Situated above these two emotions is permanent love, which is called sthāyibhāva. In other words, attachment to Kṛṣṇa is permanent. That permanent loving attitude is sometimes mixed with different kinds of taste, called vibhāva, anubhāva and vyabhicārī. Vibhāva is a particular taste for attachment to Kṛṣṇa, and it can be divided into two further categories-ālambana and uddīpana. In the Agni Purāṇa and other authoritative scriptures, that which increases one's love of Kṛṣṇa is said to be vibhāva, and when Kṛṣṇa is the objective, vibhāva is increased as ālambana. Uddīpana is induced by Kṛṣṇa's transcendental qualities, His activities, His beautiful smiling face and the aroma of His body, the sound of His flute, the sound of His conchshell, the marks on the bottoms of His feet, His dwelling place and His paraphernalia of devotional service (such as tulasī leaves, devotees, ceremonial performances and Ekādaśī). Anubhāva occurs when feelings and emotions within oneself are exhibited. In the attitude of anubhāva, one dances and sometimes falls down, sometimes sings loudly, shows convulsions, yawns, and sometimes breathes very heavily—all without concern for circumstances.
- 1 Bhagavad-gita As It Is
- 2 Srimad-Bhagavatam
- 3 Sri Caitanya-caritamrta
- 4 Other Books by Srila Prabhupada
- 5 Lectures
- 6 Correspondence
Bhagavad-gita As It Is
BG Chapters 7 - 12
Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa's name, fame, pastimes, etc., cannot be understood by material senses. Only to one who is engaged in pure devotional service under proper guidance is He revealed. In the Brahma-saṁhitā (5.38) it is stated, premāñjana-cchurita-bhakti-vilocanena santaḥ sadaiva hṛdayeṣu vilokayanti: one can see the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Govinda, always within himself and outside himself if one has developed the transcendental loving attitude towards Him. Thus for people in general He is not visible. Here it is said that although He is all-pervading, everywhere present, He is not conceivable by the material senses. This is indicated here by the word avyakta-mūrtinā. But actually, although we cannot see Him, everything is resting in Him. As we have discussed in the Seventh Chapter, the entire material cosmic manifestation is only a combination of His two different energies—the superior, spiritual energy and the inferior, material energy. Just as the sunshine is spread all over the universe, the energy of the Lord is spread all over the creation, and everything is resting in that energy.
In the Third Chapter, verse thirteen, Śrī Kṛṣṇa explains that only the remains of sacrifice are purified and fit for consumption by those who are seeking advancement in life and release from the clutches of the material entanglement. Those who do not make an offering of their food, He says in the same verse, are eating only sin. In other words, their every mouthful is simply deepening their involvement in the complexities of material nature. But preparing nice, simple vegetable dishes, offering them before the picture or Deity of Lord Kṛṣṇa and bowing down and praying for Him to accept such a humble offering enables one to advance steadily in life, to purify the body, and to create fine brain tissues which will lead to clear thinking. Above all, the offering should be made with an attitude of love. Kṛṣṇa has no need of food, since He already possesses everything that be, yet He will accept the offering of one who desires to please Him in that way. The important element, in preparation, in serving and in offering, is to act with love for Kṛṣṇa.
SB Canto 1
By intense ecstasy in loving service, the damsels of Vrajabhūmi attained qualitative oneness with the Lord by dancing with Him on an equal level, embracing Him in nuptial love, smiling at Him in joke, and looking at Him with a loving attitude. The relation of the Lord with Arjuna is undoubtedly praiseworthy for devotees like Bhīṣmadeva, but the relation of the gopīs with the Lord is still more praiseworthy because of their still more purified loving service. By the grace of the Lord, Arjuna was fortunate enough to have the fraternal service of the Lord as chariot driver, but the Lord did not award Arjuna with equal strength. The gopīs, however, practically became one with the Lord by attainment of equal footing with the Lord. Bhīṣma's aspiration to remember the gopīs is a prayer to have their mercy also at the last stage of his life. The Lord is satisfied more when His pure devotees are glorified, and therefore Bhīṣmadeva has not only glorified the acts of Arjuna, his immediate object of attraction, but has also remembered the gopīs, who were endowed with unrivalled opportunities by rendering loving service to the Lord. The gopīs' equality with the Lord should never be misunderstood to be like the sāyujya liberation of the impersonalist. The equality is one of perfect ecstasy where the differential conception is completely eradicated, for the interests of the lover and the beloved become identical.
SB Canto 2
The whole process of spiritual culture is aimed at changing the heart of the living being in the matter of his eternal relation with the Supreme Lord as subordinate servant, which is his eternal constitutional position. So with the progress of devotional service, the reaction of change in the heart is exhibited by gradual detachment from the sense of material enjoyment by a false sense of lording it over the world and an increase in the attitude of rendering loving service to the Lord. Vidhi-bhakti, or regulated devotional service by the limbs of the body (namely the eyes, the ears, the nose, the hands and the legs, as already explained hereinbefore), is now stressed herein in relation to the mind, which is the impetus for all activities of the limbs of the body. It is expected by all means that by discharging regulated devotional service one must manifest the change of heart. If there is no such change, the heart must be considered steel-framed, for it is not melted even when there is chanting of the holy name of the Lord. We must always remember that hearing and chanting are the basic principles of discharging devotional duties, and if they are properly performed there will follow the reactional ecstasy with signs of tears in the eyes and standing of the hairs on the body. These are natural consequences and are the preliminary symptoms of the bhāva stage, which occurs before one reaches the perfectional stage of prema, love of Godhead.
SB Canto 4
When the living entities desire to enjoy themselves, they develop a consciousness of duality and come to hate the service of the Lord. In this way the living entities fall into the material world. In the Prema-vivarta it is said:
- kṛṣṇa-bahirmukha hañā bhoga-vāñchā kare
- nikaṭa-stha māyā tāre jāpaṭiyā dhare
The natural position of the living entity is to serve the Lord in a transcendental loving attitude. When the living entity wants to become Kṛṣṇa Himself or imitate Kṛṣṇa, he falls down into the material world. Since Kṛṣṇa is the supreme father, His affection for the living entity is eternal. When the living entity falls down into the material world, the Supreme Lord, through His svāṁśa expansion (Paramātmā), keeps company with the living entity. In this way the living entity may some day return home, back to Godhead.
SB Canto 7
Prahlāda Mahārāja is the vivid example of a great person fully absorbed in Kṛṣṇa consciousness. In Caitanya-caritāmṛta (CC Madhya 8.274) it is said:
- sthāvara-jaṅgama dekhe, nā dekhe tāra mūrti
- sarvatra haya nija iṣṭa-deva-sphūrti
A fully Kṛṣṇa conscious person, although situated in this material world, does not see anything but Kṛṣṇa, anywhere and everywhere. This is the sign of a mahā-bhāgavata. The mahā-bhāgavata sees Kṛṣṇa everywhere because of his attitude of pure love for Kṛṣṇa.
SB Canto 10.1 to 10.13
One can see the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Govinda, always, within oneself and outside oneself, if one has developed the transcendental loving attitude toward Him. Thus for people in general, He is not visible. In the above-mentioned verse from Bhagavad-gītā, therefore, it is said that although He is all-pervading, everywhere present, He is not conceivable by the material senses. But actually, although we cannot see Him, everything is resting in Him. As discussed in the Seventh Chapter of Bhagavad-gītā, the entire material cosmic manifestation is only a combination of His two different energies, the superior, spiritual energy and the inferior, material energy. Just as the sunshine is spread all over the universe, the energy of the Lord is spread all over the creation, and everything is resting in that energy.
SB Cantos 10.14 to 12 (Translations Only)
Śrī Uddhava said: O respectful Nanda, certainly you and mother Yaśodā are the most praiseworthy persons in the entire world, since you have developed such a loving attitude toward Lord Nārāyaṇa, the spiritual master of all living beings.
Rendering devotional service to Me qualifies any living being for eternal life. But by your good fortune you have developed a special loving attitude toward Me, by which you have obtained Me.
It is mentioned in Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam that when Uddhava came from Lord Kṛṣṇa with a message for the gopīs, all the gopīs, especially Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī, denounced Kṛṣṇa in various ways. Such denunciations, however, reflect an exuberant loving attitude that an ordinary man cannot understand. When the foolish student questioned Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, Lord Caitanya similarly rebuked Lord Kṛṣṇa in loving exuberance. When Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu was in the mood of the gopīs and the student advocated the cause of Śrī Kṛṣṇa, Lord Caitanya was greatly angry. Seeing His anger, the foolish student, who was an ordinary atheistic smārta-brāhmaṇa, foolishly misjudged Him. Thus he and a party of students were ready to strike the Lord in retaliation. After this incident, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu decided to take sannyāsa so that people would not commit offenses against Him, considering Him an ordinary householder, for in India even now a sannyāsī is naturally offered respect.
“Kṛṣṇa has many types of devotees—some are servants, some are friends, some are parents, and some are conjugal lovers. Devotees who are situated in one of these attitudes of spontaneous love according to their choice are considered to be on the path of spontaneous loving service."
Other Books by Srila Prabhupada
Teachings of Lord Caitanya
Nectar of Devotion
After attainment of the brahma-bhūta (SB 4.30.20) (liberation) stage, one can further advance to engagement in devotional service. So this attainment of transcendental loving devotional service to the Lord is the goal of life, and it can be achieved very easily for one who lives in Mathurā-maṇḍala even for a few seconds."
It is further said, "Who is that person who will not agree to worship the land of Mathurā? Mathurā can deliver all the desires and ambitions of the fruitive workers and of the salvationists, who desire to become one with the Supreme Brahman. Certainly Mathurā will deliver the desires of the devotees, who simply aspire to be engaged in the devotional service of the Lord." In the Vedic literature it is also stated, "How wonderful it is that simply by residing in Mathurā even for one day, one can achieve a transcendental loving attitude toward the Supreme Personality of Godhead! This land of Mathurā must be more glorious than Vaikuṇṭha-dhāma, the kingdom of God!"
Kṛṣṇa becomes obliged to the loving spirit of the devotee and not exactly to the service rendered. No one can serve Kṛṣṇa completely. He is so complete and self-sufficient that He has no need of any service from the devotee. It is the devotee's attitude of love and affection for Kṛṣṇa that makes Him obliged. A very nice example of this obligatory behavior was manifested when Sudāmā Vipra went to Kṛṣṇa's palace. Sudāmā Vipra had been a class friend of Kṛṣṇa's, and due to his poverty he was induced by his wife to see Kṛṣṇa to request some aid. When Sudāmā Vipra reached Kṛṣṇa's palace, Kṛṣṇa received him very well, and both He and His wife washed the feet of Sudāmā Vipra, showing respect to the brāhmaṇa. Remembering His loving affairs with Sudāmā in their childhood, Kṛṣṇa began to shed tears while receiving him.
In the Lalita-mādhava, Rūpa Gosvāmī explains that the movements of Kṛṣṇa's eyebrows are just like the Yamunā and that the smiling of Rādhārāṇī is just like the moonshine. When the Yamunā and the moonshine come in contact on the bank of the river, the water tastes just like nectar, and drinking it gives great satisfaction. It is as cooling as piles of snow. Similarly, in the Padyāvalī, one constant companion of Rādhārāṇī says, "My dear moon-faced Rādhārāṇī, Your whole body appears very content, yet there are signs of tears in Your eyes. Your speech is faltering, and Your chest is also heaving. By all these signs I can understand that You must have heard the blowing of Kṛṣṇa's flute, and as a result of this, Your heart is now melting."
In the same Padyāvalī there is the following description, which is taken as a sign of frustration in conjugal love. Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī said, "Dear Mr. Cupid, please do not excite Me by throwing your arrows at My body. Dear Mr. Air, please do not arouse Me with the fragrance of flowers. I am now bereft of Kṛṣṇa's loving attitude, and so, under the circumstances, what is the use of My sustaining this useless body? There is no need for such a body by any living entity." This is a sign of frustration in ecstatic love for Kṛṣṇa.
Krsna, The Supreme Personality of Godhead
As it is described in the Vedic literature, even if the complete is taken away from the complete—the Supreme Absolute Truth—it remains the complete Supreme Absolute Truth. And although many expansions from the complete are visible, the complete is one without a second. Since all Your pastimes are spiritual, there is no possibility of their being contaminated by the material modes of nature. When You place Yourself as subordinate to Your father and mother, Nanda and Yaśodā, You are not reduced in Your potency; this is an expression of Your loving attitude toward Your devotees. There is no second identity to compete with You. A person with a poor fund of knowledge concludes that Your appearance and pastimes are simply material designations. You are transcendental to both nescience and knowledge, as it is confirmed in the Gopāla-tāpanī Upaniṣad. You are the original amṛta (indestructible nectar of immortality). As confirmed in the Vedas, amṛtaṁ śāśvataṁ brahma. Brahman is the eternal, the supreme origin of everything, who has no birth or death.
Therefore in the Caitanya-caritāmṛta it is said that nitya-siddha kṛṣṇa-bhakti: "The loving attitude of the living entity towards Kṛṣṇa is nitya-siddha." That is eternally fact. Not that we are preaching this Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement, artificially we are creating some situation that a person may love Kṛṣṇa. No. That is not. That is not fact. We are cleansing the process which has covered our Kṛṣṇa-bhakti. Śravaṇādi-śuddha-citte karaye udaya. The love for Kṛṣṇa is there automatically. Everyone loves. But it is now covered by māyā. So śravaṇādi-śuddha-citte. Just like when you become diseased... Actually your position is, normal position is, that you can eat nicely, you can sleep nicely, you can talk nicely. That is healthy life. But when you cannot eat nicely, when you cannot sleep nicely, you cannot have sex life nicely, you take the help of a physician. The physician helps you, not that artificially he is creating some machine in you so that you can eat. The eating process is already there. You (are) competent to eat. But it has been disrupted by another influence.
Arrival Addresses and Talks
Kṛṣṇa is unconditionally for everyone. That is stated in the Bhagavad-gītā: sarva yoniṣu kaunteya (BG 14.4). Otherwise, how He can be God? If He is a Hindu God, just like they describe in the dictionary that Kṛṣṇa, a Hindu God—that is nonsense. Kṛṣṇa is for everyone. Kṛṣṇa does not say that "I am a Hindu God." But these rascals say Kṛṣṇa is Hindu God. This is going on. You see in the Bhagavad-gītā, Kṛṣṇa says, sarva yoniṣu kaunteya. "In all species of life." Sambhavanti mūrtayaḥ. There are as many different forms of life. Tāsāṁ mahad yoni, brahma: "Their mother is this material nature, and I am their seed-giving father." Kṛṣṇa says that. So how can Kṛṣṇa be Indian or Hindu or this or that? No. Kṛṣṇa is for everyone. And the proof is that five years ago in the Western countries nobody knew what is Kṛṣṇa. How they're taking Kṛṣṇa in so loving attitude? This is the proof that Kṛṣṇa is for everyone, and everyone is for Kṛṣṇa.
Now in your country these boys are trying to preach this Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement. So my humble request to you all is to try to understand this sublime benediction of life. Simply by chanting Hare Kṛṣṇa, you'll gradually develop a transcendental loving attitude for Kṛṣṇa. And as soon as you begin to love Kṛṣṇa, your all troubles... That means you will feel complete satisfaction. Trouble or distress is of the mind. One man is getting $6000 a month; one man is getting $200 a month. But I have seen one gentleman in Calcutta, he was drawing 6,000; he committed suicide. Committed suicide. Why? That money could not give him satisfaction. He was trying to have something else. So this material atmosphere, by earning great amount of money, will never give you satisfaction, because every one of us is the servant of the senses. This platform of service of the senses should be transferred to the platform of service to Kṛṣṇa, and then you will find all problems solved.
So in this Krishna Consciousness Movement, I am training boys and girls all over the world how to act nicely by practically serving Krishna in their everyday lives. That is more important than trying for something which I may like to do but which will never happen. Just like Sudama Vipra, he did not want to offer something very small, but his wife insisted so he offered Krishna only a small bowl of flaked rice, and Krishna took it with great pleasure, and when Sudama vipra returned home to his poor hut, he found a huge palace made of jewels. So the point is to make use of what we already have. That is most important, and if Krishna sees that we are using is properly for pleasing Him in loving attitude of devotional service, then Krishna gives every facility in reciprocation of love. So if you have talent for musical achievement, that is nice; but if you nourish some idea of becoming famous by playing some music, that will be a source of frustration—the end.