ladies please take their children outside, outside of earshot.
Prabhupāda: Bhāgavata-dharma, yesterday we discussed, dharmān bhāgavatān iha. Kaumāra ācaret prājño dharmān bhāgavatān iha (SB 7.6.1). From the beginning of life, from childhood, they should be given lessons on bhāgavata-dharma. The bhāgavata-dharma is very clearly indicated in the Bhagavad-gītā. Therefore Bhagavad-gītā should be read very carefully, attentively, from the beginning of life, childhood. Not that Bhagavad-gītā should be read in old age. No. From the very beginning of life. And whole Bhagavad-gītā is bhāgavata-dharma. And when one is well conversant with the Bhagavad-gītā or the lessons of Bhagavad-gītā, then the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam begins.
So servant we are, but we are thinking, "I am master." This is māyā. This is māyā. Actually I am servant. I am serving this, that, that—so many. Even President Johnson, he is also servant of the nation. So nobody is master. Similarly, if you take president, if you go higher, if you go up to Brahmā, if you go still more, more—everyone is servant. Therefore in the Caitanya-caritāmṛta it is very nicely said that ekale īśvara kṛṣṇa āra saba bhṛtya: (CC Adi 5.142) "The only one master is Kṛṣṇa, and everyone is servant." The only one master is the Supreme Personality of Godhead, and all other living entities, they are all servant. He may be a Brahmā, he may be a president, he may be a minister, or he may be a cat, or he may be a dog, or whatever he may be, everyone is servant. And to understand this philosophy is Kṛṣṇa consciousness. It is not very difficult. It is not very difficult. If we understand our position, that māyā's spell is so nice that everyone is thinking, "I am master," "I am president," "I am minister," "I am teacher," "I am philosopher," "I am scientist," "I am this," "I am that," at last, "I am God." (laughter) When everything fails, when everything fails, he thinks, "Oh, I am God," although he is still a dog. You see? This is called māyā. And to get out of māyā means to understand one's position, that "I am eternal servant." That's all. This is Kṛṣṇa consciousness.
Oh, yes, certainly. Just like a particular type of body... Just like a dog and man, there is difference of condition. A dog's living is more conditional than a man's living. Animal and human being, there is difference of condition. Similarly, there is difference of condition between human being and demigods. There are different other living entities in the higher planets, their condition of life, or standard of life, is different. Just like your American, your standard of life, in other poor countries, their standard of life is different. So the same principle: according to the body you have got, the standard of so-called happiness and distress and everything is different. So this age, Kali-yuga, as it will increase, the distress of the people will increase. I shall, next day, I shall describe how the distress of the Kali-yuga will increase. You just remind me next meeting. Yes?
Tāpa-traya means three kinds of miseries: miseries inflicted by other persons or other living entities... That is, we have practical experience. We create so many friends also, so many enemies also. We do not go into the jungle because we know there are jungle animals who may attack us. So... Even at home there are bugs, there are mosquitoes; they also give us trouble. So there is a kind of trouble or misery inflicted by other living entities. That is called adhibhautika. Three kinds of miseries. Miseries offered by other living entities. We also offer, I mean to say, miseries to the other animals. Just like we have created our slaughterhouse. We send so many cows and animals for being slaughtered. Similarly, we are also attacked by other animals. So this is the law of nature. I am killing you, you are killing me. This is called adhibhautika. This is one class of misery. The other class of misery is due to this body and mind. Sometimes the body is sick; we don't feel very nice. Sometimes the mind is disturbed. That is also..., it may be due to other friend or other relative; so mind is not in order. This is called adhyātmika. So adhibhautika, adhyātmika. And other disturbance created by adhidaivaika. Daiva means on which we have no control. Just like earthquake, flood, or similar nature's disturbance on which we have no control.
So you'll find they have got all equipment for sense gratification. Even the smallest, full-stop-like insect. So we were discussing about the mosquito. The mosquito, as soon as he sits down, any part of your body, immediately he injects his, that nozzle, and within a second sucks the blood. Immediately. And if you allow two seconds, then his belly is filled up with blood. Just see the facility. So this life, this mosquito life is that there was strong desire to drink blood, so nature has given the facility, all right. But the body is very, very small. The mosquito, if the body would have been very large, then it will kill every man. So he has been offered a very small, tiny body so that... His desire is to suck blood, but it cannot suck blood very much. The mosquito, bugs, there are so many. This is called adhibhautika. Adhibhautika means we are troubled by other living entities. These bugs, this mosquito, and many others. Just like you are passing on the road, a dog comes, barks and... So this is called adhibhautika; adhyātmika, pertaining to the body, mind and other living entities; and adhidaivika, offered by nature. There is always trouble.
So he's explaining in different ways. Kuṭumba-poṣāya viyan nijāyur na budhyate 'rthaṁ vihataṁ pramattaḥ. So without fulfillment of our life's mission, generally we become involved in maintaining the family, and all of a sudden death appears, then finished all our attempts. According to karma, we have to accept another body, maybe human body or not human body. In this way we become entrapped, and sarvatra tāpa-traya-duḥkhitātmā. Tāpa-traya, traya means three and tāpa means tribulation, suffering. So tāpa-traya, three kinds of tribulations: adhyātmika, adhibhautika, adhidaivika. Pertaining to the body, we feel so many troubles due to the body, due to the mind. Then adhibhautika, troubles offered by other living entities, and adhidaivika, troubles offered by nature or the demigods. In this way, sarvatra. It is not that in India there is tāpa-traya and in America there is no tāpa-traya. No, in America there is tāpa-traya. "All right, I shall go to the heavenly planets." No, there is also tāpa-traya. Anywhere you go within this material world, as soon as you get this material body, then tāpa-traya will be there.
So the anger is there, Kṛṣṇa, but His anger is worshiped. And our anger is different. That is the distinction between spirit and matter. So here surādayaḥ sarve brahma-rudra-puraḥ sarāḥ na upaitum aśakan manyu. There is anger. Kṛṣṇa, to kill Hiraṇyakaśipu, He became so angry that even big, big stalwart demigods, brahmādaya... Because demigods... The list of demigods begins from Lord Brahmā. He is the original father of the demigods and all other living entities. He's therefore known as prajā-pati or called pitā-maha, grandfather, prajā-pati. He is the origin of everything. The Darwin's theory, a rascal theory, that there was no life, but according to Vedic knowledge there were the best life, Brahmā. From there begins life, and gradually they become degraded, material contamination. Not that there was no life. From low type of living condition one is elevated higher and higher. That is a wrong theory.
They are putting the population theory, but I don't believe in it. The population theory, that "Population is increasing; therefore it should be stopped by contraceptive method," Malthus's theory, in economics, they are following that. But actually there is no such problem, because if we understand from Vedic literature, from Upaniṣad, it is said, nityo nityānāṁ cetanaś cetanānām eko bahūnāṁ vidadhāti kāmān: (Kaṭha Upaniṣad 2.2.13) "That Supreme Personality of Godhead is one, and the living creatures are many, many, without any number." Asaṅkhya: you cannot count how many living entities are there. So both of them are eternal, God and the living entity, nityo nityanānām. Cetanaś cetanānām. Cetana means living. So He is also a living entity, God, and we are also living entities. But what is the difference? That eka, eka, that one singular number living entity, or Kṛṣṇa, or God, eko bahūnāṁ vidadhāti kāmān, He is supplying all the necessities of other living entities. So how there can be any population problem if God is supplying everything?
So we do not know, neither we care to know. We simply ask, "Oh, give me my bread or grains. Then my business is finished." No. That is the difference. But this man who is going to church or temple to ask for food is better than that man who has no connection with God, so much better that he has some relationship with God: "My dear father, You give me." At least, he accepts—"The father sends the bread." That is very good. But when the son will be intelligent, he will know, "The father sends the bread even without my prayer. Therefore I must offer my gratitude." That is intelligence. That is pure devotion. (break) Father is not only my father; He is father of all living entities. So He is supplying other living entities. They cannot offer any gratitude. The beast, the birds, they cannot offer any gratitude. But I am human being, I have got developed consciousness. I must feel grateful for God's mercy and offer my gratitude. That is my duty. (end)
So this is going on. As soon as there is creation... Brahmā was created and he was given the Vedic knowledge. Tene brahma hṛdā ādi-kavaye. We get it. Brahmā was born. He was to establish the kingdom of God or, as Brahmā was born, the other living entities also were in the body of Garbhodakaśayī Viṣṇu. They were also to take birth later on. And before their birth, Brahmā was instructed Vedic knowledge. Vedic knowledge means these bewildered living entities struggling for existence may get Vedic knowledge so that they can revive their old, original Kṛṣṇa consciousness. This is the purpose of Vedic knowledge. In the Bhagavad-gītā it is said, vedaiś ca sarvair aham eva vedyam (BG 15.15). The Vedic... What is Vedic knowledge? Vedic knowledge means to revive our Kṛṣṇa consciousness. That is Vedic knowledge. If you revive your Kṛṣṇa consciousness, that is the perfection of Vedic knowledge. But if you read only Vedas and perform formalities, ritualistic ceremonies, but you do not awaken your Kṛṣṇa consciousness, that is useless waste of time.
At least, one should know what are the miseries. The miseries are three kinds of miseries. It is not the question of one religion or another religion. The miserable condition of life is for everyone, either he is Hindu or he is Muslim or Christian or Jew. It doesn't matter. Anyone who has accepted this material body has to undergo the miserable condition of material existence. That is a fact. And what are the miserable condition? There are three types: adhyātmika, adhibhautika, adhidaivika. Adhyātmika means pertaining to the body, mind. Everyone is experienced that "I'm not feeling today well due to some sickness of my body or some mental disturbance." This is called adhyātmika. And there are other miseries inflicted by other living entities, my enemies, some animal, some mosquito or some bug. There are so many living entities, they are also try to give me some trouble. This is called adhibhautika. And there is another type of misery, which is called adhidaivika. That is natural disturbance—severe cold, severe heat, some famine, some earthquake, some disaster, some hurricanes.
Yes. Vedas means from the beginning of creation. Brahma, the first living creature, he was impregnated with Vedic knowledge by Kṛṣṇa. And that is stated in the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam: tene brahma hṛdā ādi-kavaye. Ādi kavi means the first living creature, Brahma. In his heart, hṛdā... Hṛdā means heart. Tene, impregnated. Brahma, brahma means Vedic knowledge. So he was the first living creature. So one may inquire that how he was educated in Vedic knowledge, because there was no other living being. So therefore it is stated, tene brahma hṛdā. Hṛdā means from within. There is education from within and without. From within the Supersoul gives you education. Kṛṣṇa gives you education. Not to everyone. Who is devotee, to him, the Lord speaks from within. And from without, the spiritual master. So both ways we are getting opportunity for learning Vedic knowledge, from without, from within. And if still we don't take advantage of it, then it is our misfortune. The spiritual master is considered to be the outward expression of the Supersoul. God is so kind that He is within, giving you education, provided you are prepared to hear. And from without, He sends His representative. So both ways we are benefited. We have to take advantage of this opportunity. From without, we have got these books, the spiritual master, the saintly persons, so many. Friends, books. And from within, Kṛṣṇa, the Supersoul.
Nectar of Devotion Lectures
He's not imitating, or he's speaking falsely. He feels like that. A mahā-bhāgavata feels like that, that "I am the lowest." Just like Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura has sung, āmāra jīvana sada pāpe rata nāhika puṇyera leśa (?). He says like that, that "My life is always engaged in sinful activities. I've not a trace of pious activity." Āmāra jīvana sada ape rata nāhika puṇyera leśa. "I have given so much distress to all other living entities." He's representing common man. But he's feeling like that. It is not that artificially speaking. He's feeling like that. Just like Rādhārāṇī. She thinks always Herself as the lowest of the devotees. She thinks always. She sees always that the gopīs, other gopīs, they are better qualified to serve Kṛṣṇa. And She is not qualified, so much qualified. Therefore in Vṛndāvana, you'll find, the devotees approach Rādhārāṇī. "Jaya Rādhe." Because if Rādhārāṇī advocates for him to Kṛṣṇa, it is very easily accepted. And Rādhārāṇī says... If Rādhārāṇī's pleased, then She represents the devotee's case that "Here is a devotee. He's better than Me. Kindly accept his service, Kṛṣṇa." So Kṛṣṇa cannot deny. So mahā-bhāva. Rādhārāṇī is mahā-bhāva.
That is Bhagavad-bhakta. Caitanya Mahāprabhu says, niskin..., niskin..., bhagavad, niṣkiñcanasya bhagavad bhajanon mukhasya. Bhagavad-bhajanomukha means niṣkiñcana, no material obligation, no material duty. Nāyam ṛṇī na kiṅkara rājan sarvātmanā ye śaraṇaṁ śaraṇyaṁ gato mukundam. Anyone who has completely taken shelter of the lotus feet of Kṛṣṇa, śaraṇaṁ śaraṇyaṁ gato mukundaṁ parihṛtya kartam, giving up all other duties, tyaktvā sva-dharmaṁ caraṇāmbujaṁ harer (SB 1.5.17), if one takes shelter of Kṛṣṇa's lotus feet, giving up all other duties... There are so many duties. You have got duty towards your family, towards your kinsmen, towards your country, towards the animals, other living entities, your obligation to the demigods, great saintly persons, ṛṣis. We are reading Vedas, but it is given by Vyāsadeva, so we are indebted to him. Similarly, many other śāstras we read. So we are indebted. Devarṣi, ṛṣi, devatā, the demigods. We are taking sunshine. We are obliged to sun-god. We are taking moonshine.
Prabhupāda: This is the statement exactly. Everyone has to do his duty. Otherwise, simply by name, I have become a great devotee, but if I do not do what is enjoined in the śāstras or the spiritual master, then that is simply false, puffed-up position. Go on.
Mādhavānanda: "They are out of touch with the Supreme Personality of Godhead because they are not Kṛṣṇa conscious. Therefore the Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement is intended to set the whole of human society in proper condition so that everyone will be happy and take profit from developing Kṛṣṇa consciousness. Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa instructed Uddhava that by following the injunctions of the social and spiritual orders of human society, one can satisfy the Supreme Personality of Godhead, and as a result of such satisfaction, the whole society gets all the necessities of life amply and without difficulty. This is because, after all, the Supreme Personality of Godhead maintains all other living entities. If the whole world performs its respective duties and remains in Kṛṣṇa consciousness, there is no doubt that all of its members will live very peacefully and happily. Without wanting the necessities of life, the whole world will be turned into Vaikuṇṭha, a spiritual abode. Even without being transferred to the kingdom of God, by following the injunctions of the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam and prosecuting the duties of Kṛṣṇa consciousness. all human society will be happy in all respects."
Prabhupāda: Now what is the argument against this? (aside:) Why don't you open this? All, open all fans.
Sri Caitanya-caritamrta Lectures
We are existing at the present moment also, and in future also we shall continue to exist." And how we shall exist? Individually. Otherwise Kṛṣṇa would have said that in future, when we become liberated, then we shall become one. No. He says, "Even in future also, we shall continue to exist like this. You are individual. You are Arjuna. I am Kṛṣṇa. And all other living entities..." That is real understanding. Every one of us living entities, we are all individual persons, and Kṛṣṇa is also individual person. This is knowledge. Nityo nityānāṁ cetanaś cetanānām eko yo bahūnāṁ vidadhāti kāmān (Kaṭha Upaniṣad 2.2.13). Kṛṣṇa, or God, He's also nitya, eternal. We are also nitya, eternal. Na hanyate hanyamāne śarīre (BG 2.20). We do not die. That is the preliminary knowledge of spiritual understanding, that "I am not this body, I am spirit soul, ahaṁ brahmāsmi, but I am individual." Nityo nityānām. Kṛṣṇa is individual person; I am also individual person. When Kṛṣṇa says that sarva-dharmān parityajya mām ekaṁ śaraṇaṁ vraja (BG 18.66), it does not mean that I become one with Kṛṣṇa or merge into the existence of Kṛṣṇa. I keep my individuality, Kṛṣṇa keeps His individuality, but I agree to abide by His order. Therefore Kṛṣṇa says in the Bhagavad-gītā to Arjuna that "I have spoken to you everything. Now what is your decision?" Individual. It is not that Kṛṣṇa is forcing Arjuna. Yathecchasi tathā kuru: (BG 18.63) "Now whatever you like, can do." That is individuality.
So tāpa-traya means three kinds of miserable condition: ādhyātmika, ādhibhautika, ādhidaivika. Ādhyātmika means pertaining to the body and mind. Sometimes we are feeling some ailments in the body-mind is not in good order. This is called ādhyātmika. And ādhibhautika. Ādhibhautika means miseries inflicted by other living entities. Just like there are mosquitos, there are flies, there are birds, there are other animals, or other enemies in the human society: my friend has become enemy, so he's trying to give me some displeasure. So this kind of This is called ādhibhautika. Ādhyātmika. Even nobody gives me any distress, my body will give me distress. If I cannot sit comfortably, if there is some pinching, I am feeling pain. So these things are going on, ādhyātmika, ādhibhautika, ādhidaivika. And other miseries inflicted by providence. Just like there is no rain, excessive heat, excessive cold, famine, pestilence, earthquake. We have no control over. These are ādhidaivika. So we are suffering.
So Caitanya Mahāprabhu is being asked, ke āmi kene āmāya jāre tāpa-traya. Tāpa-traya means threefold miseries. What are these threefold miseries? They are miseries pertaining to this body and mind; miseries pertaining to the, I mean to say, disturbance of material nature; and miseries pertaining to the other living entities. We are always under threefold miseries. We may accept or not accept; that is our position. I am in miserable condition due to others' arrangement—my enemies, other animals or other enemies. And I am in miserable condition due to material disturbances, nature's disturbances. And I am always under miseries due to my bodily and mental conditions. These called, these are called threefold miseries. So out of these three... We are always under three kinds of miseries, but sometimes one is slackened, other is greater, in this way, but we are always under miserable condition. When a sane man comes to this understanding, he is eligible for spiritual evolution. And one is dull, who cannot understand what are these miseries, then he has no need of approaching a spiritual master or inquiring about transcendental subject. Just like a man who is not, I mean to say, aware of his disease, he does not go to a physician. He thinks, "I'm all right." Just like the drunkards in the Bowery Street. They think that "We...," they're all right. There, there is nothing miserable condition for them. But what do they know about miserable...? They are so much accustomed to this miserable condition that they cannot understand what is meaning of his miserable condition.
So what is the difference between the plural number nityas and singular number? Now, eka. Eka-vacana, singular number leader, God... Eko yo bahūnāṁ vidadhāti kāmān. That is the difference, that we are living entity and Kṛṣṇa, or God, is living entity, but Kṛṣṇa maintains all other living entities; we cannot maintain even ourself. And we find difficulty especially nowadays to maintain even a family. That is the difference. And still, as a rascal, I claim that "I am God. I am God." Nobody can claim unnecessarily that one is God. First of all prove that you can maintain all the living entities. You cannot maintain yourself even. You beg from door to door, and how you become God? Very simple question. Because in the Vedas (it is) said that eko yo bahūnāṁ vidadhāti kāmān: "That one, singular number leader, He maintains all other living entities." That we have got practical experience. He is maintaining within the sand so many crabs. He is maintaining so many ants in the hole of your room. He is maintaining millions of elephants in the African jungle. So out of 8,400,000's of forms of life, mostly 8,300,000 species of life are being maintained by that one maintainer. And some of us so-called civilized, we are trying to maintain ourself. Therefore nityo nityānāṁ cetanaś cetanānām (Kaṭha Upaniṣad 2.2.13). He is also consciousness. He is conscious. He is not acetana. Acetana means there is no consciousness. He is conscious, and we are also conscious.
Another question was... First question was that "What is my duty?" Then next question is, ke āmi: "Actually what I am?" Ke āmi kene āmāya jāre tāpa-traya: "I do not want sufferings, but sufferings are forced upon me, three kinds of suffering: adhyātmika, adhibhautika and adhidaivika." This is knowledge. So adhyātmika means sufferings pertaining to the body and mind, and adhibhautika means sufferings offered by other living entities. Adhibhautika. And adhidaivika, sufferings offered by natural disturbances. There are three kinds of sufferings. Just like the firework is going on, the heavy sound. It is intolerable by somebody. But still, he has to tolerate, that "This firework is going on by other persons." This is called adhibhautika. Similarly, there are so many sufferings which we do not want. Still, they are forced upon us. Therefore he said, kene āmāya jāre tāpa-traya: "These three kinds of miseries are always giving me trouble, and at the same time, I do not know what I am." Everyone is thinking, "I am this, I am that," but he is suffering. These are very plain questions. So these questions should be put before the spiritual master, and he should get proper answer and act accordingly. Then spiritual life will be successful. Unless we are interested in such questions, there is no need of wasting time to accept any guru or spiritual master.
So Sanātana Gosvāmī's first question was, ke āmi, kene āmāya jāre tāpa-traya āpani kaha prabhu kisera hita haya. Tāpa-traya, we have explained several times that there are three kinds of miserable conditions: pertaining to the body; pertaining to the mind; on account of harassment by other living entities and by natural disturbances. There are three kinds of miserable conditions within this material world. But when one takes shelter of spiritual master and seriously engages himself in devotional service, he has no more any miserable condition. The miserable condition means... It is a question of understanding. The beginning of spiritual life is to understand that "I am not this body." That is the beginning. So if I am properly trained up to understand that "I am not this body," then where is my tāpa-traya, miserable condition? Because miserable condition is due to this body. In the Bhagavad-gītā it is said that mātrā-sparśās tu kaunteya śītoṣṇa-sukha-duḥkha-dāḥ (BG 2.14). We feel sometimes cold, sometimes warm. What is the reason? The reason is on account of the body. Mātrā-sparśās. The water is the same, but according to the seasonal changes the water is sometimes very pleasing and sometimes it is not pleasing. So according to the seasonal changes...The water does not change its chemical compound, but these seasonal changes, my body becomes susceptible to the condition. And therefore the same water sometimes gives me pleasure and sometimes gives me distress.
So this is very nicely explained, and reference is given by Lord Caitanya that our whole difficulty, problems, anxiety... A similar verse is in Bhāgavata, another place, sadā samudvigna-dhiyām asad-grahāt (SB 7.5.5). Asad-grahāt. Asat means nonpermanent, which will, we shall not exist. Due to our absorption in that sight, asat, this matter... Just like this body: it will not exist. So giving too much stress on the bodily concept of life, they are sadā samudvigna-dhiyā, they are always full of anxiety. This is the cause. The foolish people, they do not know. Still, they are very much proud of education. Here is the cause, that because we have given too much stress on this false conception of life, therefore we are always full of anxiety. And as soon as I understand that "I am pure spirit soul, part and parcel of Kṛṣṇa, the Supreme Lord. He is giving me all protection, and my duty is to love and serve Him," then I am free. At once I am free. The simple formula. How He'll give me...? He's not poor man. He's, He's... What you are? Your human, human being, they are very few. If you compare with other animals, other living entities, you are most insignificant number. Your number is very little, especially for the civilized. If you search out a hole in your room, you'll find millions of ants coming out. Even in your room you'll find. You'll be over-voted. So who is supplying their necessities? Eko bahūnāṁ vidadhāti kāmān. In the Vedic language we can understand that one singular entity... God is also a living entity. He's not void. He's just like a person, like you and me.
Now, here is a short description of the creation. First, material energy; then the seeds of the living entities are impregnated into that material energy; and then mahat-tattva, from the material energy, the ego, false ego, comes out. First manifestation of this material world is this false ego, mahat-tattva. Trividha ahaṅkāra. Yāhā haite devatendriya-bhūtera pracāra: "And from this ego, all these human beings or demigods or other living entities, they are coming out."
So the demons... Demons means their characteristic: to challenge the existence of God. And therefore this prakṛti, nature, is piercing, the trident. The trident means threefold miseries: miseries pertaining to the body, pertaining to the mind... Just like yesterday night you had some trouble due to the body. So sometimes mind: "Oh, today I am not very good mood. There is something wrong." The body is all right, but the mind is not all right. This is called ādhyātmika. Then adhibhautika. Adhibhautika means miseries offered by other living entities. Just like at night, bedbugs. (laughter) (laughs) So, very nice situation, whole night there is no sleep. Why? Now there is adhibhautika. Adhibhautika. Or some enemy. This is... There are... These are all miseries, but we forget. And adhidaivika. Adhidaivika. Just like heavy snowfall, severe cold, severe heat, earthquake, famine, war. These are adhidaivika, forced by you by superior power. Nobody wants war, but it is forced. These are called adhidaivika miseries. So three kinds. Here it is stated, ādhyātmikādi tapa-traya tāre. So we are under the control of this material nature, and that trident is pierced on my chest. How can I understand? Now this trident I am experiencing every moment. These three kinds of miseries are there. Either this or that or three or two or one—must be there. Must be there. So those who are, I mean to say, enlightened, they can understand that we are miserable. We are in a miserable condition. And those who are not enlightened, in ignorance, they think, "Oh, this is all right. Don't care for it."
Sri Brahma-samhita Lectures
Just like, taror mūla-niṣecanena, if you supply water on the root of the tree, the water is immediately transferred to the branches, to the leaves, to the flowers, to the fruits—everywhere. Everyone knows it. It is scientific. But if you supply water to one leaf, or thousand leaves, it does not mean that other leaves are also getting the benefit. So, at the present moment, people are captivated for human welfare activities. Oh, what human welfare activities they will do? It is not in your power. You can do something, but very limited. There are living entities, they are not only human beings. There are 8,400,000's of living entities, and the human living entities they are only minute portion. They are only 400,000's these, only. Other living entities, they are eight million. That is not very difficult to understand. If you take a census of the living entities in the city of San Francisco, then the census of the human being residing in this city, they will be very, a small number in comparison to the birds, bests, aquatics, ants, and so many other living entities, so many other living entities. So, suppose a portion of human living entity you serve, then what is the value of service? What is the value of that service?
Other than human being, they're many. If you take a census of the living entities in different categories, how many human beings are there in this city, how many sparrows are there, how many pigeons are there, how many dogs are there, how many trees are there, how many insects are there—they're all living entities—the number of other-than—human-being will be far, far greater. The votes will be smaller in number. If the municipality, city, or the government said, "Everyone can vote, all living entities," then your vote will be lost, because you are very small in number. Other living entities, they are very great. Even from the holes of your room, many thousands of ants will come. They are also living entities. Why don't you, why do you say that they are not living entities? They are living en... They are also eating; you are also eating. They're also sleeping; you are also sleeping. They're also mating; you are also mating. They're also defending. The small ants, they are defending. They enter into the hole of your room. You do not know where the ants live, but they defend. You cannot capture them.
This body is temporary. It is not eternal. This body is full of ignorance. There is practically no knowledge. We do not know, after closing our eyes, we do not know what is happening before our eyes. So our knowledge is always imperfect. And this life is also miserable. It is not at all blissful. Every step, there are three kinds of miserable condition: ādhyātmika, adhibautika, adhidaivika. Ādhyātmika means miseries pertaining to the body and the mind. Adhibautika means miserable condition offered by other living entities. And adhidaivika, natural disturbances. So either of these three, or at least one or two, there must be always present. This is the material condition of life. But as spirit soul, we are sac-cid-ānanda vigraha, part and parcel of sac-cid-ānanda vigraha (Bs. 5.1). Sat means eternal, cit means knowledge and bliss, and ānanda means blissfulness.
So if we can get some information about what I am, what is my position, and what is God and how am I related to God, what is this world, then we're very fortunate. So by the mercy of the spiritual master we can free ourselves from these stringent laws of nature, and these unbreakable bonds. And only in this way. We can't free ourselves superficially or by our own mental invention. We can't sit, just go out and sit and think and free ourselves from this material existence. We must be subject to our own body, bodily discomforts and our own mind, and we must be subject to the actions upon us of other living entities, and we must be subject to the laws of nature, to providence, to pestilence, famine, catastrophe. But if we can accept and hear submissively this teaching of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam and Bhagavad-gītā from the bona fide spiritual master, then we are free immediately. We are in Vaikuṇṭha.
In this way, in this age we are reducing everything. Every one of you can understand very easily. Formerly if somebody is attacked by another man, many persons will come to help him: "Why this man is attacked?" But at the present moment if one man is attacked, the passersby will not care for it because they have lost their sympathy or mercifulness for others. Our neighbor may starve, but we don't care for it. But formerly the sympathy for other living entities, even for an ant... Just like Mahārāja Parīkṣit, while he was touring on his kingdom, he saw that one man was trying to kill a cow. Parīkṣit Mahārāja saw. Immediately he took his sword that "Who are you? You are killing a cow in my kingdom?" Because the king is supposed, or the government is supposed to give everyone protection, not that the government is meant for giving protection to the human being and not to the animals. Because it is Kali-yuga, the government discriminates between two nationals. National means one who has taken birth in the land. That is called national. That is... You know, everyone. So the trees, they are also born in the land, the aquatics also born in the land. The flies, the reptiles, the snakes, the birds, the beasts, human beings—everyone is born in that land.
So, Kṛṣṇa has described everything, in the Bhagavad-gītā, and today, this night, we are trying to explain the mission of Kṛṣṇa, because the same mission is being carried out by us beginning from Brahmā, and today is a special day, the disappearance day of my Guru Mahārāja, Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Goswami. So these ācāryas, they come and they go, that is not like ordinary birth and death. It is called prakaṭa, aprakaṭa, āvirbhāva, tirobhāva. So even ordinarily nobody takes birth and nobody dies, na jāyate na mrīyate vā kadācit, so what to speak of the ācāryas, or Bhagavān. Nobody, a living entity, a living being... God is the supreme living being, and we are subordinate living beings. Both of us, we are living beings, so what is the difference between the two kinds of living beings? The difference is that the one, God, or Kṛṣṇa, He maintains all the other living beings. And we are being maintained. This is the difference. Eko yo bahūnāṁ vidadhāti kāmān. The plural number living entities, we are plural number, in different species of life, but we are maintained by the Supreme Being.
Arrival Addresses and Talks
So this materialistic way of life is full of enviousness, rivalry, competition, then birth, death, old age, disease, threefold miseries-ādhyātmic ādhibhautic, miseries from the mind, from the body, from other living entities, natural disturbance. And we are trying to be happy here. This is called foolishness. It is not possible. Duḥkhālayam aśāśvatam (BG 8.15). The creator of this world says that this place is for suffering, duḥkhālayam. And aśāśvatam. That is also temporary. You may think, "Never mind. I am American. We have got big, big buildings and big, big roads and cars. Never mind it is duḥkhālayam, I shall remain here." No, sir, you cannot remain." Aśāśvatam: you have to leave this place. Even if you make compromise that "Never mind. I am happy now to my estimation," the answer is duḥkhālayam aśāśvatam (BG 8.15). You cannot make permanent settlement. That is not possible. Then what? Bhuñjate... What is that? Puruṣaḥ prakṛti-stho hi bhuṅkte prakṛti-jān guṇān (BG 13.22). We are placed in this material condition and we are obliged to contact the three types of material modes of nature, and according to the infection we suffer.
Hayagrīva: He writes, "It does not enter men's heads that when they fulfill their duties to men they are performing God's commands and are therefore, in all their actions, so far as they concern morality, perpetually in the service of God, and that it is absolutely impossible to serve God directly in any other way, since they can effect and have an influence upon earthly beings alone and not upon God." He said we can only relate to man. We can only serve man and not serve God directly, but only serve god through man, like a humanitarianism.
Prabhupāda: So if he does not serve God, then how he will get direction how to serve the humanity? If he does not know how to serve humanity from God, then what is the value of his service to humanity? (break) ...giving direction that "You serve humanity in this way, by preaching His message, Bhagavad-gītā, to all humanity." Then he becomes very faithful servant of God. So to give service to the humanity means when one is a faithful servant of God, he can service to the humanity or to all other living entities, and if he manufactures his service, that is useless.
Prabhupāda: In man dealing, not with any other living beings, only man.
Hayagrīva: Well man, Mill concludes that conformity to nature has no connection whatever with right and wrong, and that man must amend nature. He must not act according to nature, but must—the word he uses is "amend"...
Prabhupāda: Yes, amend. Not only amend. The nature, that we discussed, almost always, the nature is animal nature. But man must be above the animal nature. That is rationality. Normally a man is called rational animal, so he should advance in rationality. Just for eating, eating is common to the man and to the animal, but man should be advanced, what kind of eating it should be. Not only natural, although natural tendency is... Just like man, some of, not all, some of them want to eat meat. So rationality is that "If I have got better foodstuff, why shall I kill that animal?" This is then rationality. But because he can eat meat, he can kill animal, he should go on killing animal, that is less intelligence. God has given so many nice foodstuff. Take for fruits, there are varieties of fruits Kṛṣṇa has given to the mankind, and we can utilize milk in so many nice preparation. So the fruits are not eaten by the animals. The dogs, cats, they do not eat fruit. It is meant for human being, so similarly there must, discrimination is the better part of valor. Is that not English proverb? So man should have discrimination, and especially for eating. I think George Bernard Shaw wrote one book, You are What You are Eating.
Hayagrīva: there's only one good. That's God.
Prabhupāda: Yes. That's a fact. You are thinking that this man is, so how he is good? He is limited in his power. He may think of his brother, of his nation, of his society but what does he do of other living beings? So how he can be good? A good man, speaking even a man like Gandhi, he is a good man, but when he was approached that stop cow killing, he could not do anything. Although he is advocating non-violence but he, the violence committing in the slaughterhouse, thousands and thousands of animals being killed, violence, what did he do? So how he is good man? Nobody can be good man.
Hayagrīva: He sees two basic types of religions. One he calls sort of a naive optimism that says "Hurrah for the universe. God's in His heaven, all is right with the world." He calls this "the sky-blue optimistic gospel." And another type of religion, which he calls pessimistic in the sense that these religions recognize the inevitable futility of materialistic life, and they offer deliverance, or mukti, from the fourfold miseries of material existence. He says, "Man must die to an unreal life before he can be born into the real life." So he felt that the comple test religions take a pessimistic view of life on this..., life in this world, materialistic life.
Prabhupāda: Yes, unless one is pessimistic of this material world, he is animal. A man knows what are the sufferings of this material world: ādhyātmic, ādhibautic, ādhidaivic. There are so many suffering pertaining to the mind, to the mind, sufferings offered by other living beings, and sufferings imposed forcibly by the laws of nature. So the world is full of suffering, but under the spell of māyā, illusion, we accept this suffering condition as progress. But ultimately whatever we do, the death is there. All the resultant action of our activities, they are taken away and we are put to death. So under these circumstances there is no happiness within this material world. I have fully arranged for my happiness, and any moment, just after arrangement, we are kicked out; we have to accept death.
Hayagrīva: James believes that the existence of many religions in the world is not regrettable but is necessary to the existence of different types of men. He says, "All men have, should have... Should all men have the same religion? Ought they to approve the same fruits and follow the same leadings? Are they so like in their inner needs that exactly the same religious incentives are required? Or are different functions allotted to different types of men, so that some may really be the better for a religion of consolation and reassurance whilst others are better for one of terror and reproof?" And he goes on to conclude that he thinks that difference...
Prabhupāda: This is religion. Therefore I was talking in this morning that accept God as the supreme father and the material nature is the mother and we living entities, in 8,400,000 forms, we are all sons of God. So everyone has got the right to live at the cost of the father. The father is the maintainer—that is natural—and we are maintained. So every living being should be satisfied in the condition given by God. Man should live in his own condition, the animal also should live in his own condition. Why the man should encroach upon the rights, living right of other living entities like the animals? No. Nobody should encroach upon other's right. Everyone is son of God. Let him be maintained by the orders of God. That is ideal life, family life. All living entities are the members of the same family. Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura says that kṛṣṇera saṁsāra kara chāḍi' anācāra: just live in the family of Kṛṣṇa without violating the rules and regulation. Then it is family life. Or without violating the orders of God. Just like in the family the father is the chief man, and the sons can live very happily by being obedient to the father. There is no trouble; father will give all supplies and necessities if we remain obedient to the father, and all the brothers can live peacefully. A very common example. But they will not do that. They will encroach upon others' jurisdiction. That is the cause of disturbance: obeying..., disobeying the orders of God.
Hayagrīva: Concerning individuality, Kierkegaard writes, "God is the origin and wellspring of all individuality. To have individuality is to believe in the individuality of everyone else, for the individuality in not mine. It is the gift of God through which He permits me to be, and through which He permits everyone to be."
Prabhupāda: That's the fact. He explains..., this fact is explained in the Vedic literature, nityo nityānāṁ cetanaś cetanānām (Kaṭha Upaniṣad 2.2.13), Kaṭha Upaniṣad, that He is also living being and we are also living being. So He is also eternal; we are also eternal. So qualitatively we are one, but quantitatively we are different, because eko yo bahūnāṁ vidadhāti kāmān: that one, singular number, eternal living being, Kṛṣṇa, or God, He is maintaining everyone. So that is the difference. The one living being, the Supreme Living Being, the great living being, is maintaining other living beings who are part and parcel of the Supreme. So both of us, we are the living beings, individual, eternal, but God is Supreme; we are subordinate. That is difference. So our natural position should be to love God, being part and parcel of God.
Hayagrīva: Well, he felt that the idea of God arose out of man's helplessness, and the gods...
Prabhupāda: That hopelessness is already there, that's a fact. That is the same logic, that we are finding difficulties in this materialistic way of life. Threefold miseries-miserable condition of this body, this mind, miseries offered by other living entities, and the natural disturbances. So how can you say there is very smooth life? That is not possible. And above these, there is old age, birth, death. So hopelessness is already there. But if one is very rascal, he is hoping against hope and planning that "We shall overcome all these difficulties by this plan, that plan, that plan." That, that is not possible. The nature is so strong, whatever plan you imagine, that will smash into pieces by simply kicking over your face. So you are hopeless but you are so shameless, inspite of becoming hopeless in every step, you are hoping against hope to make adjustment with these material things. You are so rascal and foolish. Hopelessness is always there in every step, and still, out of insanity, you are trying to adjust with another hopeless plan.
Prabhupāda: As soon as he is coated with this material contamination, he identifies himself with the coating and he forgets his real, spiritual body. That is called māyā, ignorance, and this ignorance continues so long he is not fully Kṛṣṇa conscious. When one becomes fully Kṛṣṇa conscious, then he understands that this material body is the external coating; he is different from this material body. That condition, that uncontaminated understanding, is called brahma-bhūtaḥ. The spirit soul is Brahman. He was under the illusion of bodily concept of life—that is called jīva-bhūtaḥ—and when he understands that he is not this body, he is the spirit soul within the body, that is called brahma-bhūtaḥ. So when one comes to this understanding of his spiritual identity, he becomes joyful, brahma-bhūtaḥ prasannātmā na śocati na kāṅkṣati (BG 18.54), he has no more any hankering or lamentation. In that position he sees all other living entities as spirit soul. He does not see the outward covering. Even in a dog he sees the spirit soul covered by the body of a dog, and similarly a learned brāhmaṇa, he also sees the spirit soul covered by the material body designated as learned brāhmaṇa.
Hayagrīva: And John Locke, Locke is the..., is most famous for his conception of tabula rasa, or blank slate, that a child is born with no innate ideas. He states that "If there are innate or inborn ideas, all men would have them." That is to say, there would be universal consent. He writes, "This argument of universal consent, which is made use of to prove innate principles, seems to me a demonstration that there are none such because there are none to which all mankind give a universal consent." So it cannot be argued that all people have an innate or inborn idea of God since there is no universal consent on this subject. Well, do innate ideas have to be universal? Might not some living entities have some innate ideas and other living entities have others? Why does an innate idea have to be universal and apply to everyone?
Prabhupāda: Yes. Innate idea is that there is somebody. That is developed consciousness. The animals, they cannot think, on account of nondeveloped consciousness, but even in human society, uncivilized society, they have got the innate idea of some superior form. When there is lightning, they offer obeisances. When they see big ocean, they offer obeisances, something big. So that innate idea is universal, to offer obeisances to something wonderful. But this innate idea of accepting something supreme and offering respect is not developed in the animal. So this innate idea is there. When it is not developed, it is animal, and when it is developed, then it is human being. And a perfect human being is he, when he has developed this innate idea to the fullest stage. That is Kṛṣṇa consciousness.
|Compiler:||Visnu Murti, Mayapur|
|Created:||04 of Dec, 2011|
|Totals by section:||BG=0, SB=0, CC=0, OB=0, Lec=114, Con=0, Let=0|
|No. of quotes:||114|