Now out of so many human being who are actually inquiring about his position as to what he is, why he is put into this awkward position of suffering... Unless one is awakened to this position, that "Why I am suffering? I do not want all these sufferings. I have tried to make a solution of all these sufferings, but I have failed," unless one is in that position, he is not to be considered a perfect human being. Humanity begins when this sort of inquiries are awakened in one's mind. In the Brahma-sūtra this inquiry is called brahma-jijñāsā. Athāto brahma jijñāsā. And every activity of the human being is to be considered a failure without having this inquiry in his mind. So persons who have awakened this inquiry into his mind as to "What I am, why I am suffering, wherefrom I have come or where I shall go after death," when these inquiries come, are awakened in the mind of a sane human being, then he is practically the right student for understanding Bhagavad-gītā. And he must be śraddhāvān. Śraddhāvān. He must have respect, a fond respect in the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Such a person, as the ideal person was Arjuna.
Inquire (Lectures, BG)
Bhagavad-gita As It Is Lectures
So Dhṛtarāṣṭra inquired from Sañjaya, kim akurvata: "After my sons and my brother's sons assembled together for fighting, what did they do?" This was the inquiry. So to encourage him... Because Sañjaya could understand the feelings of his master that he wanted the fight, no compromise, kṣatriya spirit, "Let my sons and my brother's sons fight..." That is kṣatriya spirit. "My sons are one hundred in number and they are only five, so certainly my sons will come out victorious, and then the kingdom will be assured." That was his plan. So Sañjaya, his secretary, could understand the feeling. Of course, at last he would inform differently. Yatra yogeśvaraḥ hariḥ. At last he described, "My dear sir, you do not expect victory. It is not possible. Because the other side is Kṛṣṇa, yatra yogeśvaraḥ hariḥ, and the fighter Arjuna, so it is beyond your expectation of victory." But in the beginning he says, "Don't be discouraged. There was no compromise. Immediately your son Duryodhana..." And he is addressing himself (his son) as "rāja." because Dhṛtarāṣṭra would be encouraged when at least he thinks of his son becoming the king. Therefore he said "rāja."
Of course, Arjuna did not ask him. Arjuna was satisfied with Kṛṣṇa. That's all. Kṛṣṇa also divided Himself. Because it is family quarrel. So He said, "I cannot take part with anyone and even if I take part, side, of any of you, I shall not fight. Directly I shall not fight. I may be on your side or that side, but I'll not fight." Still, Arjuna was satisfied. So Kṛṣṇa, in order to satisfy Arjuna, that "I shall not fight, but I shall become your charioteer. I shall drive your chariot." So in this way the battle was arranged, and when Dhṛtarāṣṭra inquired, kim akurvata sañjaya (BG 1.1), "What did they do?" He said, "Sir, don't be disappointed. There was no compromise. Immediately your son, after seeing the military arrangement of the Pāṇḍavas, he was surprised, and immediately he went to Dronācārya." He is the commander-in-chief appointed first. "What to do?" Rājā vacanam abravīt (BG 1.2). Then he began to speak, to inform Dronācārya. So next verse.
When Arjuna inquired from Him about His instruction to sun-god, Kṛṣṇa said, imaṁ vivasvate yogaṁ proktavān aham avyayam (BG 4.1). This bhakti-yogam of as mentioned in the Bhagavad-gītā... Bhagavad-gītā is bhakti-yogam, to understand the Supreme Personality of Godhead. So this literature is also transcendental. Bhakti is also transcendental. Bhakti is not any activities of this material world. Janma karma me divyam (BG 4.9). So bhakti is activity in relationship with Kṛṣṇa. Therefore it is not material. Sa guṇān samatītyaitān brahma-bhūyāya kalpate, māṁ ca yo 'vyabhicāreṇa bhakti-yogena sevate (BG 14.26). Bhakti-yoga is transcendental. And because Kṛṣṇa is transcendental, you cannot understand Kṛṣṇa by any material method. Therefore Kṛṣṇa says, bhaktyā mām abhijānāti (BG 18.55). The method also is transcendental, not of this material world. So if we can understand simply these facts, that Kṛṣṇa is transcendental, Kṛṣṇa's name is transcendental, Kṛṣṇa's form is transcendental, sac-cid-ānanda-vigrahaḥ. Īśvaraḥ paramaḥ kṛṣṇaḥ sac-cid-ānanda-vigrahaḥ (Bs. 5.1). Kṛṣṇa's body is sac-cid-ānanda, not body like this. This body is asat, acit and nirānanda, just the opposite. This material body is asat. Asat means temporary. It will not exist. But Kṛṣṇa's body is not like that. Kṛṣṇa's body is eternal. That is cit. Sat-cit. Full of knowledge.
This is my rate. What is your rate?" That's all. You cannot expect that a stock exchange, the people gathered there, they are talking something about Bhāgavata and Bhagavad-gītā. No.
Similarly, when there is talk between the Supreme Lord Kṛṣṇa and His devotee, so this whole talk is bhakti. It is nothing else. They derive some meaning, jñāna, jñānātmaka-vyākhyā. They describe on the understanding of the jñānīs, philosophical speculators. They are also candidate. Those who are jñānis actually, they are also interested to know what is Kṛṣṇa. Jñānī ca bharatarṣabha, jijñāsur. Ārto arthārthī jijñāsur jñānī ca bharatarṣabha (BG 7.16). These four classes of men, provided their background is pious life....
Impious life cannot inquire about God or can understand about God. We have several times repeated the verse,
- yeṣāṁ tv anta-gataṁ pāpaṁ
- janānāṁ puṇya-karmaṇām
- te dvandva-moha-nirmuktā
- bhajante māṁ dṛḍha-vratāḥ
- (BG 7.28)
Not that "Can you show me God?" What qualification you have got? You want to see God. Another rascal will say "Yes, I will show you God. Come to me. I shall show you God." This is going on. One rascal inquires, "Can you show me God?" and the big rascal says, "Yes, come to me alone. I shall show you God." This business is going on. God's seeing is so cheap thing that any rascal comes, "Can you show me God," and another rascal says, "Yes, come to me. In the evening I shall show you." That means if he is a foolish rascal, then he will show him something magic, and he will understand, "Oh I have seen God." That's all, finished. God-seeing business is finished. And he comes... After God-seeing, he is the same, the same rascal. What improvement you have... You have seen God. What improvement you have made? God seeing is so cheap thing. No.
So Arjuna was strictly following the Vaiṣṇava principles, and therefore he inquired from Hṛṣīkeśa because he knows, "The Hṛṣīkeśa will guide me." Sarvasya cāhaṁ hṛdi sanniviṣṭo (BG 15.15). Hṛdi sanniviṣṭo. Mattaḥ smṛtir jñānam apohanaṁ ca. So Arjuna knew it. Therefore this very word is used. The other day, also hṛṣīkeśa word was there. And bhakti means to satisfy Hṛṣīkeśa. This is bhakti. Hṛṣikena hṛṣīkeśa-sevanaṁ bhaktir ucyate (CC Madhya 19.170). Bhakti, this is the simple definition of bhakti. Hṛṣīkena. Hṛṣīka means the senses. As you have got hands, legs, eyes, ears.... These are different senses. When you engage your senses only for the service of Kṛṣṇa, then you become devotee. That's all. Your life is perfect.
So after finishing this material world, there is covering of the universe, stock matter, mahat-tattva, wherefrom all these material comings. There is stock. So you have to penetrate through that stock material. And each layer of stock is ten times more than the other. So you have to pierce through the stock, material stock; then you reach the spiritual world. And the spiritual world, there are many... "Many" means three times more than these universes. This universe, this material universe, is only one-fourth manifestation of Kṛṣṇa's creation. Ekāṁśena sthito jagat. When Arjuna inquired from Kṛṣṇa, "So would you kindly explain little of your opulence." "Yes." So He said, "I am this. Out of this, I am this." He summarized,
- athavā bahunaitena
- kiṁ jñātena tavārjuna
- viṣṭabhyāham idaṁ kṛtsnam
- ekāṁśena sthito jagat
- (BG 10.42)
So unless the human society accepts this principle of varṇāśrama-dharma ordained by Kṛṣṇa, the Supreme Lord, he is not considered amongst the human being. They are as good as animals because there is no regular, systematic principles of how to live, a human being. Therefore in the Viṣṇu Purāṇa... When Caitanya Mahāprabhu was talking with Rāmānanda Raya, so Caitanya Mahāprabhu inquired, "What is the actual aim of life?" Sādhya-sādhana (CC Madhya 8.118). Sādhya and sādhana. "What is the aim?" Sādhya means what for this human form of life we have got. That is called sādhya, the goal, the goal of life. And sādhana. Sādhana means the activity by which we can attain, we can achieve that goal of life. This is called sādhya-sādhana. The Darwin theory, although they are giving some idea of progressive evolution, but he does not know what is the goal of life, why this progress is there. That these rascals they do not know. Simply just imagining, taking some whims from the Padma Purāṇa, Brahmā Vaivarta Purāṇa. Aṣitiṁś catvarāṁś caiva, jīva-jātiṣu, lakṣāṁs tān jīva-jātiṣu. There are 8,400,000 types of jīva-jātis. Aṣitiṁś catvarāṁś caiva lakṣāṁs tān jīva-jātiṣu. So this is already there. Brahmādbhiḥ. In this way the living entity is wandering in the cycle of transmigration of the soul. So from this, Mr. Darwin might have taken some hints, but he could not explain properly. He could not catch up that brahmādbhiḥ, who is wandering. So it is a chaos.
This is the set-up in the first chapter of the Bhagavad-gītā. This is the summary. Now sañjaya uvāca. The Sañjaya is speaking to Dhṛtarāṣṭra. Sañjaya is seeing the battlefield within his heart. That is another television. And by the grace of Vyāsadeva, he learned the art, that he advanced... He was so much advanced that the... Just like we see television, relay from the battlefield, and he, Dhṛtarāṣṭra was blind. And his secretary, Sañjaya, he was speaking. He was seeing the activities in the battlefield. Dhṛtarāṣṭra inquired from him:
- dharma-kṣetre kuru-kṣetre
- samavetā yuyutsavaḥ
- māmakāḥ pāṇḍavāś caiva
- kim akurvata sañjaya
- (BG 1.1)
He was asking Sañjaya: "What did they do?" Kim akurvata sañjaya. That was the question. And first of all, Sañjaya described the arrangement in the battlefield, and then he's speaking. Now, sometimes Bhagavad-gītā is misinterpreted that this battle, I mean to say, dharma-kṣetra kuru-kṣetra means "this body." We do not misinterpret in that way. There is no question of misinterpretation. We are presenting Bhagavad-gītā as it is. We do not change by our whimsical imagination, concoction.
The fighting and the misunderstanding becomes settled up. So Dhṛtarāṣṭra was thinking whether the two parties, they have settled up. He did not like that. He wanted that "These Pāṇḍavas should be killed, and my sons," I mean to say "the Kauravas, they should come out victorious so that there will be no enemy." He was very much anxious to place his sons on the throne. Because he was blind, he could not acquire the throne. His younger brother was situated on the throne. Now, after the death of his younger brother, he thought that "I missed the opportunity of sitting on the throne. Why not my sons? They have got actual right." That is the background of this Kurukṣetra battle. He was always devising some means, how the sons of Pāṇḍu, his nephews, could be separated and his sons would sit on the throne. That was his idea. Therefore he inquired, kim akurvata. Otherwise, there was no question of inquiring kim akurvata. They went there to fight. They'll fight. But he was suspecting, "If they have made any compromise?" That he did not like. That he did not like. He wanted that "There must be fighting. And they are five brothers. My sons are one hundred in number. So they would be killed, and my sons will be without any rivalry."
So we have to divert the activities for Kṛṣṇa. That is Kṛṣṇa consciousness. Just like Arjuna. Arjuna, he, in the beginning, he denied to fight. That, our subject matter. He was crying. "No, no, I cannot fight." So apparently Arjuna was very nice gentleman that he is forgetting his claim over the kingdom, he's nonviolent, he's not willing to fight with his brothers, and he was crying so compassionate. So from materialistic point of view, he was very nice. But immediately, as we'll begin tomorrow, Kṛṣṇa says that "Why you are thinking like anārya?" Anārya. Anārya-juṣṭam. "This kind of thinking is not for āryas, Āryans. It is for the non-Āryans." He did not... And the whole Bhagavad-gītā was spoken to Arjuna to make him ārya. And at the end, Kṛṣṇa inquired from Arjuna that "What is your decision?" Yathecchasi tathā kuru (BG 18.63) But Arjuna replied, kariṣye tad-vacanam. Kariṣye vacanaṁ tava. (BG 18.73) "Now I shall fight." And Kṛṣṇa gave him certificate: bhakto 'si priyo 'si me (BG 4.3). "You are very dear friend, and My great devotee." Now, fighting is not very good business, killing. But sometimes, by killing, one can become a great devotee of Kṛṣṇa. He was a warrior, fighter. His business was to fight, but he fought for Kṛṣṇa. Then he became a devotee.
So bhaj-dhātu kti, equal to bhakti. So bhakti means to satisfy Kṛṣṇa. Bhakti cannot be applied to anyone else. If somebody says that "I am a great devotee of Kālī, goddess Kālī," that is not bhakti; that is business. Because any demigod you worship, there is some purpose behind that. Generally, people take to become a devotee of goddess Kālī for eating meat. That is their purpose. In the Vedic culture, those who are meat-eaters, they have been advised that "Don't eat meat purchased from the slaughterhouse or from the market." Actually, this system was never current anywhere, all over the world, that to maintain slaughterhouse. This is latest invention. We talk with sometimes with Christian gentlemen, and when we inquire that "Lord Christ says 'Thou shalt not kill'; why you are killing?" they give evidence that "Christ also ate meat sometimes." Sometimes Christ ate meat, that's all right, but did Christ say that "You maintain big, big slaughterhouse and go on eating meat?" There is no common sense even. Christ might have eaten. Sometimes he... If there was no, nothing available for eating, what could you do? That is another question. In great necessity, when there is no other food except taking meat... That time is coming. In this age, Kali-yuga, gradually food grains will be reduced. It is stated in the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, Twelfth Canto. No rice, no wheat, no milk, no sugar will be available. One has to eat meat. This will be the condition.
So there is another verse in Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam: tasmād guruṁ prapadyeta jijñāsuḥ śreya uttamam (SB 11.3.21). Tasmād guruṁ prapadyeta: "One should search after a spiritual master who is inquisitive about transcendental subject matter." So unless one is at least conversant with the preliminary knowledge of transcendental matters... That transcendental matter here you can see. Arjuna is perplexed, and now he wants a definite answer. This is the inquiry about transcendental subject matter. So every human being has to inquire. The inquiry must be there. What is that inquiry? That inquiry is that, preliminary, that every human being is suffering. A ignorant man... Just like a cat and dog or an animal. They are suffering, but they do not understand. Suffering they do not understand. Just like we have seen... Of course, here animals are slaughtered in slaughterhouse. In, according to Hindu system, of course, cow killing is not allowed. But there are meat-eaters. So according to Hindu system, if anyone wants to eat meat, he should take a goat. According to Hindu system, only goats and lambs can be killed for meat-eating, no other animals, no other animals. Cow is not... forbidden. Just like, in, in, the Hindus, they do not eat cow's flesh. And the Muslims, they do not eat, I mean to say, hogs. Hog's flesh they do not eat.
So developed consciousness means to understand the Absolute Truth. That is the special function of the human being. Therefore the Vedānta-sūtra says, "Now this human form of life is meant for understanding the Absolute Truth, what is the original cause of everything." Because there must be some cause. That is education. Just like your appearance is caused by your father. Your father's appearance is caused by his father. Similarly you go on researching, his father, his father, his father... Then ultimately you will come to the original father, whom you call God, Kṛṣṇa, or whatever you call. There must be some original father. So the Vedānta-sūtra explains when the question is that what is the original cause of everything... What is Brahman? What is the Absolute Truth? Athāto brahma jijñāsā: "Now this human form of life is meant for inquiring about the Absolute Truth." What is that Absolute Truth? The next answer is janmādy asya yataḥ (SB 1.1.1), means "The Absolute Truth is that from whom everything emanates," or "The Absolute Truth is the original cause of all causes." This is the... So this knowledge, anyone who has knowledge, not only this knowledge, absolute knowledge as well as relative knowledge, such class of men is called the brāhmaṇas, the most intelligent class.
So perfect knowledge, how it can come? The perfect knowledge can come from the Supreme Personality of Godhead. This is the process of acquiring knowledge, so far we are concerned. Evaṁ paramparā-prāptam imaṁ rājarṣayo viduḥ (BG 4.2). The knowledge, perfect knowledge, is coming from Kṛṣṇa, or the Supreme Personality of Godhead, and if we receive that knowledge in cool head and assimilate, then our knowledge is perfect. Just like we are preaching this Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement. This is perfect knowledge. If you inquire whether I am perfect or my disciples who are preaching this Kṛṣṇa conscious movement, they are perfect, we may be imperfect. We are imperfect. We accept we are imperfect. But we are distributing the perfect knowledge. Kindly try to understand. We may be imperfect, but perfection means one who assimilates the perfect knowledge, he is perfect. I shall give you one example. Just like a post peon delivers you one hundred dollars. The post peon is not rich man. He cannot deliver you the hundred dollars. But he... The money is sent by some, your friend. He is honestly carrying that money and delivering you.
Because Arjuna was hesitating to fight in bodily relationship. He was thinking that he is this body, his other side, the relatives, brothers or nephews or grandfather, the other side, they are also the bodies. Because bodily concept of life, we hesitate. Because every one of us in bodily concept. That is animal life. And so long we are in the bodily relationship... Dog, he does not know anything else. He simply knows that he is this body. But a human being, by cultivation of knowledge, by logic, by argument, he can understand that "I am not this body." Therefore a human being says, as soon as you inquire... Even a child. You ask child, you show him the finger, "What is this?" The child will reply, "It is my finger." The child will never say, "I finger." He will say, "my." So everything is "mine." "My body, my head, my leg." Everything is "mine," but where is the "I?" That should be the inquiry, that "Everything, I am speaking 'mine.' Where is that 'I'?" As soon as we come to this point, "Where is that 'I'?" then our human sense is developed. Otherwise we are in the animal sense of life. So Kṛṣṇa is, I mean to say, instructing Arjuna that aśocyān anvaśocas tvam: (BG 2.11) "My dear Arjuna, you are lamenting on the subject matter which is not the subject matter of lamentation." Aśocyān anvaśocas tvaṁ prajñā-vādāṁś ca bhāṣase. Prajñā-vādāṁś ca bhāṣase. "You are talking like a very intelligent, learned scholar." Because in the previous chapter he was arguing with Kṛṣṇa, giving evidences from śāstra on the bodily concept of life. But he does not know the śāstras say, "One who is in the bodily concept of life, he is no better than an ass or cow." That he did not know.
Therefore Bhagavad-gītā is the preliminary study of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam. Bhāgavata begins, dharmaḥ projjhita-kaitavaḥ atra: "Now, in this Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, all cheating type of religions are rejected, projjhita." So there is link. Real religion means to love God. That is real religion. Therefore Bhāgavata says, sa vai puṁsāṁ paro dharmo yato bhaktir adhokṣaje: (SB 1.2.6) "That is first-class religion." It doesn't mean that you follow this religion or that religion. You may follow any religion. It doesn't matter, either Hindu religion or Christian religion or Mohammedan religion, anything you like. But we have to test. Just like a student who has passed M.A. examination. Nobody inquires, "From which college you have passed your examination? You have passed M.A. examination? That's all right." And we are concerned, whether you are graduate, postgraduate. That's all. Nobody inquires, "From which college, from which country, from which religion, you have passed your M.A. examination?" No. Similarly, nobody should inquire, "To which religion you belong?" One must see whether he has learned this art, how to love God. That's all. That is religion. Because here is the religion: sarva-dharmān parityajya māṁ ekaṁ śaraṇaṁ vraja (BG 18.66). This is religion. Bhāgavata says. Dharmaḥ projjhita-kaitavaḥ atra: "All cheating type of religion is kicked out from this Bhāgavatam." Only nirmatsarāṇām, those who are not envious of God... "Why shall I love God? Why shall I worship God? Why shall I accept God?" They are all demons. For them only, Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, for them only those who are actually serious to love. Ahaitukī apratihatā yenātmā samprasīdati.
Yes. Some way or other, you know that he is a physician. So similarly, you have to find out guru. Guru... First of all, who requires a guru? That is the question. Because guru is not a fashion... The... It is said in the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, tasmād guruṁ prapadyeta: (SB 11.3.21) "On account of this, you should go to a guru." What is that account? Tasmād guruṁ prapadyeta jijñāsuḥ śreya uttamam: "One who is very much inquisitive to know about spiritual affair, he requires a guru." Spiritual affair means that... We are in this material world. We are suffering. When the question will come in one's mind, "Why I am suffering?" that is spiritual. Just like an animal is being taken to the slaughterhouse. He cannot inquire, "Why I am being taken to the slaughterhouse?" But if a man is being taken forcibly, he'll protest; he will cry; he'll call crowd. Therefore human being can inquire about spiritual affair. So when there is spiritual inquiry, then one requires a guru. And by going to guru, as it is stated, tad viddhi praṇipātena paripraśnena sevayā (BG 4.34). One has to learn by surrendering, praṇipāta. So first of all there must be a strong impulse to inquire about the transcendental subject matter. Then one requires a guru. Not that, to follow a fashion, that one has guru. Ācāryavān puruṣo veda. Unless one becomes under the control of ācārya, he has no perfect knowledge.
So here is the statement of the Supreme Person. We have to believe it. We cannot go out of it. If we don't believe it, then we are loser. If we don't believe it, then we are loser. He is the perfect being who is eternal and all-pervading. Just see, all-pervading. That means, although you can see Him as a person... Just like you are present before me as a person, but you are absent in your residence. Is it not? But God is not like that. God is, although He's present, Kṛṣṇa, although He's present just before Arjuna, instructing him, but He's all-pervading at the same time. A crude example. Just like at twelve o'clock in the midday, you see that the sun is above your head. And five thousand miles away, if you ask any friend, "Where is the sun?" he'll say, "It is on my head." Five thousand miles this way, that way, you inquire, and everyone will say, "The sun is on my head." So if a material thing... Sun is a material thing. If a material entity can be so all-pervading, at one and the same time, so is it not that the supreme spiritual being, He'll not be all-pervading? He is, certainly. He must be. He must be.
Yes, but there are other individuals who... There are other individuals who may not agree with that kind of salvation or liberation. They want to keep their individuality and enjoy the Supreme Personality of Godhead's company. Just like Arjuna. In the Fourth Chapter you will, you will see that Arjuna... When Śrī Kṛṣṇa said to Arjuna that "This system of yoga was first explained to the sun-god, sun-god," now Arjuna inquired, "How is that? You are... You are my contemporary. How You say that You advised or instructed this yoga system to sun? That means crores and crores, I mean, millions and billions of years before. How is that?" This is, mean, a very sane question. Now, in that question the Lord answered, "My dear Arjuna, yourself and Myself, we took birth many times, but you have forgotten. I, I, I have not forgotten."
So Kṛṣṇa says, "I spoke." So it is millions and millions, at least, four hundred thousand millions of times, millions of years ago, according to the calculation of Manu. So Kṛṣṇa said million; and millions of years ago this Bhagavad-gītā, He remembers. But Arjuna inquired from Him that "How can I believe that You spoke this Bhagavad-gītā millions of millions years ago to sun-god, because we are contemporary?" Kṛṣṇa and Arjuna, they're of, practically of the same age.
So Arjuna was calculating as a human being about Kṛṣṇa. That was his mistake. That was his not mistake. That was his inquiry to clear the mistake of our. We mistake Kṛṣṇa as one of us. Because Kṛṣṇa comes down as human being, we, due to our lack of knowledge, poor fund of knowledge, we think Kṛṣṇa is as good as we are. But actually it is not. Kṛṣṇa is God. We are ordinary living entities. His knowledge, His power of remembrance, His power of knowing everything perfectly is different from our knowing. But unfortunately we think, "God may be little greater than me." That is that Dr. Frog philosophy. We have explained several times. Kūpa-maṇḍūka-nyāya. The frog within the well, he is calculating the dimension of Pacific Ocean.
Besides that, the scientist... One scientist proposes, theorizes something today and another scientist makes this proposition, this theory, null and void and he speaks something else. That is also due to the imperfect of senses. So that is called mistake or illusion. Mistake means calculation, mathematical calculation. Two plus two equal to four, but sometimes by mistake we may put three or five. That is called mistake. And illusion, to accept something for something. Just like we are accepting. When somebody inquires, "who are you?" You just give identification of your body: "I am such and such, I am an American, I am born of such father and mother." But this body is not yourself, you are spirit soul. Therefore, it is called illusion. And because we are standing on the platform of illusion, there is mistake, there is cheating, and the senses are imperfect. This is the position.
Those who are blind, apaśyatām ātma-tattvam, blind about understanding the soul, they have got many thousands and thousands of matter, subject matter for hearing—useless. The human life is meant for understanding what I am and what is God, what is my relationship with God. That is the real purpose of human life. Otherwise, "Where is food?", "Where is shelter?", "Where is service?", "Where is sex?", these are the inquiries of the animals only. The hog also inquiring, "Where is stool? Where is stool? Where is stool?" The stool-eater, he is also working hard, "Where is stool? Where is stool? Where is stool?" Do you think that is very creditable task, to work hard day and night for finding out where is stool? This is hog's business. So at the present moment, the civilization is going on, "Where is food?", "Where is apartment?", "Where is sex?" and "Where is defense?" So these are the inquiries of the animals. They are also searching "Where is food?", "Where is shelter?", "Where is sex?" and "Where is defense?" Āhāra-nidrā-bhaya-maithunaṁ ca sāmānyam etat paśubhir narāṇām. The human life is meant for inquiring "Where is God?" That is human life. Not "Where is stool?" That is hog's business. So we should not encourage this hog civilization. Hog civilization is to work hard day and night to find out where is food, where is shelter, where is sex, and where is defense. Wrong type of civilization. The human civilization means "Where is Brahman, the Absolute Truth?" Athāto brahma jijñāsā. That is the Vedānta-sūtra. "Where is God?" "What I am?" These are the inquiries.
Because Arjuna surrendered to Kṛṣṇa: śiṣyas te 'haṁ śādhi māṁ prapannam (BG 2.7). When he was puzzled in the battlefield of Kurukṣetra, he thought it wise to accept Kṛṣṇa not as his friend, his friend, but at the same time, he accepted Him as his spiritual master. Śiṣyas te' haṁ śādhi māṁ prapannam. And the duty of the disciple is to fully surrender unto the spiritual master. Unless you can surrender, (you) do not accept anyone as spiritual master. If you want the spiritual master to abide by your order, then that acceptance of spiritual master is a farce. It is not acceptance. Acceptance of spiritual master means that one should surrender unto the spiritual master. Tad viddhi praṇipātena paripraśnena sevayā (BG 4.34). If you want to learn that transcendental science, tad viddhi, you try to understand. How? Praṇipātena. Prakṛṣṭa-rūpeṇa nipāta. Fully surrendering, falling flat. "Sir, I surrender unto you." Praṇipātena paripraśnena. And then inquire question.
So He's vedānta-kṛt. And He's vedānta-vit also. So the question was whether Vedānta means advaita-vāda or dvaita-vāda. So it is very easy to understand. The first aphorism of Vedānta: athāto brahma jijñāsā, to inquire about Brahman, the Absolute Truth. Now the, to inquire where? If you want to inquire, you must go to somebody who knows the thing. Therefore, immediately, in the very beginning of the Vedānta-sūtra, there is duality, that one must inquire, and one must answer. Athāto brahma jijñāsā. So in Vedānta-sūtra, how you can it is advaita-vāda? It is dvaita-vāda, from the very beginning. Athāto brahma jijñāsā. One must inquire what is Brahman, and one must reply, or the spiritual master, or the disciple, that it is dual. How you can say it is advaita-vāda? So we have to study in this way. Here it is said, tattva-darśibhiḥ. Tattva-darśibhiḥ means vedānta-vit, one who knows Vedānta. Janmādy asya yataḥ (SB 1.1.1). One who knows the Absolute Truth, from where everything begins. Janmādy asya yataḥ. That is the beginning of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam.
So the natural commentary of Vedānta-sūtra is Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam. Jīvasya tattva-jijñāsā na, jīvasya tattva-jijñāsā. This is our life. Jīvasya, of every living being. Every living being means especially human beings. Because cats and dogs, they cannot inquire about Brahman, or the Absolute Truth. Therefore the conclusion is that the human form of life, one should not be engaged simply in the animal propensities of life. That is simply waste of time. He must inquire of the Absolute Truth. Athāto brahma jijñāsā. And he must try to understand. Tad viddhi, tattva-darśibhiḥ. From the tattva-darśī. Jñāninaḥ, tattva-darśinaḥ, these are the words. So in the human form of life therefore, in every society, the system is that the children are sent to school, colleges, to understand things.
That is our Vaiṣṇava system. Ādau gurvāśrayam. The first thing is to take shelter of the bona fide spiritual master. Ādau gurvāśrayaṁ sad-dharma-pṛcchā. Not that I'll, as it has become a system: "I'll make a guru. Now my business is finished. I've got a guru." No. Tattva-jijñāsā. Jīvasya tattva-jijñāsā. Guru means, to accept guru means to inquire from him about the Absolute Truth. Jijñāsuḥ śreya uttamam. These are the Vedic injunctions. One who is jijñāsu, means inquisitive. Jijñāsuḥ śreya uttamam. Śreyaḥ. Śreyaḥ means beneficial. So uttamam, the prime benefit. One who is inquisitive to know about the prime benefit of life, for him there is need of accepting a guru.
- tasmād guruṁ prapadyeta
- jijñāsuḥ śreya uttamam
- śābde pare ca niṣṇātaṁ
- brahmaṇy upaśamāśrayam
- (SB 11.3.21)
So this is our Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement. We are trying to educate people to understand the value of life, the value of spiritual life especially, Bhāgavata. Dharmān bhāgavatān iha. So, by understanding spiritual life, by understanding one's actual constitutional position, he may be enlightened, what is the aim of life, what is the duty of life, what is the purpose of life. That is Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement.
Thank you very much. Hare Kṛṣṇa. (end)
So when Viśvāmitra Muni came to Mahārāja Daśaratha, as we ask, "How are you?" so Daśaratha, Mahārāja Daśaratha inquired from Viśvāmitra Muni, aihistam yad punar janmajaya: (?)"My dear sir, if there is anything disturbance in your occupation? Because you are trying to conquer over death." All the great ṛṣis and saintly persons, all spiritual realization means to conquer over death. So this was the question. ihistam yad tam punar janmajaya.(?) Punar janma, you are trying to own over repetition of birth. The modern civilization, they do not know that it is possible. It is possible to become immortal, to have eternal blissful life of knowledge. That is called immortality. Sac-cid-ānanda. Sat means eternity and cit means knowledge and ānanda means pleasure, bliss. We are part and parcel of Kṛṣṇa. Kṛṣṇa is sac-cid-ānanda vigraha (Bs. 5.1). His transcendental body is eternal, blissful and complete knowledge, His body. Therefore He's speaking Bhagavad-gītā. If He's an ordinary man, what is the use of hearing Him? Ordinary man will commit mistake, will cheat, will be illusioned. His senses are imperfect; how he can give complete knowledge? That is not possible.
This is Prahlāda Mahārāja's instruction, that the... He was instructing his father, materialist, first-class materialist. So, when he inquired that "What is your purpose that you have become Kṛṣṇa conscious? How you have become Kṛṣṇa conscious?" So he answered. He did not ask him, addressed him, as "My father." He addressed him, asura-varya, the first-class demon. He never addressed him, "My dear father." "My dear first-class demon." This little boy, five years old, because he's Kṛṣṇa conscious, and the father is threatening always to kill, still he's not afraid. When he says that "Wherefrom you have got this courage, Prahlāda?" "My dear father," or "My dear demon, I have got this courage wherefrom you have got this courage. But you are forgetting. That is the difference. You have got so much power that you can defeat anyone, even the demigods. You should know that you have got this power from the powerful. But you are not obedient to the powerful." That is demon. Demons, when they get power, they think that "I have got it, I have earned it. It is my thing. Who can challenge me?" But he forgets that everything can be withdrawn within a second by the powerful. That is demoniac. And Vaiṣṇava, devotee means although he is very, very powerful, he never thinks that "I am powerful." He thinks that "I am acting simply by the order of the powerful." This is the difference.
My business is to work for the owner, not for me. Therefore, that is my position. Kṛṣṇa has created me, not creation, but along with Kṛṣṇa we are all there. But we are eternal servants. Just like along with this body, the finger is also born. The finger is not differently born. When I was born, my fingers were born. Similarly, when Kṛṣṇa was there, Kṛṣṇa was never born. Then we are also never born. Na hanyate hanyamāne śarīre (BG 2.20). Very simple philosophy. Because we are part and parcel of Kṛṣṇa. If Kṛṣṇa is born, then I am born. If Kṛṣṇa is not born, then I'm, I am not born. Kṛṣṇa is aja, so we are also aja. Ajam avyayam Kṛṣṇa is imperishable, immutable. We are also immutable, because we are part and parcel of God. So why the part and parcels are there? Why my hand is there? Because I require it. I require the assistance of my hand, I require the assistance of my finger. It is necessary. The rascals say, "Why God created us?" Rascal, it is necessary. Because He is God, He wants your service. Just like big man, he keeps so many servants. If some rascal inquires, "Why you are keeping so many servants?" And "Because I am big man, I want!" Simple philosophy. Similarly, if God is the supreme authority, then He must have so many assistants. Otherwise, how He will manage?
So those who have surrendered to the material nature, he has to suffer. He has to suffer. There is no way out. You have accepted this body. You must suffer. Kleśada āsa dehaḥ. This material body means suffering. So they do not know this. They are making so many arrangements and plans how to become happy, how to become peaceful without any miserable condition, but the rascals, they do not know that so long you have got this material body—either a king's body or an ant's body—you must have to suffer. They do not know. Therefore Kṛṣṇa says here that you take care of the soul. Tasmād evam. Tasmād evaṁ viditvā. Just try to understand the soul is important. You haven't got to lament for this body. This is already settled up. So much suffering, so much comforts, you'll get. Although the body, material body... Because the material body is also created according to the three qualities. Kāraṇaṁ guṇa-saṅgo 'sya sad-asad-janma-yoniṣu (BG 13.22). When the inquiry is that why one has got the king's body and why he has got, one has got the pig's body. There are so many other bodies, 8,400,000 different types of bodies. So why the difference is there? That difference is explained in the Bhagavad-gītā. Kāraṇam. Kāraṇam means cause. Why these varieties are..., kāraṇaṁ guṇa-saṅgo 'sya. Asya, jīvasya. He is associating with different kinds of qualities, and therefore he's getting a different type of body. Kāraṇaṁ guṇa-saṅgo 'sya.
So a human life should be engaged inquiring about the Absolute Truth, and he should inquire from a person who, who has heard about the Absolute Truth from a realized person. There is a.... Therefore it is called śruti, paramparā, disciplic succession. One... Just like Vyāsadeva is hearing from Nārada. Nārada is authorized. He has heard from Brahmā. Brahmā has heard from Kṛṣṇa. So this is the paramparā system, disciplic succession. So there are four paramparā systems. They are known as, at the present moment, Rāmānuja-sampradāya, Brahma-sampra..., Brahma-samprada..., yes, Madhva-sampradāya, Brahma-sampradāya, Madhva-sampradāya, the same, and Rudra-sampradāya and Śrī-samp..., Śrī, Rāma, Kumāra-sampradāya. These is four sampradāyas. So we should hear from the sampradāya-ācārya by disciplic succession. As Kṛṣṇa recommends in this Bhagavad-gītā: evaṁ paramparā-prāptam imaṁ rājarṣayo viduḥ (BG 4.2).
- imaṁ vivasvate yogaṁ
- proktavān aham avyayam
- vivasvān manave prāha
- manur ikṣvākave 'bravīt
- (BG 4.1)
He who dwells in the body." He began this instruction that deha, dehī—the body and the proprietor of the body or the resident of the body. Just like this hall, and we are a resident of this hall. We are different. We are not this hall. This lecture room, we are within this lecture room, but that does not mean that we are or I am or you are this lecture room. Similarly the soul dwells in this body. The body is changing but the soul is not changing. That was the beginning of conversation with Arjuna after his surrendering unto Kṛṣṇa as disciple. And again He concludes in that way, that the soul... "Take it from Me, because you have accepted Me as your spiritual master." This is the significance. If you accept somebody as spiritual master, you have to accept whatever he says. Otherwise there is no need. But if you cannot understand, you can inquire sincerely. That is not barred. But you have to accept. So Kṛṣṇa says, conclusion, what is that? That "Within this body..." What is that?
So in everything he sees only Kṛṣṇa. Premāñjana-cchurita-bhakti-vilocanena santaḥ sadaiva hṛdayeṣu vilokayanti (Bs. 5.38). Sadaiva. They sometimes inquire, "Have you seen God?" Those who are actually devotees, advanced devotee, he's simply seeing Kṛṣṇa, nothing else. Premāñjana-cchurita-bhakti-vilocanena santaḥ sadaiva hṛdayeṣu (Bs. 5.38). Sadaiva means always. Hṛdayeṣu vilokayanti. Yaṁ śyāmasundaram acintya-guṇa-svarūpaṁ govindam ādi-puruṣaṁ tam ahaṁ bhajāmi **. So this is... More you advance in Kṛṣṇa consciousness, you'll simply see Kṛṣṇa. And if you become practiced to see Kṛṣṇa always, sadā tad-bhāva-bhāvitaḥ... Yaṁ yaṁ vāpi smaran loke tyajaty ante kalevaram (BG 8.6). Yad yad bhāvam. So if you always think of Kṛṣṇa... That is Kṛṣṇa's instruction also. Manmanā bhava mad-bhakto mad-yājī māṁ namaskuru (BG 18.65). "Always think of Me." That is the first-class yogi, who thinks of Kṛṣṇa always. Yoginām api sarveṣāṁ mad-gatenāntar-ātmanā bhajate yo māṁ sa me yuktatamo mataḥ (BG 6.47). He's first-class yogi. And devotee is. We already... Otherwise, why he should think of Kṛṣṇa? Man-manā bhava mad-bhakto mad-yājī. One, only bhaktas can think of Kṛṣṇa always. Man-manā bhava mad-bhaktaḥ. "
So, it is the duty of the kṣatriya to see that everyone is executing his proper professional or occupational duty. We have discussed this point yesterday, sva-dharmam api cāvekṣya. Sva-dharma. This is very important. At the present moment there is no sva-dharma. Therefore according to Vedic injunctions, dharmeṇa hīna paśubhiḥ samāna. One who is not executing his own religious principle, he is no better than the animals. So who will see that everyone engaged in discharging his occupational duty? Sva-dharmam means occupational duty. It is the duty of the king, government. In the beginning it is the duty of the father, of the teacher, to train children to the principles of sva-dharma. A brāhmaṇa, it is the duty of the brāhmaṇa to see that his son is being properly trained up as a brāhmaṇa. Satyaṁ śamo damas titikṣā ārjavaṁ brahma-karma svabhāva-jam (BG 18.42). Everything is there. The brāhmaṇas should be taught how to become truthful, first of all. A brāhmaṇa will never speak lie, at any cost. It is stated that even if his enemy inquires something confidential from him, he'll say, "Yes, this is my position." This is truthfulness. He'll not even, I mean to say, guile, against his enemy. He should be truthful. Even kṣatriyas, they are also truthful men. Truthfulness is so valuable. That makes one powerful brāhmaṇa. Satyam.
So why He is asking a little fruit, flower and water from you? Is He hungry? No. Yo me bhaktyā prayacchati. Just to induce you again to love Kṛṣṇa. That is the point. Because your, this material condition is bhūtvā bhūtvā pralīyate (BG 8.19), subjected to birth, death, old age, disease, and so many other material conditions. You have fallen in this condition because you have forgotten Kṛṣṇa. Just like last night so many people came to discuss with us, but they are not interested in talking of Kṛṣṇa. They are interested how their sense gratification will be disturbed by starting this temple. That is their concern. Here we have come to preach about Kṛṣṇa. They did not ask anything about Kṛṣṇa, "What is this philosophy? What is this Kṛṣṇa's philosophy?" No. They are simply interested in their own sense gratification. That's all. How their sense gratification will be disturbed—they are concerned in that way. This is the position of the material world. Everyone is simply interested in sense gratification. That's all. There is no question of asking "What is God? What I am? What is this world?" Actually, these should be the questions of human life. Athāto brahma jijñāsā. They should be engaged always in inquiring about the Supreme Being, the Absolute Truth. That is their only business. But you see the whole world. They are simply busy how to satisfy their senses. This is the cause of fall down.
You work on the spiritual platform and don't do anything which you cannot do in God consciousness." This is clearly stated here. Now, it is, of course... It depends on us whether to accept it or not accept it, because God has given us independence. You'll find also in the Bhagavad-gītā at the end that after the instruction is given, the Lord inquires from Arjuna that "I have given you all instruction necessary. Now whatever you like, you do." So this is the position. The Lord never interferes with the little independence that has been offered to us. We have got little independence because we are part and parcel of the Supreme Lord. Oh, so under certain percentage we have got independence. Not full independence, but under certain percentage we have got independence. And that independence we can use properly or misuse it also. When we misuse, then we become kṛpaṇa, the miser. And when we use it properly, then we become brāhmaṇa. So dūreṇa hy avaraṁ karma buddhi-yogād dhanañjaya buddhau śaraṇam anviccha, śaraṇam anviccha kṛpaṇāḥ phala-hetavaḥ. Buddhi. By intelligence, by intelligence you take shelter of the Supreme Lord. Don't be miser and be hankering after the result of your work and enjoy for yourself. No, sacrifice. Sacrifice means you sacrifice your energy. God is not hankering after your money or whatever you have got. He is full in Himself. He is full in Himself. He doesn't require.
Now Arjuna declined to fight, and after hearing Bhagavad-gītā, after understanding Bhagavad-gītā, he agreed, "Yes, I shall fight. Yes." Kṛṣṇa inquired, "Now I have explained to you everything about knowledge, about yoga, about fruitive activities, about devotional service, everything. All-round Vedic wisdom, I have explained to you. Now it is up to you to do or not to do." Mark this. The Supreme Lord can give us instruction. We are individual persons, individual living entities, infinitesimal. The Lord is infinite, and we are infinitesimal. So Lord can advise the infinitesimal to act in a certain way, but the infinitesimal, because it has got infinitesimal independence, it can reject it also. It can accept it or it can reject it. That we have got. That individuality, that independence... (break) "...that all other occupations you please surrender unto Me. You just try to follow Me. Then I take charge of you so that there will be no reaction of your work, and do not hesitate." Mā śucaḥ. This very word. Mā śucaḥ means "Do not hesitate. Do accept it. Do accept." That is the clear declaration of the Lord. You see. This is not for Arjuna only, but every one of us because we are all in the Arjuna's position. Arjuna is a living entity, individual living entity. So we are also, every one of us, a living entity. And the supreme entity—nityo nityānām. In the Vedic literature you'll find this hymn, nityo nityānāṁ cetanaś cetanānām (Kaṭha Upaniṣad 2.2.13). Description of the Supreme. The Supreme is nityaḥ nityānām. Nityānām means... Nitya means eternal. So we are all eternal. That we have already discussed.
So this plan has to be rejected. The Lord says that "Your plan, so many plans, foolish plans, you should reject." Prajahāti. Now, He says... What... Arjuna inquired that "What is the sign of a person who has already dovetailed his consciousness with the supreme consciousness, sthita-prajñaḥ. Sthita-prajñaḥ means steady, steady in consciousness. So what are the signs? Now, those signs are being explained by the Lord like this. Now, prajahāti yadā kāmān sarvān pārtha mano-gatān. Now, we plan like that boatman. For our happiness, we make multi-plans, that "I shall do this. Then I shall be happy. If I shall have it, then I shall be happy." In this way. But all... We do not know that "I am pure consciousness. Any amount of my plan on this bodily conception of life, I'll never be happy." He does know it. He does not know it. He simply makes plans. You see? Because the platform on which you are standing, that platform itself is tottering, is tottering. You cannot make it stop tottering. This, this body... We have already discussed that all the miseries of our life, it is due to this body. Mātrā-sparśās tu kaunteya śītoṣṇa-sukha-duḥkha-dāḥ (BG 2.14). Mātrā-sparśās tu. All the distress and happiness that we feel in this material world, that is due to the skin, this body. Otherwise, the things as they are, they are neither miserable nor source of happiness. The example is given: just like water. Water now, in this season, the summer season, you will find very pleasant. The same water, in the winter season, it becomes pinching.
You just try to dovetail your consciousness with My supreme consciousness. That will make you happy." The same thing. As Arjuna did not, wanted to fight, Kṛṣṇa said that "I desire that you should fight." But he did not agree in the beginning. But at the last moment, when Arjuna was inquired, "Now what is your decision," he said that naṣṭo mohaḥ smṛtir labdhā tvat prasādān mayācyuta kariṣye vacanaṁ tava: (BG 18.73) "My dear Lord, now my misgivings, my misunderstanding, is now gone by Your mercy. Now I have decided to fight because You desire." That is the summum bonum of learning. That one should decide what God desires. That's all. That will make his life perfect. He should not desire anything. He should not desire anything. His desiring capacity should not be stopped. Somebody says, "Don't desire; become desireless." It is nonsense. Nobody can be desireless. How he can be desireless? Desireless. Desire is the symptom of my, my life. How can you stop it? It is not possible. Desireless, I cannot be, but I must desire, I mean to say, purely. That's all. I should not desire impurely. If I desire from the bodily platform of my life, then my desires will be impure. And when I shall desire as the desire of the Supreme Will, then my desire is pure. So desire has not to be cut or stopped. It has to be purified. That's all.
When I was a boy in India it was selling. Can you imagine that? But that rice all of a sudden rose in 1940, ten dollars. Now, just imagine if something, the price of something, is raised from 75 cent to ten dollars, how difficult it becomes for the public, for general mass of people. So so many people were in difficulty, and so many people died for want of food, diseases, famine, because when there is want of food... But you will be surprised... I inquired in 1942. Persons who were in our line, I mean to say, engaged in devotional service... I also purchased at the same time. I had... In my family life at that time, I had some responsibility: my self, my wife, my five children, servant, and so many, about ten people. And I was purchasing rice. So anyway, management was going on. But so many people died. But you will be surprised. Those who were in some way or other in touch with the devotional service, I inquired from them individually, and I was satisfied that they were not in difficulty even in that famine circumstances. Even from the villages I inquired that "Were you in difficulty?" They replied, "No, we have no difficulty. Some way or other, we are managing." So this is practical. Anyone who is engaged in the devotional service, whose life is dedicated for service of the Supreme, you will see practically that there will be no want, there will be no unhappiness. This is a fact. This is a fact.
So anything that is going on in this world, it is under the supreme supervision of the Lord. Mayādhyakṣeṇa prakṛtiḥ sūyate sa-carācaram (BG 9.10). In every... There is a philosopher's saying, "Not a blade of grass moves without the will of God." It is actually the fact. Everything... Now, we have to dovetail ourself with that plan of the Supreme Lord. That is called karma-yoga. That is called karma-yoga. So Arjuna understood it, and he dovetailed himself with the supreme will of the Lord. And when he was inquired, "Whether you are going or fight or not? What you have settled after hearing Bhagavad-gītā?" he said, "Yes Kṛṣṇa. My illusion is now removed by Your grace, and I have decided to fight. That's all."
Just like a child may ask his father that "What is this?" because he is astonished that the sound is very loud. So the child may not know, so inquires from the father, "Father, what is this? So father says, "My dear child, this is microphone. And when you speak through this machine, your sound becomes louder." So the child takes the knowledge from the father, and if he repeats or he understands firmly, "My father has said. It is perfectly right," then his knowledge is perfect. The child may be imperfect.
So our Vedic process is like that. We do not make any research. It is not possible to come to the right knowledge by so-called research, because our senses are imperfect. Just like we see through the telescope and we come under certain conclusion, but the fact is that I am the same person seeing through the telescope, and telescope is also manufactured by me or by you. So machine is imperfect and my seeing power is also imperfect. Then how you can have perfect knowledge? The machine is created by a person who has got imperfect knowledge, and the seer is also a person; he is also imperfect. The imperfect person is seeing through the imperfect machine. Then how we can conclude perfect knowledge? This is not possible.
Therefore I am the enjoyer, puruṣa. I am changing simply body, this way or that way. This is my position. So one who is intelligent, that "I change body and different bodies. I am eternal, so what is my eternal business?" This is athāto brahma jijñāsā. This is called inquiry of the spiritual life. This is very simple thing, that "I am simply changing body. Then what is my real position?" This is intelligent. When a man comes to this position or this platform, to inquire, "Actually what I am?" that is beginning of human life. Otherwise, it is animal life. The animal also thinks, "I am dog," "I am tiger," "I am that." You are none of these, sir. These are all designations, for the temporary, for a certain period, ten years, five years, fifty years, utmost hundred years, then finished. But you are eternal.
So in this way, being punished in different types of life, when we come to the sense... That sense can come in human form of life. When we understand that "I have traveled through, in, transmigrated from many species of life, but every life I can see, not that I have forgotten. Even if I have forgotten, I can see the suffering of the cats, dogs, tiger, man, bulldog and everyone. So I had all these lives in the past. Evolutionary process, I have come to this human. So I suffered all these things. So when the question comes, "Why shall I suffer?" then the inquiry—this is called, Vedānta-sūtra, athāto brahma jijñāsā—the inquiry of God begins. That is human life. Yes.
In the Vedānta-sūtra it is inquired, athāto brahma jijñāsā. What is Brahman? This human life is meant for understanding Brahman. Ahaṁ brahmāsmi. This is real education. So that Para-brahman... We are Brahman, but Kṛṣṇa is Para-brahman. Nityo nityānāṁ cetanaś cetanānām (Kaṭha Upaniṣad 2.2.13). He is the supreme nitya, eternal. Kṛṣṇa is also eternal; we are also eternal. Na hanyate hanyamāne śarīre (BG 2.20). So Kṛṣṇa is... (break) ...not a dead stone and we are also living being. Nityo nityānāṁ cetanaś cetanānām. And where is the difference between Kṛṣṇa and me? The difference is eko yo bahūnāṁ vidadhāti kāmān. Kṛṣṇa maintains all these plural number. He is singular number. Nityo nityānām. He is singular number. Then this singular number or plural number, what is the difference? Difference is that Kṛṣṇa is the maintainer and we are the maintained. Kṛṣṇa is the predominator; we are predominated. This is difference.
Just like Sanātana Gosvāmī, a great devotee of Lord Caitanya, when he approached Lord Caitanya, he just inquired from Him, "My dear Sir, people address me that I am a very great learned man, but I am such a learned man that I do not know wherefrom I have come and where I have to go. I am such a learned man. That means I am fool number one. I have come to this world and I am staying here, say, for fifty years or eighty years or, at most, hundred years. Then after finishing this period of my life, where I am going? These two things I do not know. I do not know wherefrom I have come and where I have to go. Then what sort of learned, learned man I am? Although I am posing myself a very learned man, I do not know my past. I do not know my future. I am concerned with this present situation. That's all."
He was known as Mr. D.L. Raya. He wrote one book which is called Shahjahan. Now this Shahjahan, the theme of this book is that Aurangzeb, the son of Shahjahan, he was the second son of Shahjahan, Emperor Shahjahan, and he made a clique. He killed his elder brother, he killed his younger brother, and he arrested his own father in the fort, and he manipulated things in such a way, politician, and he became the king, emperor, king, emperor. Now, the whole activities of that book is the Aurangzeb's activities. So one friend of the author, D.L. Raya, he inquired from D.L. Raya that "Mr. Raya, you have written this book and this book is full of the activities of Aurangzeb. Now, why you have made the hero Shahjahan? Shahjahan is on the background. The old man is arrested in the fort of Agra. He is sitting there. Why you have named the Shahjahan?" Now, just see the purpose of the author. The author replied, "Yes, I have purposely named this book Shahjahan because actually the hero is Shahjahan." The friend inquired, "Why?" "Now, because the whole activities was being done by Aurangzeb, but the effect was being enjoyed and suffered by Shahjahan. Shahjahan was the father; he could not tolerate that his eldest son was killed, his youngest son was killed, and he was arrested. This was a political maneuver by Aurangzeb. But actually, the hero, the sufferer, was the Shahjahan, Emperor Shahjahan." Now, just see. The mind of the author was disclosed by the author. Nobody could interpret what was the intention.
Another scientist comes, he improves upon it, everything. That means this knowledge has no end, it is going on, going on. But the knowledge which is, which comes to the point that here is the extreme knowledge, that is called Vedānta. So the Vedānta means, those who have read Vedānta, Vedānta-sūtra, the first sūtra or code is athāto brahma jijñāsā. Atha, now, the time is for inquiring about the Absolute Truth, athāto brahma jijñāsā. That means the human life.
The human, Vedānta-sūtra, this philosophy is meant for the human being, not for cats and dogs. They cannot understand. Therefore it is said, atha, now. It is the opportunity of our inquiring about the Absolute Truth, this human form of life. What is that Absolute Truth? Everyone is under the concept of this body, but that is not Absolute Truth. It is relative truth, but if you inquire about the Absolute Truth, then it is possible, because you are human being, you can understand what is that Absolute Truth. It is possible. Because this body is so advanced, our consciousness is so advanced, that there is possibility. But if we misuse this possibility, if we don't inquire about the Absolute Truth, simply we fight with one another for eating, sleeping, sex-life and defending, then we are no better than animals. The animals eat, sleep, have their sex life, and they defend, in their own way. So if we improve the method of eating, sleeping and sexual intercourse, and defending, then we don't go beyond the animal propensities. We have got higher intelligence, higher consciousness, not to improve the method of eating, sleeping, mating and defending, but to understand the Absolute Truth.
Just like I am sitting here. You are sitting here. Suppose you are wanted by your, some relative at home, but if somebody inquires that "Mr. such-and-such is at home," so the reply will be, "No. He's not at home." Kṛṣṇa is not like that. Kṛṣṇa, goloka eva nivasaty akhilātma-bhūtaḥ (Bs. 5.37). He is present everywhere. It is not that because Kṛṣṇa was speaking with Arjuna in the battlefield of Kurukṣetra, therefore He was not in the Goloka or Vaikuṇṭha. Not only Goloka, Vaikuṇṭha, everywhere. You'll find in the Bhagavad-gītā Kṛṣṇa is here also, now. Īśvaraḥ sarva-bhūtānāṁ hṛd-deśe arjuna tiṣṭhati (BG 18.61). Kṛṣṇa is everyone's heart. In your heart there is Kṛṣṇa. In my heart there is Kṛṣṇa, everyone's heart. So Kṛṣṇa is not like that.
Therefore, advaitam acyutam anādim ananta-rūpam (Bs. 5.33). Ananta means unlimited—but one, advaita. There is no difference. Just like the electricity power. I give you a crude example. Unlimited factories are running in electricity. Different types of work is being utilized by electric energy, but the electricity is one. Similarly, God is one, but He can expand. That is His potency. Parāsya śaktir vividhaiva śrūyate (Cc. Madhya 13.65, purport).
The life is meant for understanding what is my relationship with God. Athāto brahma jijñāsā. This is the vision of life: what is Brahman, what is God, what I am, what is my relationship with God. And so far eating, sleeping concerned, that is done by the cats and dogs. But the modern civilization, they are busy. Because they are busy for eating, sleeping and mating, they, by the laws of nature, that is also being minimized. I have already explained. Because the nature wants to help us because we are now forgotten souls. We have forgotten God. The animals have also forgotten God. They are thinking they are this body, bodily concept of life. They have no knowledge. But when you come to the, by evolutionary process, come to the human form of life, then it is your duty to inquire about the Supreme Brahman. That is Vedānta-sūtra. Athāto brahma jijñāsā. "Now you have to ask about Brahman." Not the matter. So that Brahman is Vedic knowledge. From the material standard, gradually we have to go upwards and come to the point of understanding Kṛṣṇa. That is Vedic knowledge. That is Vedic knowledge. Vedaiś ca sarvair aham eva vedyaḥ (BG 15.15). To pursue Vedic knowledge means to understand Kṛṣṇa. But if you do not understand Kṛṣṇa and if you speak as, like so many nonsense things, and if you pose yourself as paṇḍita, that is śrama eva hi kevalam. That is stated. Śrama eva hi. Simply wasting time and laboring for nothing.
If we are engaged in drinking wine and playing cards with some prostitute, that is very advanced. That is very advanced society. He's peacefully drinking and playing cards with prostitute. He's advanced. And because he's chanting Hare Kṛṣṇa, he's creating nuisance. This is the government. Therefore the first teaching of Bhagavad-gītā should be taken by the persons who are going to be elected in the government service. The public should be aware of this. If somebody comes to canvass for votes, you should first inquire, "Whether you have read Bhagavad-gītā? Gandhi, Mahatma Gandhi showed Bhagavad-gītā. Why should you not? Do you know what is Bhagavad-gītā? Then I shall give you vote. Otherwise get out." Rājarṣayo viduḥ. This is required now, if you want to be saved from the crisis that is coming very gradually. Crisis means there will be... Now in black market you can get things, means eatables, rice, wheat. But if you don't take to Bhagavad-gītā, there will be no more even if you pay black price. Just time it... That time is coming. There will be no more available. There will be no milk. There will be no more sugar, sugar. There will be no more rice. There will be no more wheat. No more fruits. Then you have to eat meat. Oh, beef shop. Then that will go on. Then human shop also. Gradually come. You have to eat the human being also. Carnivores. So it is therefore a great necessity that rājarṣayo viduḥ, rāja, those who are government men, they must study Bhagavad-gītā. Otherwise don't give them vote.
Thank you very much. (end)
There is some historical, I mean to, calculation, when Kṛṣṇa comes on this earth. It is calculated that 864 crores of years after He comes once. Just like you can see the sun rising after twelve hours, after twenty-four hours. The morning sunrising takes place every twenty-four hours or the sunsetting also takes place every twenty-four hours. Similarly, there is also time limit. That is mentioned. When Kṛṣṇa comes. When Kṛṣṇa rises. He, He is rising... Just like sun, sunset and sunrising is going on every moment, every moment.
Now, if you inquire where is now sunset or sunrise you can understand in different countries somewhere, the sun is now rising. Now, in America, the sunset and in India it is rising. It is rising. Exactly it is now eight, quarter past eight, and if you know by radio message what is the time in India you'll find that it is quarter past eight in the morning, and the sun has just rising. Now, here the sunset, and the sun... Similarly, if you inquire from Japan or any other country, the sun, the sun is somewhere in the meridian, sometimes it is, I mean to say, dead of night. So this timing difference is just like going on according to the position of the world movement. Similarly, Kṛṣṇa's appearance and disappearance is like that. It is not that Kṛṣṇa is born and Kṛṣṇa is gone. No, it is not like that. Somewhere is Kṛṣṇa there. Just like the sun is somewhere. There are innumerable universes. The one universe, you see, oh, this is only one, but there are many. You'll find in the Bhagavad-gītā that ekāṁśena sthito jagat (BG 10.42). Ekāṁśena sthito jagat. This material manifestation, with innumerable universes, is only a one part of manifestation of the Supreme Lord. Ekāṁśena sthito jagat. These descriptions are there in the Bhagavad-gītā.
So Arjuna knew it perfectly well. "But as there are foolish men like me..." They cannot understand that Kṛṣṇa spoke this Bhagavad-gītā millions of years ago to the sun-god. We immediately say, "Oh, these are all story." But it is not story. It is fact. Therefore Kṛṣṇa, to clarify the matter, Arjuna, to clarify matter to the fools like us, he's asking this question that "My dear Kṛṣṇa, we are contemporary. As I am born some years ago, You are also born some years ago. We are cousin-brothers. So how can I believe that You spoke this science, or the yoga system of Bhagavad-gītā, to the sun-god?
Suppose if I say, "Just now I'm coming from sun planet and I talked with sun-god," will you believe me? "Now, he's talking nonsense. He's coming from sun planet." So this is possible to inquire by the layman because people understand, Kṛṣṇa is like us. Avajānanti māṁ mūḍhā mānuṣīṁ tanum āśritam, paraṁ bhāvam ajānantaḥ (BG 9.11). We accept Kṛṣṇa, general people...
So this thing is being clarified by the question of Arjuna, aparaṁ bhavato janma. "You are born along with me. You are my contemporary." And paraṁ janma vivasvataḥ. "And the sun-god, or the president of the sun, Mr. Vivasvān, he's long long ago. How can I believe that you talked with him?" This is the question. Aparaṁ bhavato janma paraṁ janma vivasvataḥ, katham etad vijānīyām. "How I shall believe it?" Yes. This is possible, to inquire like that. Tvam ādau proktavān iti. "You first of all spoke this." This is the difference between God and the living entity. The.... God does not forget. We forget. This answer will be in the next verse. Bahūni me vyatītāni janmāni tava cārjuna tāny ahaṁ veda sarvāṇi. "I understand. I know everything." In another place Kṛṣṇa..., that "I know the past, present, future." That is knowledge.
Knowledge means, perfect knowledge means past, present, and future. There are many foretelling in the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam about this Kali-yuga. They are stated in the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam. Future.... Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam was written five thousand years ago. Still, what was stated at that time, they're coming to be true. That is called śāstra. Past, present, and future. So Kṛṣṇa knows everything. Vedāhaṁ samatītāni (BG 7.26). He says that "I know everything, past, present, and future." That is perfect knowledge.
Therefore here, to inquire about Kṛṣṇa, to clarify the matter, that what is Kṛṣṇa. Because He is all-powerful, all-cognizant, fully conversant, sva-rāṭ, therefore He could speak millions of years ago to the sun-god. This is not story. This is fact. To clarify this matter, Arjuna inquired from Kṛṣṇa, "How can I believe it?" And the answer is next verse, that "We, you, you and Me, both of them took many many times our birth, but you have forgotten because you are a living being and I am the Supreme Personality of Godhead, I have not forgotten. This is the difference between you and Me."
- bahūni me vyatītāni
- janmāni tava cārjuna
- tāny ahaṁ veda sarvāṇi
- na tvaṁ vettha parantapa
"Although you are a very great warrior, you can conquer over your enemies, but you can become.... You cannot become equal to Me." That is the difference between a living entity and Kṛṣṇa. Thank you very much. (end)
It is also our appreciation. Just like Kṛṣṇa is everywhere. Here, of course, in the temple or anywhere, Kṛṣṇa is there, but we have no appreciation. Similarly, Kṛṣṇa is very kind to appear in this age as holy name so that we can very easily approach Kṛṣṇa simply by chanting. But we have got many misgivings. Otherwise, so many people there are, they inquire "What is God?" And if you say, "Here is God," they won't believe you. It is their appreciation. But God is there in His name, Kṛṣṇa. So one has to prepare the receptive process. Otherwise, God is here. Premāñjana-cchurita-bhakti-vilocanena. Tat-paratvena nirmalam (Bs. 5.38). Anyābhilāṣitā-śūnyam (Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu 1.1.11). Sarvopādhi-vinirmuktaṁ tat-paratvena nirmalam (CC Madhya 19.170). Now I want to see Kṛṣṇa, but I want to keep my identity as member of this family or member of this nation or father of this child or husband of this wife. So I keep myself in this material condition, and I want to see God. That is offense. So we have to first of all become clear of all designation.
- tat-paratvena nirmalam
- hṛṣīkeṇa hṛṣīkeśa-
- sevanaṁ bhaktir ucyate
- (CC Madhya 19.170)
This was questioned by Parīkṣit Mahārāja. Parīkṣit Mahārāja, when He danced with the girls of Vrajabhūmi, rāsa dance, so Parīkṣit Mahārāja inquired from Śukadeva Gosvāmī that "Kṛṣṇa, who came to establish the principles of religion, how He danced with girls and wives of others?" That was explained that tejīyasāṁ na doṣāya (SB 10.33.29). Tejīyasāṁ na doṣāya. Kṛṣṇa danced with others' wife or sister or other girls. They were all girls. They came at mid of, midnight to dance with Him. But they were also not material. That is spiritual. It requires little brain to understand. So Parīkṣit Mahārāja... Śukadeva Gosvāmī explained that these things should not be considered by the conditioned souls. They should not even dream of this. It is a different thing. And if you think that Kṛṣṇa has a fault because He danced with others' wives, so he explained that tejīyasāṁ na doṣāya. Tejīyasām... The... A thing which is very, very powerful, he is not contaminated. That is the conclusion.
So real religion is to understand what is our relationship with God. And then the relationship is, as it is found in the Bhagavad-gītā and confirmed by great ācāryas like Lord Caitanya.
Lord Caitanya immediately enunciates the constitutional position of the living entity. Sanātana Gosvāmī inquired from Him that, "Who am I? Why I am always in miserable condition, three kinds of miserable condition?" So in answer to this question, "Who am I?" or "Who are all these living entities?" Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu immediately answered that jīvera svarūpa haya nitya-kṛṣṇa-dāsa (Cc. Madhya 20.108-109). The real identity of the living entity is that he is eternally servant of God. We should not understand this word servant in the meaning of materialistic servant. To become servant of God is a great position. That is not ordinary position. Just like people try to get some government servitorship. Government service. That is also servant, to become servant. Why? Or people try to get some service in some established firm, well-reputed business firm. Why? That service is comfortable, there is great profit in such kind of service. So if people are satisfied by getting a government service or service in some good establishment, then just think over if you become servant of God then what is your position? Because God is the government of all government. So to become servant of God... We are servant of God constitutionally. Just like Caitanya Mahāprabhu says, jīvera svarūpa haya nitya-kṛṣṇa-dāsa (Cc. Madhya 20.108-109).
But why your process of enjoyment is checked? You want unchecked happiness. You do not wish to die. Why death overcomes you? We are sitting here very peacefully. If there is any information, "Oh, the ceiling is going to fall down," we shall immediately vacate this floor because we are afraid of death. That means I want eternal life, but death is there. These questions should be answered. Why I am subject to death? Why I am subjected to birth? Why I am subjected to disease, old age?
This is called brahma-jijñāsā. Athāto brahma jijñāsā. This is called inquiry, real inquiry. That is human life's inquiry. The beasts, the birds, the animals, they can(not) inquire these things. They are suffering, but they cannot inquire, "Why I am suffering?" Here is an opportunity. Here you can understand that "I am as good as God, although I am very small." Then you can prepare yourself. Tat tvam asi: "You are the same." You can also join with Kṛṣṇa and dance with Him. Why you are forgetting that? But you have to qualify yourself. You cannot dance with the dog and God at the same time. If you want to dance with the dog, then remain here. Go on perpetually dancing with the dog. But if you want to dance with God, you can prepare yourself and go there and dance with him. That is up to you because tat tvam asi: "You are the same." That, everything, is my choice, what I want to do.
Because we understand it from Bhagavad-gītā. It is stated that avināśi tu tad viddhi yena sarvam idaṁ tatam: "That thing which is spread all over your body..." And what is that thing? This consciousness. You pinch any part of your body; you feel pain because the consciousness is there. "So that thing, consciousness," Kṛṣṇa says, the teacher of Bhagavad-gītā, "that is eternal." Eternal. Now, how it is eternal? When you were a child the consciousness was there. Then you grew up to your boyhood—the consciousness was there. Then you are now young—the consciousness is there. And when you become old man like me, the consciousness will be there.
Therefore, in spite of my changing different kinds of body, the consciousness is there. And when I shall change this body for another new body, this consciousness will go with me. And according to that consciousness, I'll get a particular type of body. So at the present moment, because we are changing different kinds of bodies, that means my consciousness is not pure. And we have to make our consciousness pure, which is technically called Kṛṣṇa consciousness. And as soon as the consciousness is pure, you get your eternal existential life. That is the sum and substance of becoming Kṛṣṇa conscious. And this movement is for that purpose, Kṛṣṇa consciousness. You have any other inquiry about?
So janma karma me divyaṁ yo jānāti tattvataḥ (BG 4.9). And this inquisitiveness, the appearance and disappearance of Kṛṣṇa, and His activities, this inquisitiveness, is transcendental enquiries. So we must know it from persons who are in the knowledge. And that way we shall be able to put ourself constantly in Kṛṣṇa consciousness, and the result will be that tyaktvā deham, by quitting this body we shall be at once transferred to the transcendental world. This is the process.
Now, in the next śloka Kṛṣṇa says that
- man-mayā mām upāśritāḥ
- bahavo jñāna-tapasā
- pūtā mad-bhāvam āgatāḥ
- (BG 4.10)
Kṛṣṇa says that "Arjuna, in the past there were many sages who," vīta-rāga-bhaya-krodhāḥ, "after surpassing three stages of existence, when they came to Kṛṣṇa consciousness, they were liberated." Vita-rāga-bhaya-krodhāḥ. Now, what is this rāga? Rāga-bhaya-krodhāḥ. Rāga means attachment, attachment. And vīta-rāga-bhaya. Bhaya means fear, and krodha means anger. So these three stages are there in our life.
That is described in the Bhagavad-gītā that na jāyate mriyate vā kadācit. For the living entity, there is no death, there is no birth. But this is something fictitious. Every one of us experience birth and death. But the real fact is na jāyate mriyate vā. But we are so foolish, we do not inquire that "In the śāstra it is said that we have no birth and no death. Then why I am dying and why I am taking my birth?" This is our punishment.
We are... Actually, our real constitutional position is to be controlled by Kṛṣṇa, but because we have revolted against Kṛṣṇa, therefore we are servant of māyā. Servant is my nature. Therefore it is called, ye yathā māṁ prapadyante. If you surrender to Kṛṣṇa, then Kṛṣṇa controls you, He takes care of you. But if you do not surrender to Kṛṣṇa, but your position is to surrender, you have to surrender to the laws of material nature and you'll be controlled. Therefore ye yathā māṁ prapadyante. Māṁ prapadyante.
Kṛṣṇa and Kṛṣṇa's energy... Śakti-śakti-mator abhinnā. Kṛṣṇa's energy is also controller, Durgā. Sṛṣṭi-sthiti-pralaya-sādhana-śaktir ekā chāyeva yasya bhuvanāni vibharti durgā (Bs. 5.44). Durgā is the śakti, external energy. She has got also immense power. Sṛṣṭi-sthiti-pralaya-sādhana. The material nature is very strong, creating, maintaining and destroying. Sṛṣṭi-sthiti-pralaya-śaktiḥ chāyeva. But she's acting under the direction of Kṛṣṇa. Mayādhyakṣeṇa prakṛtiḥ sūyate sa-carācaram (BG 9.10).
Similarly, here Lord says, cātur-varṇyaṁ mayā sṛṣṭaṁ guṇa-karma-vibhāgaśaḥ: (BG 4.13) "According to quality and karma, these cātur-varṇya, four classes or four castes or four classes of division of the human society, is created by Me." So brahma jānāti iti brāhmaṇaḥ. If you want to know Brahman... Because that is the prerogative of your life, human life. Vedānta-sūtra says, athāto brahma jijñāsā. Athāto brahma-jijñāsā: "Oh, here is the chance for inquiring about Brahman." Athāto brahma jijñāsā. Now we should take the chance to become a brāhmaṇa. As soon as we begin to inquire about Brahman or the Supreme Brahman, Kṛṣṇa, then my process of becoming the brāhmaṇa begins.
You know that the brāhmaṇas, the kṣatriyas, and the vaiśyas, they have got the sacred thread. You have seen. I have got the sacred thread. This is, of course, not very valuable. It is... (chuckles) It is made of cotton. But this is a badge. This badge is given to a person who is twice-born, who is twice-born.
So anyone can become twice-born. There is no hindrance.
So originally all these qualities are there in God.
And therefore Vedānta-sūtra says what is God, what is the Absolute Truth? Athātho brahma-jijñāsā. When (we) inquire about God, about the Absolute Truth, the answer is immediately given: janmādy asya yataḥ (SB 1.1.1). The Absolute Truth is that from whom everything comes, everything emanates. So everything is coming from God. He's the original source of all supplies. Now what is our position? There are innumerable living entities. Nityo nityānāṁ cetanaś cetanānāṁ (Kaṭha Upaniṣad 2.2.13). That is Vedic information. God is also a living entity, like us, but He's the chief living entity. And we are also living entity.
Just like one father. Father may have got twenty children. Twenty sons. Formerly, they used to have one hundred sons. Now the fathers have no such power. But in the, up to five thousand years ago, King Dhṛtarāṣṭra gave birth to one hundred sons. Now we are... We say, we are saying that we are overpopulated. But that's not the fact. At the present moment, where there is the question of overpopulation? Now how many of us giving birth hundreds of children? No. Nobody. But formerly, a father could give birth to one hundred children. So there is no question of overpopulation. And even there is overpopulation, we get information from the Vedas: eko bahūnāṁ yo vidadhāti kāmān. That one chief living entity, God, He can maintain innumerable living entities.
Uttiṣṭhata jāgrata prāpya varān nibodhata: "You have got now this human body. In the animal body you could not understand what is spirit soul, what is God. Now you have got the opportunity." Uttiṣṭhata: "Now get up." Prāpya varān nibodhata. "You have got this opportunity to understand." Athāto brahma jijñāsā. "Now it is your opportunity to inquire about jīvasya tattva-jijñāsā." These are the instruction in the Vedic literature. Tattva-jijñāsā. The human life is only meant for tattva-jijñāsā, to understand the Absolute Truth.
That requires brahminical culture, not the dull brain of śūdras and caṇḍālas. They cannot understand. Therefore there must be an institution to educate a brāhmaṇa, to educate kṣatriya. That is required. Cātur-varṇyaṁ mayā sṛṣṭam (BG 4.13). If you don't do it, if you simply produce śūdras, bolt, nut manufacturers, technicians, then how you can be happy? Śūdras. This is the business of the śūdras. This is not business of brāhmaṇa. You keep śūdras, but there must be brāhmaṇas also.
So we are part and parcel of God, Kṛṣṇa, so we also must be feeling enjoy. Why we are so much distressed—adhyātmika, adhibhautika, adhidaivika? This question should arise. If this question does not arise, then we are as good as cats and dogs. That's all. The cats and dogs never inquire. Cat will never inquire that "Why I am starving? Why I am dying? Why everybody chases me? I have to go out." The dog also. So if in the human form of life we remain blind without seeing the problems of life and still we say we are very much joyful, enjoying life, where is your enjoyment? There is no enjoyment.
We are foolishly thinking that enjoying life. That enjoyment, life, means a little sex enjoyment. That's all. That is also very abominable, yan maithunādi-gṛhamedhi-sukhaṁ hi tuccham (SB 7.9.45), very abominable happiness. We don't want to discuss that. But the effect of sense enjoyment is suffering. Tṛpyanti neha kṛpaṇā bahu-duḥkha-bhājaḥ. Illicit sex or legal sex, it is followed by so many miserable conditions. That, everyone, we can understand. Simply we have to become sober. Then we'll understand this material existence is not at all good, not at all.
So our business does not finish there. Our business is more business, that "If I am eternal as God is eternal, then why I am subjected to birth and death?" This is real question. This is called brahma-jijñāsā. The Vedānta-sūtra, the Vedānta philosophy, begins from this inquiry, athāto brahma jijñāsā: "This human life is meant for inquiring for the Absolute Truth, what is the ultimate truth of life." Janmādy asya yataḥ (SB 1.1.1). So when we forget completely our real problems of life, that is animalism.
So that animalism... When the human society, the animalism is prominent, simply living like animals, that is called dharmasya glāniḥ, "deficiency in the matter of dharma." Therefore, in human society there is some sort of religious system. It does not matter what is that religion. May be Hinduism or Christianism or Mohammedanism or Buddhism. In the civilized human society there is some conception of religious principle. Without religious principle, we are cats and dogs because in the cat society, dog society there is no such thing as church, mosque, or temple or synagogue. They live naked and bark. That's all. So if we simply live and try to become naked like the cats and dogs and bark, then where is the difference? Where is the difference? No difference. So we must take to religious system. That is humanity.
If there is any difficulty to understand, we may consult persons who are in the understanding. We may consult books. We may consult authorities. That we can do because inquiry is always allowed. Tad viddhi praṇipātena paripraśnena sevayā (BG 4.34). The, I mean to say, the transcendental inquiry is never forbidden. A sincere person, one can make inquiry. But fact is this. If I cannot understand in my present condition, that is my misunderstanding. But the fact is this that Kṛṣṇa, when He comes, He is not any, like any one of us. He's transcendental. Neither any act which He does, it has got reaction. And He says, na me karma-phale spṛhā, "I have no desire for any fruitive activities."
Just like we want to do something. Suppose I want to do some business. And what is the idea? Because I want to make some profit out of the business, and if there is sufficient profit, I shall be gainer, I shall be rich man, I shall be able to enjoy life and so on, so on, so many things, I have got background. So I have my desires whenever I do something. We conditioned souls, whenever we do something, there is some desire behind it. And what is that desire? For enjoyment. That's all.
So in the material condition, that is not applicable perfectly, but so far spiritual condition is concerned, God must be given full freedom. Otherwise there is no meaning of God. If God is also under the, under your laws... Sometimes: "Why God has done like this?" They inquire like that. This question sometimes put. "Why God has put us into this condition?" These are foolish questions. But the real conception of God is that He is free to do anything, whatever He likes. You cannot say, "Why God can... Will... God will do this, will do not that." No. That is not the conception of God.
So here Kṛṣṇa says that na me karma-phale spṛhā. He is ātmārāma. Ātmārāma. Ātmārāma means He is fully satisfied in Himself. And He can create so many things. He is creator. So there is no question of desiring something. He can do anything, whatever He likes. But... That will be explained.
He sets example. Just like in the previous verse. We have already discussed.
Just like if you go to a scientist man, you don't inquire whether he is a brahmacārī or sannyāsī or gṛhastha. You require the knowledge. That is also confirmed by Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu. Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu says,
kibā vipra, kibā nyāsī, śūdra kene naya
yei kṛṣṇa-tattva-vettā, sei 'guru' haya
It doesn't matter whether one is a brāhmaṇa, kibā vipra, kibā śūdra, or one is śūdra, kibā vipra, kibā nyāsī, kene naya, or whether he is a sannyāsī. Yei kṛṣṇa-tattva-vettā, one must know the science of Kṛṣṇa. The science of Kṛṣṇa is being explained by Kṛṣṇa Himself.
Just like Arjuna was thinking in the beginning that "Fighting and killing is not good, especially fighting with the family members and killing them. No, no, I cannot do that." Bad work. He was thinking it was bad. But same thing he did. When he understood Bhagavad-gītā, he did not do anything else, because he was a fighter, he was a warrior. In the beginning he was refusing because he was trying to satisfy his senses. "Oh, it is very good. I think it is... I think..." What you are? You are always misguided if you think like that. But the same Arjuna, when understood Bhagavad-gītā... Kṛṣṇa inquired from him, "Now what is your decision?" Now, kariṣye vacanaṁ tava (BG 18.73). "Yes, now I have decided." So what is that vacanaṁ tava? Kṛṣṇa asked him to fight. So same fighting, how he became good now? Because Kṛṣṇa wanted it. A good work.
So this should be our motto of life, that you should act if Kṛṣṇa is pleased. This is good work. That is confirmed in many places in Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam. Ataḥ pumbhir dvija-śreṣṭhāḥ (SB 1.2.13). Sūta Gosvāmī said in the meeting of great learned scholars and brāhmaṇas in Naimiṣāraṇya. He said, dvija-śreṣṭhāḥ: "O best of the brāhmaṇas who have assembled here to hear me..." Dvija-śreṣṭhāḥ. Ataḥ pumbhir dvija-śreṣṭhā varṇāśrama-vibhāgaśaḥ. Again that varṇāśrama. Without varṇāśrama, it is a rascal society. That's all. It is not even human society. It is animal society. But that we have lost now. Again it is said, varṇāśrama-vibhāgaśaḥ. Ataḥ pumbhir dvija-śreṣṭhāḥ. He was speaking amongst the very learned scholars and brāhmaṇas. Therefore he addressed, "My dear all great brāhmaṇas, dvija-śreṣṭhā..."
ow, take for example, take for example the material world. The most prominent thing is, I mean to say, unity between man and woman. Now, one can inquire, "Wherefrom this attraction comes between male and female?" Not only the human society, but also in animal society, in the bird society, in any society, every living be... This is a fact. So somebody criticizes, but those who do not know Kṛṣṇa, that Kṛṣṇa had so many girlfriends. So they are... Some people are criticize. But one does not know that where we get this idea of having girlfriends unless the tendency is in Kṛṣṇa? Because you can have nothing here unless that is in Kṛṣṇa. But here it is perverted. It is polluted. And Kṛṣṇa, it is pure consciousness, pure spiritual. That is the difference.
So one who does not know, they want to avoid something. Nothing is, I mean to, can be, can exist in this material world unless it is in Kṛṣṇa. Janmādy asya yataḥ (SB 1.1.1). So these things have to be studied very scientifically and from books like Bhagavad-gītā, Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, and when he is perfectly learned, then his symptom is that he becomes a, a pure devotee of Kṛṣṇa. Ahaṁ sarvasya prabhavo mattaḥ sarvaṁ pravartate (BG 10.8): "I am the source, fountainhead," Kṛṣṇa says. "I am the source and fountainhead like, of everything. One who understands this science, then he takes to Kṛṣṇa." How? Now, budhā bhāva-samanvitāḥ, with full knowledge, and he becomes a devotee of Kṛṣṇa.
Now, Caitanya Mahāprabhu first of all inquired that the Muhammadan magistrate... They established their relation as the uncle and nephew. Caitanya Mahāprabhu became the nephew, and the Kazi, the magistrate, he became the uncle. So Caitanya Mahāprabhu addressed the uncle, "My dear uncle, why you are killing your father and mother?" So the uncle replied, "What is that? I am killing our father and mother?" "Yes. Because the cow is your mother. She gives milk. And the bull, he helps you in the agricultural fields. He produces grain. So just like father and mother—mother supplies milk and father brings grain—so they are your father and mother. How you are killing your father and mother?"
So the uncle replied that... He was also very educated, learned. He said that "In Your Vedic scripture there is cow sacrifice. So You are also killing cow." Just I am going to explain the sacrifice. Now, Caitanya Mahāprabhu explained there that that was not killing. When there was some animal sacrifice, an old animal would be sacrificed in the altar, but it would be given a new life. It was practically testing of the Vedic mantra by the qualified brāhmaṇas. So He said, "Because at the present moment there are no qualified brāhmaṇas, therefore such kind of sacrifice is stopped. Stopped." That was His explanation.
So Kṛṣṇa and Kṛṣṇa's name, or anything in this world, sarvaṁ khalv idaṁ brahma, that is Kṛṣṇa, because it is energy of Kṛṣṇa. And you cannot separate the energy from the energetic. I have already explained that you cannot separate fire or heat or smoke from the fire, because the three things are emanating from the fire. Therefore in the Vedānta-sūtra it is said, janmādy asya yataḥ (SB 1.1.1). The first code is athāto brahma jijñāsā, "Now, this human life, is meant for inquiring about the Absolute Truth." In cats' and dogs' life we cannot. By evolution process, when you come to human form of life, there is chance of understanding Kṛṣṇa. Therefore when we get this human form of life, if you do not understand Kṛṣṇa, then you are committing suicide, ātma-han, cutting one's throat himself. So we should not be ātma-han. Labdhvā su-durlabham idaṁ bahu-sambhavānte mānuṣyam arthadam. This human form of life is purposeful. Don't waste. That is the injunction of the śāstra.
So we, if we are intelligent enough, then we should consider that "If I have to do this job after many, many births—I am getting myself to very much experience—and Lord Kṛṣṇa says that this is the last point of knowledge, why not accept it immediately? Why not accept immediately? If I have to come to Kṛṣṇa at the last stage of mature knowledge and I surrender unto Him, then why should I wait for many births? Why should I wait for many births? Let me surrender unto me (Him)."
Just yesterday night one of our friends inquired that "How long it takes time to have complete Kṛṣṇa consciousness?" So I replied that the Kṛṣṇa consciousness can take place in a second, and it may not take in thousands of years. Because the point is here, that after all, we have to come to this point, that surrender unto Kṛṣṇa, vāsudevaḥ sarvam iti (BG 7.19)—Vāsudeva means Kṛṣṇa—"Kṛṣṇa is everything, and therefore I surrender unto Him." Sa mahātmā sudurlabhaḥ. That person, great soul, is very rare to be found. Therefore why not become that great soul immediately by surrender unto Kṛṣṇa? This is the point. By sacrifice. Sacrifice means we have to come to that point.
One who has become inquisitive in the uttamam. Uttamam means udgata-tama, not any question of pertaining to the material world. One who is eager to question about the Absolute Truth or the spiritual world, he requires a spiritual master. Tasmād guruṁ prapadyeta (SB 11.3.21). The first injunction is that tasmād guruṁ prapadyeta: "You must submit to a spiritual master."
Who? Who is recommended to find out a spiritual master? Tasmād gurum...jijñāsuḥ. Jijñāsuḥ means who is inquisitive. What kind of inquisitive? Jijñāsuḥ śreya uttamam: "What is the ultimate goal of my life?" If you have no such view to inquire what is the ultimate goal of your, you need not require to search out a spiritual master. Spiritual master is not a show bottle. Just like, "Oh, so many people, they have got a spiritual master. Let me have also some spiritual master." It is not like that. It is only jijñāsuḥ, one must be very much inquisitive of the transcendental subject matter. He requires a spiritual master. So here also, the Lord says that tad viddhi: "If you want to understand that transcendental subject matter, then you must approach a person, a bona fide spiritual master."
And the process is praṇipāta, praṇipātena. Praṇipāta means full surrender. Pra means prakṛṣṭa-rūpeṇa, fully, and nipāta means completely becoming a blank slate. Blank slate. Nobody should approach a bona fide spiritual master just to argue with him and just to, with a desire that "I shall see what kind of spiritual master." No. This is useless. You have to select a spiritual master...
My Guru Mahārāja, my spiritual master, used to say that you have to select a spiritual master not by seeing but by your ear, but by hearing. And you don't select a spiritual master who has got a very good hair or beard or some very beautiful feature, "Oh, he is a very good, nice looking." No. You must hear. Tad viddhi praṇipātena (BG 4.34). Śruti. The whole process is śruti. The Vedas are called śruti. The ear has to aural reception.
So here also the same thing recommended by Lord Kṛṣṇa, that praṇipāta. First of all, you have to find out a bona fide spiritual master, and then you should surrender unto him. This is the first process. Praṇipātena paripraśnena. Paripraśnena means by sincere inquiries. Not only surrender, you must be intelligent enough to inquire. Not that when something is heard, and there is no question. No. There must be some question. Paripraśnena and sevayā. So surrender, inquiry, and sevā, service.
Here also, Kṛṣṇa advises that "If you have to learn," say, for Bhagavad-gītā, "then you have to go to a person where you can surrender." Not only surrender, not blindly surrender. You must be able to inquire. Paripraśna. The next qualification is paripraśna. Paripraśna means inquiry. Without inquiry, you cannot make advance. Just like a student in the school who inquires from the teacher, he's very intelligent. Even a boy, a child, if he inquires from the father, "Oh, father, what is this? What is this?" that child is very intelligent. Very intelligent. So inquiry is required, not only praṇipāta... "Oh, I have found out a very good spiritual master, very learned and very good, saw. All right. I have surrendered. Then all my business finished." No. That is not...
You may have a very good spiritual master, but if you have no power to inquire, then you cannot make progress. Inquiries must be there. But inquiry, how inquiry? Not to challenge. Inquiry, not that "Oh, I shall see what kind of spiritual master he is. Let me challenge him and put some irrelevant questions and talk nonsensically, this way and that way." Oh, that will not make... Inquiry on the point. Paripraśna means inquiry on the point, and that inquiry should be sevā.
Sevā means service. Not that "Oh, I have inquired so many things from such and such person. Oh, I have not rendered any payment or any service, so I have gained." No. Without service, your inquiry will be futile. So three things here. Praṇipāta, paripraśna and sevā. Praṇipāta. Praṇipāta means you must have the qualification to, at least to find out a person who is actually qualified to give you real instruction. That you have to do. That remains on you.
Athāto brahma... In the Brahma-sūtra, in the Vedānta-sūtra, it is stated, athāto brahma jijñāsā. Brahma-jijñāsā. Brahma-jijñāsā means to inquire, inquire about the supreme subject matter Brahman. That requires a qualification. Atha. Atha means those who have become experienced of this miserable life of this material world. They can inquire. Then can inquire what is Absolute Truth, what is spiritual life. Athāto brahma jijñāsā. Similarly, in the Bhāgavata also it is stated, tasmād guruṁ prapadyeta jijñāsuḥ śreya uttamam (SB 11.3.21).
Śreya uttamam. Uttamam means the udgata-tamam. That is transcendental. Tama means darkness. Anything of this material world, that is in darkness because this material world is dark. You know that the whole world, whole universe, is dark. Therefore there is requisition of the sunlight, moonlight, electricity. It is dark. So uttamam means which is beyond this darkness, beyond this darkness. That means transcendental subject, spiritual subject. In the spiritual world there is no darkness. So if anyone is desirous of inquiring about the spiritual world, then he requires to find out a spiritual master. Otherwise there is no necessity. For a man who wants to remain in this darkness, for material benefit...
Somebody asked me... That, I think, Mr. Moscowitz asked me this question. I answered this point. His inquiry was: "How long it will take to be perfect in Kṛṣṇa consciousness?" So I replied that Kṛṣṇa consciousness can be had in one second, and it cannot be had in thousands of births and deaths. So why? But if we understand this principle that after attainment of full knowledge, I have to ultimately surrender to vāsudevaḥ sarvam iti (BG 7.19), I have to become the, I mean to say, sa mahātmā, a great soul like that, why not immediately surrender to Kṛṣṇa? Why not become immediately the supreme, I mean to say, great soul. Sa mahātmā sudurlabhaḥ. That is a process.
But we are, some of us, or most of us, we are not prepared to accept immediately Kṛṣṇa as the Supreme or we have got many doubts. Therefore, in order to drive away, dissipate all your doubtful ideas, the śāstras, the scriptures, the Bhagavad-gītā and Śrīmad-Bhāgavata, are there, and if we make scrutinizingly study of these two books, we can understand the Kṛṣṇa science very nicely, and our progress in the matter of Kṛṣṇa consciousness will be definite. Thank you very much. If there is any question, you can ask. (end)
Kṛṣṇa... Yes. He is in the (indistinct) You are very intelligent. This Supersoul is also partial representation of Kṛṣṇa. Just like the sun, the real sun, and the reflection of sun. If you have got thousands of pots in your presence, you will find the reflection of the sun in thousands of the pots, but the real sun is one. Similarly, this Supersoul is the reflection of the reality, partial reflection of the Supreme. Is it clear? Just like you are standing here, and at noon the sun is on your head, and five thousand miles away you inquire from somebody, "Where is sun?" He will say, "Oh, it is on my head." Five thousand miles this way or that way, any way you inquire, many, many people, many thousands of people you inquire, they will say, everyone will say that "The sun is on my head." Similarly, although the sun is one, as he is perceived that he is present on everyone's head, similarly, although Kṛṣṇa is one without a second, by inconceivable transcendental power He can be present in everyone's heart. Akhilātma-bhūtaḥ. Goloka eva nivasaty akhilātma-bhūtaḥ (Bs. 5.37). That is the power of Kṛṣṇa. That is the power of Supersoul. We cannot. Suppose I am sitting here, you are sitting here. You are not at your home. I am not in India, I am sitting here. I cannot see simultaneously in India and America. That is not possible, because I am not Supersoul. But the Supersoul can be present everywhere. You will find this explanation in the Thirteenth Chapter of the Bhagavad-gītā. Now we are discussing the Fourth Chapter. When you go to the Thirteenth Chapter, this point will be more clearly explained.
If we can find out such a person who is experienced in the Absolute Truth, and if we follow the principles, as it is stated here, praṇipātena paripraśnena sevayā. Praṇipāta means to surrender, and paripraśna means to inquire, and sevayā means service. Three things. You should find out a person who is self-realized, who has experience in the Absolute Truth, and, on your part, you have to surrender there, and you have to inquire, and you have to render service. When these things are completed, there is no doubt about one's spiritual salvation.
If we have actually found out a person who is self-realized and we have surrendered there honestly, with inquiry and service, then we must know that our spiritual salvation is guaranteed. Guaranteed. There is no doubt about it.
So Lord Kṛṣṇa says,
- yaj jñātvā na punar moham
- evaṁ yāsyasi pāṇḍava
- yena bhūtāny aśeṣāṇi
- drakṣyasy ātmany atho mayi
- (BG 4.35)
People are anxious to see God. Here Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa says that as soon as one gets knowledge from the right person, then he never comes into the field of delusion. The whole thing is that in the present stage of our life, we are conditioned and deluded. We do not know things as they are. That is the cause of our all miseries.
Prabhupāda: Hare Kṛṣṇa. Page... page.
Madhudviṣa: Verse thirty-four: "Just try to learn the truth by approaching a spiritual master. Inquire from him submissively and render service unto him. The self-realized soul can impart knowledge unto you because he has seen the truth (BG 4.34)." Purport.
Prabhupāda: This is the process of understanding spiritual knowledge. "Just try to learn the truth by approaching a spiritual master." So if you want to learn, this is a common sense affair. Whatever subject matter you want to learn, you have to find out an expert.
Suppose if you want to learn engineering, so you cannot go to a butcher. You must find out an engineer. You must admit yourself into the engineering college, learn how to practice engineering. Suppose if you want to become a medical practitioner, so you have to admit yourself in some medical college. Similarly, if you want to know about spiritual matter, then you must approach a spiritual master who knows the things. How you can learn it from anywhere and everywhere? One must be expert in spiritual knowledge. From him you have to learn. Therefore it is said here, "Just try to learn the truth by..."
And how to learn from the spiritual master? "Inquire from him submissively." You don't approach a spiritual master whom you can challenge. Then your selection of spiritual master is wrong. If you keep one spiritual master as showbottle, then your selection is not right. It is wrong. The spiritual master... You must select a spiritual master where you can bow down your head, "Yes," submissive. Therefore you have to see.
Suppose you are going here. You are coming here to learn something. When you are convinced that "Swamiji knows the thing," when you are convinced, then you accept. Then you ask for initiation. Otherwise don't do it hesitatingly or knowing half. Therefore in the system it is enjoined that the spiritual master also observe the disciple at least for one year, and the disciple also studies the spiritual master at least for one year. So when both of them are convinced that "He can be my spiritual master" or "He can be my disciple," then the relationship is established. We initiate our students. The preliminary initiation is offering chanting. Then we observe at least for one year, how he is chanting, how he is doing. Then the second initiation confirms. That is the system.
So inquire from him submissively. Where you cannot submit, if you think that "Oh, what is this spiritual master? I can challenge him," then there is no question of accepting as your spiritual master. You have to submit yourself, fully surrender yourself. You have to bow your head: "Yes. Here is my spiritual..." Just like Kṛṣṇa, er, Arjuna said, śiṣyas te 'haṁ śādhi māṁ tvāṁ prapannam (BG 2.7). Arjuna in the beginning was speaking with Kṛṣṇa on friendly level, but at last, he submitted that "I am Your disciple. Please teach me." This is the process, submissively. "Inquire from him submissively."
Madhudviṣa: "Satisfaction of the self-realized spiritual master is the secret of advancement in spiritual life. Inquiries in submission constitute the proper combination for spiritual understanding. Unless there is submission in service, inquiries from the learned spiritual master will not be effective. One must be able to pass the test of the spiritual master. And when the spiritual master sees the genuine desire of the disciple, he automatically blesses the disciple with genuine spiritual understanding. In this verse both blind following and absurd inquiries are condemned."
Prabhupāda: Yes. Blind following and absurd inquiries. These things are condemned in this verse. Blind following means: "Oh, there is a swami. So many thousands of people are following. Let me become his disciple." This is called blind following. You do not know what is that swami, whether he is a swami or a rascal. You do not know. But because everyone is going, "Oh, let me become his disciple." This is blind following, without any knowledge, blind following. The swami says that "You give me money. I make you immediately God." So this is blind following. And another thing, what it says? What? What is that? Blind following?
Madhudviṣa: Absurd inquiries.
Prabhupāda: And absurd inquiries. Absurd inquiries... Just like somebody goes to a so-called spiritual master. There are so many stories, that such-and-such person approached his spiritual master, and he asked his spiritual master, "Can you show me God?" And the spiritual master immediately showed him God. You see? This rascaldom is going on.
Just like here the Bhagavad-gītā is the description, what is God, how He is creating. You know that God has created this world. Now, here there is description how He creates. So such inquiries, such spiritual master, is overcrowded, but you have, if you are sincere, then you have to find out some spiritual master, bona fide spiritual master, who knows about the science of God. Then you try to see God. Otherwise you'll be cheated.
Somebody says, "Oh, everyone is God." Oh, he becomes puffed-up: "I am also God." But what you know about God? You are thinking, "My spiritual master has said that I am God." But you should not inquire that "How I become God?" We learn from scripture, God has created this material universe. Oh, what I have created? And still I am puffed-up—"I am God"? So this cheating business is going on. So these are absurd. Absurd inquiries are condemned herewith. Yes. One must approach to the real spiritual master in submission. Inquire from him by rendering service. Then, gradually, you learn the science.
Here we are teaching our students—not abruptly say that "You have learned." We are teaching them Bhagavad-gītā, Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu, so many books. And we are discussing about God practically whole day and night. We are publishing paper. So in this way one has to learn.
Madhudviṣa: "One should not only hear submissively from the spiritual master, but one must also get a clear understanding from him..."
Madhudviṣa: "...with submission, and service, and inquiries."
Prabhupāda: Yes. Clear understanding. Don't accept anything. First of all there must be submissiveness, no challenge. But at the same time, you must clearly understand. Because you have submitted, it is not that you have to understand something dogmatic. No. Submission must be there, but at the same time, you should have clear understanding. This is science, not that if something is pushed and you are: "Oh, my spiritual master has said; therefore I accept it." That is fact, that you should, but at the same time, by inquiries, by inquisitiveness, you must clear everything. "Yes, God is like this." Go on.
Madhudviṣa: "A bona fide spiritual master is by nature very kind towards his disciple, and therefore when the student is submissive and is always ready to render service, the reciprocation of knowledge and inquiries becomes perfect."
Prabhupāda: Perfect. This is the perfect way. Hm. Go on.
Then, out of many millions of such karmīs, or worker, one is jñānī, or a man in knowledge. When a man comes into the platform of knowledge, when he becomes frustrated by working hard and tasting all results of karma, when one is not satisfied, then he comes to the platform of knowledge. Knowledge means inquiry—"What I am? Why I am frustrated? Why I am confused? What is my position?" That is the platform of knowledge.
So out of many thousands of such persons who have attained knowledge actually, who have understood what is the position of these living entities, brahma-bhūtaḥ, they are called liberated. And out of many thousands of such liberated persons, one can understand what is Kṛṣṇa. This is the position.
So to understand this fact, that simply by engaging oneself into the activities of Kṛṣṇa consciousness everything is completely done, this is called faith. Faith, strong faith, unflinching faith. That is the last instruction of Bhagavad-gītā. Sarva-dharmān parityajya mām ekaṁ śaraṇaṁ vraja: (BG 18.66) "You give up all other engagement. Simply surrender unto Me." That is knowledge. So one who has attained this knowledge... Now, this is the beginning. This is the stepping stone in Kṛṣṇa consciousness, that simply, one who is firmly convinced that "Simply by executing the duties in Kṛṣṇa consciousness, my all other functions will be nicely done."
This is very nice point. Try to understand. The sannyāsī... Just like we are sannyāsī. According to our Vedic system, we are allowed to beg alms from the householders. The social system, the varṇāśrama institution, is so made that the brahmacārī, vānaprastha, and the sannyāsī, and the gṛhastha... Gṛhastha means the householder. Now, the brahmacārī will beg from the householder, the vānaprastha will beg from the householder, and the sannyāsī also beg from the householder. So householder is the only earning member who will feed all these three different status of social orders. But in the Kali-yuga, in this age, some unscrupulous persons, they are taking advantage of this dress because this dress is not very costly. Any kind of cotton cloth, you take, two paisa worth from, or two cent worth, and color, and you get it orange-colored and put on. Because in this age nobody is inquiring whether he is actually a sannyāsī or not, simply by dress... Of course, the dress is the badge.
Now, people are taking advantage of this and they misusing the position. Therefore Kṛṣṇa, I mean to say, foresaw that this will happen in future because He was speaking this Bhagavad-gītā five thousand years before. So, as He is full knowledge, entire knowledge, because He is God, He knows what will happen in the future. Therefore he gave preference to working order than this sannyāsa order. Lord Caitanya also, He also said that in this age sannyāsa is not recommended.
Just like in the Caitanya-caritāmṛta the author says that in this material world, which is illusion, our division that "This is good; this is bad," these are all mental speculation only. In the higher stage they see that in the material bondage nobody is in goodness. Everyone is in trouble. So this material calculation that "This is good, this is bad, and this is happy, and this is miserable," in the transcendental position they think that they are all equal. Ihaiva tair jitaḥ sargo yeṣāṁ sāmye sthitaṁ manaḥ (BG 5.19). Now, one who is situated in such transcendental position of mind, then, ihaiva tair jitaḥ sargaḥ, then in this very body he has conquered rebirth. He has conquered rebirth. The whole position is that we want to stop rebirth, rebirth in this material world. Now, there is a story in the Rāmāyaṇa. In the Rāmāyaṇa there is a story. When Mahārāja Daśaratha... Daśaratha was the father of Lord Rāma. When Rāma was a boy, say about ten years, twelve years old, or about fifteen or sixteen years old... He was simply a boy. Now, one sage, his name is... He's very famous sage. He came to Mahārāja Daśaratha, asking the help of Rāmacandra for killing one demon in the forest. Because the sages used to remain in forest, they were... That demon was creating some disturbance, so he approached the king. King is the lord of both the city and the forest. So he prayed that "Please send your son and help me." Now, at that time this king inquired from that sage, aihisthaṁ yat taṁ punar-janma-jayāya.(?) Now, just like in our worldly affairs we, for gentleman's etiquette we ask, "How are you? How things are going on?" now, here the king was asking the sage, aihisthaṁ yat taṁ punar-janma-jayāya: "You are... You have... You have become mendicant. You have become sage just to conquer over death, conquer over death."
Yes. The complete knowledge, Absolute Truth, means to understand three features of the Absolute Truth. One feature is Brahman, impersonal. The next feature is Paramātmā, localized. And the next feature is Bhagavān, the Supreme Personality of Godhead. When one understands these three features of the Absolute Truth very perfectly then he is in complete knowledge of the science of God. Brahmeti paramātmeti bhagavān iti śabdyate. In the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam it is said that human life is meant for inquiring the Absolute Truth. And the next verse the Absolute Truth is explained. Vadanti tat tattva-vidas tattvam (SB 1.2.11). Those who are in knowledge of the Absolute Truth, they say, "Absolute Truth, that thing which is nondual. Nondual. And that Absolute Truth is known in three phases." What is that? Brahman, Paramātmā, and Bhagavān. There is no difference between Brahman and Paramātmā or Bhagavān, the same thing.
Samaṁ kāya-grīvam. Grīva means this neck. The neck and the skull and the body should be in one straight line. Samaṁ kāya-śiro-grīvaṁ dhārayann acalam. And should not move. Sit down like this. Samprekṣya nāsikāgram. And one has to see the top portion of the nose. Not that one has to close his eyes completely. No. Then you cannot see. Samprekṣya nāsikā agram. You have to see the upper portion of the nose. That means if you... I have seen in some of the yogic societies, they close the eyes completely, and some of them, about fifty percent of them are snoozing, or sleeping, regularly. Because as soon as you close your eyes, and if you have no subject matter to think, and you have been posted to meditate, you do not know to what to meditate, then the next result is sleeping and nothing more. That is practical. So one has to sleep very hard. Somebody was inquiring here... (chuckles) Of course, some of the students, they were sleeping so he was sarcastically (asking) that "Are they sleeping or meditating?" So I (said), "Yes, they are meditating by lying down." Yes. So sometimes meditation goes on in sleeping. No. That is not the process. You cannot close your eyes completely. Then you will invite the queen. Sleep and she will capture you. Whole process will be like that.
So he sent four servants, because he was very rich man. And four hundred rupees—five hundred years ago four hundred rupees means twenty times at the present value. So first of all he accepted, that, "Oh, father has sent, all right." So how he was spending money? So he was inviting all the sannyāsīs, in Jagannātha Purī there were many sannyāsīs, renounced order. And every month he was offering feasting. Then after few days, Lord Caitanya inquired His secretary, Svarūpa Dāmodara, "Oh, nowadays I don't get any invitation from Raghunātha. What happened?" "Oh, Sir, he has stopped accepting his father's money." "Oh, that's very nice." He thought that, "I have renounced everything and I am enjoying my father's money. This is all nonsense." He refused. He asked the man, "You go home. I don't want money." Then how he is living? "Oh, he's standing on the staircase of Jagannātha Temple and when the priests go home with their prasāda, they offer something and he's satisfied." So Caitanya Mahāprabhu said, "Oh, this is all right, very nice." Then Caitanya Mahāprabhu was inquiring how he's standing there. So he ... standing. So Raghunātha dāsa Gosvāmī, after a few days, he stopped that standing also. Then Caitanya Mahāprabhu inquired his secretary, "I don't see Raghunātha standing there. What he is doing?" "No sir, he has given up that standing because he thought, 'Oh, I'm standing just like a prostitute, somebody will come and give me some. No no, I don't like it.' " "Oh, that's very nice. Then how he is eating?" "He's collecting some rejected rice in the kitchen and that he is eating."
That is real. It is cheating, you see? So here is no cheating process. We say that this mahā-mantra can save you, we are distributing publicly, no. Free, without any charge. But people are so fools, they are not prepared to take this. They'll hanker after that mantra, after Maharishi. Pay thirty-five dollars and take some private mantra, you see? So people want to be cheated. And here, Hare Kṛṣṇa mantra, these people are preaching without any charge, declaring in the street, park, everywhere, "Come on, take it." "Oh, this is not good." This is māyā, this is called illusion. This is spell of māyā. And if you charge something, if you bluff, if you cheat, oh, people will follow.
Sacha bole tomare lata... jagat harai dhana kali-yuga dukha lalge haspai (?). This is a Hindi verse by one devotee that this Kali-yuga is so abominable that if you speak truth, then people will come with some rod to beat you. But if you cheat them, bluff them. they'll be bewildered (?), they'll like it. If I say I'm God, people will say, "Oh, here is Swamiji, God." They won't inquire, that "How you have become God? What is the symptom of God? Have you got all the symptoms?" Nobody inquires. So these things happen. Unless one is not fixed up in the self, unless one does not understand what is real self, unless one does not understand what is Superself. So, yoga means to understand this self-realizing process. That is yoga.
The example, just like there is one sun in the sky. But if you keep on the earth millions of waterpot, you'll find in each waterpot the reflection of the sun. Or another example, at noontime you just inquire from your friend, ten thousand miles away, "Where is the sun?" He'll say, "On my head." So millions and trillions of people will see sun on his head. But the sun is one. And another example, the waterpot. The sun is one, but if there are millions of waterpots you'll find in each pot the sun is reflected. Similarly there may be innumerable living entities. There is no count. Jīvasya asaṅkhya. In the Vedic language it is said that living entities, there is no count. Innumerable. So similarly Viṣṇu is, if a material thing like sun can be reflected in each and every waterpot, so why not the Supreme Personality of Godhead Viṣṇu live in each and everyone's heart. It is not difficult to understand. He's living. That is stated. And the yogi has to concentrate his mind on that Viṣṇu form. So this Viṣṇu form is plenary portion of Kṛṣṇa.
So one who is engaged in Kṛṣṇa consciousness, he's already a perfect yogi. That will be explained. He's a perfect yogi. That we'll explain in the last verse of this chapter.
Devotee: Prabhupāda? Is the samādhi which is the perfection of this eightfold yoga system the same as the samādhi of bhakti-yoga?
Prabhupāda: Yes. Samādhi means to absorb the mind with Viṣṇu. That is samādhi. So if you absorb your mind with Kṛṣṇa then it is samādhi. (break) Any inquiry? He'll ask. All right.
Young boy: Swamiji? You said that if you eat too much you will pay. But how about the devotee? How about when they eat too much prasāda?
Prabhupāda: You want to eat more?
Young boy: I just want to know how.
Prabhupāda: You think you are eating more? So you can eat more. Yes, you can eat more. Yes, it is medical advise, that there are two kinds of mistakes in eating. Over-eating and under-eating. So under-eating mistake for old man is very good. And over-eating mistake for boys, that is good. So you can overeat. I cannot.
In the material world, if you work for some time, then you'll feel tired. You'll require rest. Of course, I am not, I mean to say, exaggerating myself. I am an old man of seventy-two years. Oh, I was ill. I went back to India. I have come again. I want to work! I want to work. Naturally, I would have retired from all these activities, but I don't feel... So far I can do, I want work. I want to..., day and night. At night I work with dictaphone. So I am sorry... I become sorry if I cannot work. This is Kṛṣṇa consciousness. One must be very much anxious to work. It is not that it is an idle society. No. We have got sufficient engagement. They are editing papers, they are selling papers. Just simply find out how Kṛṣṇa conscious can be spread, this much. This is practical.
So if you want really peace, if you want to be happy, take to this philosophy, Kṛṣṇa consciousness. And the beginning is how to develop attachment for Kṛṣṇa. So the process which we have prescribed, this chanting before the Deities and offering prasādam, this will make you gradually advanced. So we shall talk later on further on this subject. If there is any question, you can inquire.
When he develops attachment for Kṛṣṇa. Nobody can certify him. He will certify himself. If you have got attachment for any other thing, then you are not in samādhi. If you have only attachment for Kṛṣṇa, then you are in samādhi. You don't require certificate from others. You know yourself. Just like while eating you can understand whether you are satisfied or not. While eating, if you are hungry man, if you are eating, you'll know, "Oh, I have eaten something. I am feeling now strength." You don't require to inquire from your friend, "Oh, am I feeling strength?" "Oh," he'll say, "what nonsense. You know yourself." Similarly, if you have... You can test yourself whether you have got full attachment for Kṛṣṇa. If not, you are not in samādhi. The test is in your hand. And that is being explained. Mayy āsakta-manāḥ. In full attachment for Kṛṣṇa. And you can understand what is the meaning of attachment. You have got attachment for sex. You have got attachment for so many things. So similarly, if you have developed attachment only for Kṛṣṇa and you have no more any other attachment, then you are in samādhi. It is not artificial. It is practical. (pause) Śrī Rāma. (end)
Arjuna was put into that position by the supreme will of the Lord. Unless... Just like in the theatrical stage, both the father and the son, they are playing some part. The father is playing a king, and the son is playing another king. Both are inimical. But actually they are playing as such. Similarly, Arjuna is eternal friend of Kṛṣṇa. He cannot be in delusion. How he can be delusioned if Kṛṣṇa is his constant friend? But he was supposed to be in delusion so that he played the part of a conditioned soul and Kṛṣṇa explained the whole thing. He played that ordinary person; therefore all his questions were just like ordinary man. Unless... Because the teachings of Gītā was lost. That is explained. So Kṛṣṇa wanted to deliver again the yoga system of Gītā. So somebody must ask. Just like you are asking, I'm answering. Similarly Arjuna, although he was not to be supposed in illusion, he placed himself as representative of this conditioned soul and he inquired so many things, the answers were given by Lord.
So we have to follow the footprints, the footsteps of the ācāryas. That is mentioned in the... Ācāryopāsanam. If you want to advance in knowledge, then you must worship the ācāryas. Otherwise what knowledge you will get? You cannot get, manufacturing knowledge or getting knowledge from somebody who has manufactured knowledge. The knowledge must be received by paramparā, by paramparā, as Kṛṣṇa says. Evaṁ paramparā-prāptam (BG 4.2), sa kāleneha yogo naṣṭaḥ parantapa. He again spoke the science of Bhagavad-gītā to Arjuna because the paramparā was broken. Sa kāleneha naṣṭaḥ. Otherwise there was no need of speaking Bhagavad-gītā to Arjuna. And why He selected Arjuna to understand Bhagavad-gītā? That is also explained. One may say that Arjuna was a gṛhastha, householder, and a politician and a soldier. Why Bhagavad-gītā was instructed to him? That is natural. He was not a vedāntī. He was not a brāhmaṇa. He was not a sannyāsī. Why he was selected to understand Bhagavad-gītā? This should be... There should be inquiry. Generally you understand that a vedāntī, a sannyāsī, a brāhmaṇa may know about spiritual knowledge, about God. No, that is not the fact. The fact is, as Kṛṣṇa says, bhakto 'si priyo 'si me rahasyaṁ hy etad uttamam: (BG 4.3) "Because you are My devotee, because you are My dear friend, you can understand the mystery of Bhagavad-gītā."
This piling of stones and wood is done also by the birds. They also pick up, according to their strength, some twigs, and they make a nest. That intelligence is there. The rat also, he makes subway. (laughter) You see, So this is not very intelligent work, to imitate the rats, the birds, the cats, the dogs. That is not civilization. Civilization means self-realization, "What I am? Why I am forced to die? I do not like to die." To know this, that is civilization. When all these inquiries will come into one's mind... "Well, I do not wish to die. Why death is there, forced? I am forced to die. I do not wish to be diseased. Why disease comes to me upon me?" When this "why" question will come, "Why?" that is humanity. And if he remains dull, "All right, let me die," then he's cat and dog. That's all. If there is no "Why?" then he's cat and dog.
So human civilization does not mean this piling of woods and stones. No. That is not human civilization. Human civilization means brahma-jijñāsā, inquiry. These are the inquiry. "Why? Why I am forced to do this?" These things are taught regularly in the varṇāśrama system. One is made brahmacārī, celibacy, spiritual. One is made a very decently, family life, gṛhastha. One is made retired life, sannyāsī. Very systematical. So if we don't follow the varṇāśrama-dharma, then we are not even human beings. They are cats and dogs. So therefore Rāmānanda Rāya proposed this varṇāśrama... Varṇāśramācāravatā. He quoted from Viṣṇu Purāṇa. But Caitanya Mahāprabhu said, "Oh, this is rejected." He immediately rejected. Now, so scientific institution of varṇāśrama-dharma system, coming from very early age, Caitanya Mahāprabhu said, "This is external. Say something better." So in this way, Rāmānanda Rāya was putting some better proposal than varṇāśrama-dharma. Then varṇāśrama-tyāga. Tyāga means renouncing, renounced order. But Caitanya Mahāprabhu's speaking, "No, no. It is ... It is not very important. Go more."
If you want to be attracted by somebody, we must know about him, something. Simply superficial understanding will not do. Just like we feel sometimes inconvenience in preaching about Kṛṣṇa because people here, they think they know everything about Kṛṣṇa; what they'll hear about from the Americans and Europeans? "What you can teach us?" Familiarity breeds contempt. No. Kṛṣṇa is not so easy to know.
- manuṣyāṇāṁ sahasreṣu
- kaścid yatati siddhaye
- yatatām api siddhānāṁ
- kaścin māṁ vetti tattvataḥ
- (BG 7.3)
We have to know Kṛṣṇa as He is. So "know" means to hear about Him. Because Kṛṣṇa... We are not directly in contact with Him, Kṛṣṇa, in yoga. Kṛṣṇa-yoga means to know Kṛṣṇa, and then we become attached or make connection with Him. Sambandha. This is called sambandha. We must know what is our relationship with Kṛṣṇa. That relationship is described by Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu when He was inquired by Sanātana Gosvāmī, "So what is my position? What I am?" Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu said that every living entity is eternal servant of Kṛṣṇa.
So we have to understand this fact. This is the business of human life. Athāto brahma jijñāsā. Everyone should be inquisitive to learn about Brahman, the spirit soul. Not like animals. The animals they have got no inquiry about Brahman. They simply eat, sleep beget some offspring and, in due course of time, die. That is not the business of human being. The business of human being is different. That is advised by Prahlāda Mahārāja:
- kaumāra ācaret prājño
- dharmān bhāgavatān iha
- durlabhaṁ mānuṣaṁ janma
- tad apy adhruvam arthadam
- (SB 7.6.1)
Prahlāda Mahārāja recommends, kaumāra ācaret prājño dharmān. Children, kaumāra... Kaumāra means from fifth year to the fifteenth year. These ten years, the boys and girls, especially boys, they should be instructed about religion. Now our government is secular. There is no question of teaching the children about religion, dharmān. Because dharmeṇa hīnāḥ paśubhiḥ samānāḥ. If you don't teach your children from the beginning of life about religion, then you are creating so many animals. Dharmeṇa hīnāḥ paśubhiḥ samānāḥ. Not only here, everywhere, the whole world, they are, their universities are producing some animals. That's all. Therefore there is so much chaos and confusion all over the world.
Then you can love other things, others also. It is not... Just like watering the root of the tree, you automatically pour water in the other parts of the tree, or supplying foodstuffs in the stomach, you supply foodstuffs to all the parts of the body. Similarly, if you can develop your love for God... That is already there. It is not an artificial thing. In the Caitanya-caritāmṛta it is said that nitya-siddha kṛṣṇa bhakti 'sādhya' kabhu naya (?). Our loving propensity or our love for God is already there in every living being, but it is now covered due to our ignorance, or due to our contamination with this material nature. So simply we have to awaken that love. That is our business. That awakening of love cannot be possible in other living condition than the human being. The human being, the human form of life, is therefore the perfectional stage, how to develop our love for God, or how we can love God. This is the main business of human life. Athāto brahma jijñāsā. The Vedānta-sūtra says that this life is especially meant for developing or inquiring about our love with Kṛṣṇa, or God. This is the only business. Athāto brahma jijñāsā.
So that love for Kṛṣṇa, or God, how you can develop or how you can awaken, that is explained by Kṛṣṇa in this verse. Mayy āsakta-manaḥ pārtha yogaṁ yuñjan mad-āśrayaḥ. You have to increase your attachment for Kṛṣṇa, or God. According to Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, the first-class religion is that which teaches the follower how to love God. This is first-class religion.
So this is not very difficult; anyone can practice. How it is difficult? These European, American boys, they were never practiced to it, not in their family or by culture. But because Kṛṣṇa consciousness is there in everyone's heart, simply by little practice it comes, it develops. So we request that to make your life successful, this human form of life, you practice this Kṛṣṇa consciousness, or God consciousness. That is the success of life, not to live like animals, simply eating, sleeping, sex intercourse and defense. They are the business of the animals also. If we develop simply in these four principles of animal life, that is not advancement of civilization. The advancement of civilization is tested when a nation or person is interested to inquire about God. That is advancement. Athāto brahma jijñāsā. This is advancement—how a nation or person is advanced to inquire about God or about himself. God and we, we are of the same quality, because it is stated in the Bhagavad-gītā. That's a fact. God is the supreme living being and we are also living being, but He is the head, supreme. That is the description in the Vedas:
- nityo nityānāṁ cetanaś cetanānām
- eko bahūnāṁ (yo) vidadhāti kāmān
- (Kaṭha Upaniṣad 2.2.13)
These are the description in the Vedas, that God means that as we are persons, He is the supreme person. That's all. Just like you are also persons, you are also Australians, and the president of the Australian government, he is also a person. He is not imperson.
So mad-āśrayaḥ means directly we cannot take shelter of Kṛṣṇa. Therefore, one who has taken shelter of Kṛṣṇa, one who knows the science of Kṛṣṇa, one who knows what is Kṛṣṇa—you take shelter of that person. Mad-āśrayaḥ. Taking shelter, ādau gurv-āśrayam, that is the process of this Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement. Ādau, in the beginning, you have to take shelter of guru. Ādau gurv-āśrayaṁ sad-dharma-pṛcchā: "Then you inquire from him about Kṛṣṇa." Sad-dharma-pṛcchā, sādhu-mārgānugamanam: "Then follow the footstep of big, big devotees." Just like Prahlāda Mahārāja, a great devotee; Kapiladeva, a great devotee; and similarly, Brahmā, a great devotee. Lord Śiva is great devotee; Nārada Muni, a great devotee. There are... Especially twelve names are given in the śāstras, that we have to follow them. That is called sampradāya. Sampradāya means coming in disciplic succession from the original guru. Just like Kṛṣṇa instructed Brahmā, so Brahmā is one of the gurus. So Brahma-sampradāya there is. Brahma-sampradāya. Our this Gauḍīya-sampradāya belongs to that Brahma-sampradāya. In this way there is Rāmānuja-sampradāya. This sampradāya comes from the goddess of fortune, Lakṣmījī. Śrī-sampradāya. In this way there are twelve mahājanas. They are stated in the śāstra. Mahājano yena gataḥ sa panthāḥ (CC Madhya 17.186). We have to take the path of mahājana, and the purpose is how to increase your attachment for Kṛṣṇa. This is the business. And this business, you can occupy yourself in this human form of life. In other form of life...
Then cit. Cit means knowledge, and our body is full of ignorance. We cannot understand knowledge. We have no knowledge immediately what is beyond this wall. If you ask me what is beyond this wall, then I will have to ask some of my disciples, "What is there beyond this wall?" Therefore it is not cit, not full of knowledge. But Kṛṣṇa knows, He says in the Bha..., vedāhaṁ samatītāni: (BG 7.26) "I know everything past, present, and future." When Arjuna enquired... Kṛṣṇa, Arjuna, he is also playing just like Kṛṣṇa's friend. So he enquired for dissipation of the ignorance that "My dear Kṛṣṇa, You are saying that You spoke this philosophy, Bhagavad-gītā, formerly to the sun-god." Without asking Him, "How did You go? How did You return?" he simply asked that "Kṛṣṇa, I know that You are my contemporary. We are of the same age. And how can I believe that millions and trillions of years ago You spoke to sun-god?" So the answer was that "My dear Arjuna, at that time because you are My friend, you were also there, but you have forgotten. I have not forgotten." Therefore He is full of knowledge. We cannot say what we did in our childhood. We have forgotten. This is one of our qualification, forgetfulness. But Kṛṣṇa says that "You have forgotten. Because you are living being, your nature is to forget. But because I am the Supreme Lord, I have not forgotten." Therefore His knowledge is perfect.
So that Kṛṣṇa is advising in this verse in the Seventh Chapter or throughout the whole Bhagavad-gītā. Kṛṣṇa is instructing us how to understand Him. That is our only business. This human form of life is meant for understanding Kṛṣṇa because we are very thickly related with Kṛṣṇa, just like father and the son. This relation cannot be broken. Maybe son is out of home, son may have forgotten, but Kṛṣṇa, the supreme father, He does not forget. He comes. Yadā yadā hi dharmasya glānir bhavati bhārata, tadātmānaṁ sṛjāmy aham (BG 4.7). So Kṛṣṇa is so kind that He has come to explain Himself, what He is. We should take advantage of it, because this human form of life is meant for understanding Kṛṣṇa. Athāto brahma jijñāsā. That is the Vedānta-sūtra. "Now you should inquire of the Absolute Truth." In the Bhāgavata also it is said, jīvasya tattva-jijñāsā nārtho yaś ceha karmabhiḥ. Jīvasya, all living entities, especially the human being, his only business is inquire about the absolute knowledge, Kṛṣṇa.
Last night some gentleman questioned, "What is God?" Bhagavān, especially in our country, Bhāratavarṣa, Bhagavān personally comes. Yadā yadā hi dharmasya glānir bhavati bhārata tadātmānaṁ sṛjāmy aham (BG 4.7). So Bhāratavarṣa is not an ordinary country. It is puṇya-bhūmi where Bhagavān comes. So in this land at the present moment our young men are inquiring what is God. Here Bhagavān comes personally, He leaves His instruction, He's accepted by the ācāryas, and our young men have become so much advanced in education that they're asking what is God.
So we should understand what is the situation at the present moment. So why this has happened? It has happened because we are making progress towards animal civilization. Because in the śāstra it is said,
- yasyātma-buddhiḥ kuṇape tri-dhātuke
- sva-dhīḥ kalatrādiṣu bhauma ijya-dhīḥ
- yat-tīrtha-buddhiḥ salile na karhicij
- janeṣv abhijñeṣu sa eva go-kharaḥ
- (SB 10.84.13)
Anyone who has got this bodily conception of life and in relation to the body the family, country, society, we are thinking they are our kinsmen... And bhauma ijya-dhīḥ, the land which the body is produced, we are taking that land as worshipable. And when we go to the holy places... Just like people come to Jagannātha Purī. They take bath in the sea water, salile, salile, but do not associate with experienced men who are advanced in spiritual consciousness—such person is nothing but cow or ass or animals. Therefore the question has been raised, "What is God?" We shall be careful, at least in India, that we may not glide down more and more to the animal platform of life. (aside:) Why they are being driven away? Let them sit down. Ask them to sit down. That's all. Let them sit down. They'll simply hear. That will also benefit. Anyway...Let them sit down. Even they cannot understand, if they hear the voice they will be benefited.
The particular business of human being is stated in the Vedānta-sūtra: athāto brahma jijñāsā. So these four principles of life, āhāra-nidrā-bhaya-maithunam, there is no difference. Only difference is a human being can inquire about what is God or what is Brahman. Athāto brahma jijñāsā. That is the only business of human life. So a cat, a dog cannot inquire about Brahman, but the gentleman inquire about what is God. Because he is human being he could inquire like that. So there is no cause of disappointment. At least our young men in India, at least still inquiring. That is the culture. "What is God?"this is the beginning of human life, when one inquires about Brahman.
So to inquire about Brahman and to understand Brahman by proper inquiry and by proper answer from the proper source, the cultivation of this knowledge is the business of human being. Therefore a class of men in the society known as brāhmaṇa, brahma jānātīti brāhmaṇaḥ, there is need. There is, necess... The Vedic injunction is tad-vijñānārthaṁ sa gurum evābhigacchet (MU 1.2.12). In order to understand tad-vijñāna, brahma-vijñāna, one must approach the proper guru or spiritual master. Unfortunately we have rejected at the present moment the persons who are actually brāhmaṇa. On the other hand, in the name of brāhmaṇa, some persons claiming as brāhmaṇa, they are ruling over the society. But that is not the way. The brāhmaṇa or kṣatriya or vaiśya, śūdra, they are ascertained by the symptom. In the Bhagavad-gītā it is clearly said, cātur-varṇyaṁ mayā sṛṣṭaṁ guṇa-karma-vibhāgaśaḥ: (BG 4.13) "I have created these four divisions of society, brāhmaṇa, kṣatriya, vaiśya, and śūdra.
So this Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement is trying to reestablish daiva-varṇāśrama, where brāhmaṇa, kṣatriya, vaiśya, śūdra, everyone. Systematic. We are, therefore, proposing to start a college, varṇāśrama college. It is proposed... We are trying so many things, but this is also one of the programs, that the people of the world, they should be educated according to the quality and work: brāhmaṇa, kṣatriya, vaiśya, śūdra. In the Viṣṇu Purāṇa it is said when Caitanya Mahāprabhu inquired from Rāmānanda Rāya... Rāmānanda Rāya belonged to your province. So when there was talk between Caitanya Mahāprabhu and Rāmānanda Rāya, the first topic was "Where is the beginning of human society?" Rāmānanda Rāya replied, quoting from Viṣṇu Purāṇa,
- puruṣeṇa paraḥ pumān
- viṣṇur ārādhyate panthā
- nānyat tat-toṣa-kāraṇam
- (CC Madhya 8.58)
The human society is meant for not only inquiring Brahman but to worship Brahman, Para-brahman. That is human society. So there is necessity of the four classes. At the present moment they are trying to create classless society. That is chaotic society. That is not real society. That is not Vedic civilization. Vedic civilization means when there is classified society begins: brāhmaṇa, kṣatriya, vaiśya, śūdra, brahmacārī, gṛhastha, vānaprastha, and sannyāsa. And without this classification, the whole society will remain in chaotic condition. Just like the comparison is given, mukha-bāhūru.
But this knowledge is little difficult. Therefore Kṛṣṇa says, manuṣyāṇāṁ sahasreṣu kaścid yatati siddhaye (BG 7.3). Out of many millions of human beings, one becomes interested in Kṛṣṇa consciousness, or God consciousness. When I speak "Kṛṣṇa," you should understand "God." So Kṛṣṇa says manuṣyāṇāṁ sahasreṣu. Sahasreṣu is plural number, means among thousands and thousands of men, millions and thousands of men, one become interested. Manuṣyāṇāṁ sahasreṣu kaścid yatati siddhaye. Siddhaye means perfection. Perfection of life. One should be very cool-headed. The distinction—the human being and animal—the animal does not know what is perfection of life. They are simply interested with four principles of bodily necessities: eating, sleeping, mating, and defending. That's all. They have no other inquiries, "What is the perfection?" That means that is not possible in that body. In that animal body, cat's and dog's or hog's or elephant, very big body, or tiger, very powerful body, but they cannot inquire what is the perfection of life. That inquiry is possible in the human form of life. The tiger has got body and a man has got body. Tiger may be very powerful, a man may be very weak, but there is a great distinction between the tiger and the man. Because tiger, becoming so powerful, he has no power to understand what he is or what is the perfection of life. But a human being, although he may be very feeble and very weak than the tiger, he has got the developed consciousness to understand what is perfection of life and what he is. That is the distinction.
Yes. Not God desires. God sanctions. Don't say like that. Desire is yours, but sanction is God's. Just like you want to do some business. You must take sanction from the government. You take license. You cannot do out of your own will. Similarly, you can desire and propose, "God, I want to do this," and God will sanction. So those who are not Kṛṣṇa conscious, they want. "I want this. I want this. I want this. I want this." Kṛṣṇa says, "All right. Take this." But Kṛṣṇa says that "You give up all this nonsense," that we do not take. Kṛṣṇa says, sarva-dharmān parityajya mām ekam: (BG 18.66) "Simply take Me." But that we do not do. We ask Kṛṣṇa, "Please let me do this." "All right, do it." Yathecchasi tathā kuru (BG 18.63). Kṛṣṇa inquires from Arjuna after teaching him Bhagavad-gītā, "Now I have spoken to you everything. What you want to do, you can do." That is Kṛṣṇa's proposal. Kṛṣṇa says that best thing is that you simply take to Kṛṣṇa. But Kṛṣṇa gives you the opportunity, liberty, that whatever you do, whatever you like, you can do. Now it is your choice. Just like father, (and) grown-up son. He says, "My dear boy, you do like this. That is my opinion." But when the son says, "No. I shall do like this." "All right, you do whatever you like." But without father's sanction, as the son cannot do anything, similarly, without Kṛṣṇa's sanction you cannot do anything. But the proposal is yours. Therefore this maxim: "Man proposes, God disposes." So God is not responsible for your work. If you act according to the order of God, then He's responsible. And if you act against the will of God, then you are responsible.
Prabhupāda: You chant Hare Kṛṣṇa and eat nice kṛṣṇa-prasādam, you go back to home. Rest assured.
Devotees: Jaya, Prabhupāda!
Prabhupāda: That's all right. It is so nice. And don't you feel how you are becoming nicer and nicer? Practically. The news reporter... One lady in Philadelphia, she saw our students and she was surprised. She inquired, "Are you Americans?" So we are creating such devotees that people are becoming surprised how this is possible. Yes, it is possible by Kṛṣṇa consciousness. It is simple method. Simply chant Hare Kṛṣṇa and take Kṛṣṇa prasāda. That's all. Don't require any education, philosophical theorizing. Simply do these two business, chant Hare Kṛṣṇa and take kṛṣṇa-prasāda. And our temple is open for that. Everyone. No fee. No charge. So why do you lose this opportunity? Yes?
Guest (4): Why do some people want to approach Kṛṣṇa in hatred?
Prabhupāda: What is that?
Śyāmasundara: Why is that some people want to approach Kṛṣṇa in hatred?
Prabhupāda: Because... Hatred? That is always. Not today. Every day. When Kṛṣṇa was born, there was a Kaṁsa who was planning how to kill Kṛṣṇa. When Kṛṣṇa was born, you know that? So Kṛṣṇa... To kill Kṛṣṇa... There is a section of men who want to kill Kṛṣṇa always. They are called demons, or rākṣasas. So the rākṣasas... More or less, everyone in this material world are demons. But those who are intelligent, from this demonic life they come to Kṛṣṇa consciousness. Others who do not come God consciousness, they remain demons, and their business is just like Kaṁsa, Rāvaṇa, simply making plan how to kill God or kill Kṛṣṇa. That's all. "There is no God." That is their propaganda. "I am God." That's all. So these demonic elements are always there. You have to do your own business. That's all.
But what Kṛṣṇa says, you can test even with your experimental knowledge. That is Vedic knowledge. Vedic knowledge, it is not dogma. The, the statement is there after sufficient experiment. So we, if we accept Vedic knowledge, we save so much time. We may go on experimenting with our limited power of senses, but that will always remain doubtful, that it is perfect. Asaṁśayaṁ samagram. This samagram, this word, is very significant. Samagram means "complete." To understand Kṛṣṇa means to understand the whole cosmic manifestation, God, the material nature, the time factor, the living entities, their respective relationship, everything. That is called samagram. Not that a Kṛṣṇa conscious person does not know about the creation of the material manifestation. He knows, by his reason. That will be explained in this chapter, Seventh Chapter, how this material creation is going on. The modern scientists, they put up creation, that "There was a chunk, and it was burnt into pieces. Then the planetary systems came into existence." But if we inquire, "Wherefrom this chunk comes?" that they cannot answer. Therefore the so-called scientific knowledge always remains in doubt. Darwin's theory... There are so many passages: "It may be, perhaps."
So these things, "Perhaps, it may be," that is not certain. Therefore they have now accepted the theory of uncertainty. But here we, if we hear from Kṛṣṇa, then it is perfect knowledge. Samagram. How this material world is created, how this earth, five elements of gross elements come into existence, and everything will be explained. Asaṁśayaṁ samagraṁ mām (BG 7.1). To understand Kṛṣṇa means to understand everything.
Eating, sleeping, mating and defending, oh, you'll find in animals. There is no distinction. They have got their own defending measures, they have got their own sleeping measures, they have got their own mating measures. You are mating with your wife in a secluded place, in a nice room, in a decorated room, but a dog is mating on the street, but the result is the same. So to improve the method of mating is not advancement of civilization. That is animal civilization polished, that's all. The animal also, the dog can also defend from other dogs. And if you think that you have discovered atomic energy to defend yourself, that is not advancement of human civilization. The defending measure, that's all. Similarly, you go on analyzing.
The analysis of man is perfect when he is searching after his constitutional position. "What I am? What I am? Am I this body? Why I have come to this world?" This inquisitiveness required. That is the special prerogative of human being. Therefore as soon as one begins to inquire "What I am?" and if he goes on searching after this, then he will come to God. Because he is part and parcel of God. He is sample of God. Therefore manuṣyāṇāṁ sahasreṣu (BG 7.3). Out of many, many thousands varieties of men, one, or say a few persons, may be interested to know God. Not only know... Not to know God, just to know himself. And if he actually wants to know himself, then gradually he will come to God.
How Kṛṣṇa is truth, the Absolute Truth, although the Absolute Truth is described in three phases in the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam... Just like vadanti tat tattva-vidas tattvam (SB 1.2.11). This tattva. Here it is said, tattvataḥ. The truth, Absolute Truth, is called tattva. So vadanti tat tattva-vidas tattvam (SB 1.2.11). Tattva-vid. Vid means knowledge. Vetti veda vido jñāne. One who has got complete knowledge, he is called vid, tattva-vid. So tattva-vid, they ascertain the tattva, the truth, in three ways. Vadanti tat tattva-vidas tattvaṁ yaj jñānam advayam (SB 1.2.11). So knowledge of the truth is nondual. Absolute means nondual, no relative, absolute, advaya-jñāna. So what is that advaya-jñāna? Brahmeti paramātmeti bhagavān iti śabdyate. So to approach Kṛṣṇa, to understand, one has to go through the brahma-jñāna, brahmeti, then Paramātmā, paramātma-jñāna. Then kṛṣṇa-jñāna. Brahmeti paramātmeti bhagavān iti śabdyate. So generally, those who are inquiring about the Absolute Truth, they come to the point of brahma-jñāna, brahma-jñāna. Then, if one makes further advance, then he can understand paramātma-jñāna. Paramātma-jñāna means the all-pervasive Personality of Godhead, localized aspect. Īśvaraḥ sarva-bhūtānāṁ hṛd-deśe arjuna tiṣṭhati (BG 18.61). That is paramātma-jñāna. First of all, brahma-jñāna, then paramātma-jñāna, then bhagavad-jñāna.
In this way we are becoming implicated. By the so-called advancement of civilization, we are becoming implicated to these material activities and we are forgetting our real business, self-realization, what I am. Athāto brahma jijñāsā. The real business is to enquire about Brahman, about ātmā, Paramātmā, but we are forgetting that. We are simply busy for the temporary life, say, for fifty years or hundred years, utmost. But we do not know the life is continuation. As the life is continued we have got experience—from babyhood to childhood, childhood to boyhood, boyhood to youthhood, then in old body, then what is next? You ask anybody who has become old man. Ask him, "Sir, you have come to this stage. Your body is now old. You have to die. Now, from childhood you came to boyhood, boyhood to youthhood, then middle age, and now you have come to... Now what is next? Do you know?" Oh, they will be silent. Nobody knows that what is my next life. A child can say, "My next life is boy. I shall become a boy." The boy can say, "Yes, I will be like very nice young man." The young man can say that "I shall become middle-aged man, father of many children." And the middle-aged man can say, "Yes, I will become old man." And ask the old man what he will become? He cannot answer. Can anyone say?
After your resultant action of pious activities is finished, then you have to come back again here. Yad gatvā na nivartante tad dhāma paramaṁ mama (BG 15.6). But there is another planet, which is called Goloka Vṛndāvana. If you go there, then you'll haven't to come back again in this material world, which is described by Kṛṣṇa Himself: duḥkhālayam aśāśvatam (BG 8.15). Mām upetya tu kaunteya duḥkhālayam aśāśvatam (BG 8.15)-nāpnuvanti mahātmānaḥ. They... Not ordinary person can go to Kṛṣṇa's loka, back to home. Who can go? Mahātmānaḥ, those who are great souls. And who are great soul? They are called mahātmās. Who are mahātmās? Mahātmānas tu māṁ pārtha daivīṁ prakṛtim āśritāḥ, bhajanty ananya-manasaḥ (BG 9.13). This is mahātmā. Those who are fully engaged in Kṛṣṇa consciousness, absorbed in the service of Kṛṣṇa, they are called mahātmā. Sa mahātmā sudurlabhaḥ. That kind of mahātmā, the so-called mahātmā having an orange dress and talking that he is God, incarnation of God, and he can give you perfection within six months, give him $35—not like that. The mahātmā means mahātmānas tu māṁ pārtha daivīṁ prakṛtim āśritāḥ (BG 9.13). They are under the spiritual energy. And if one inquires, "What is that spiritual energy?" the spiritual energy means to be engaged in devotional service. Mahātmānas tu māṁ pārtha daivīṁ prakṛtim āśritāḥ, bhajanty ananya-manasaḥ (BG 9.13). They have no other business than to work for Kṛṣṇa, serve Kṛṣṇa. They are mahātmā.
So this business, four business—eating, sleeping, mating and defending—these are common. Āhāra-nidrā-bhaya-maithunaṁ sāmānyam etat. This is common. Then what is the special advantage of human life? The special advantage is athāto brahma jijñāsā. Jīvasya tattva-jijñāsā. You should be inquisitive to know the value of life, the Absolute Truth. That is... The dog cannot do it. That is the distinction between dog and human being. The human being... In the human form of life there should be inquiry about Brahman, Para-brahman. That is human life. So after inquiring what is Brahman, Para-brahman, janmādy asya yataḥ (SB 1.1.1), the original source of everything, when you attain brahma-jñāna, brahma-bhūtaḥ, that is your perfection, not that to compete with the dog in eating, sleeping, mating and defending. That is not civilization. That is not perfection of life. Na te viduḥ svārtha-gatiṁ hi viṣṇum (SB 7.5.31). These foolish men, animalistic, dogs and cats, two-legged animals, they do not know what is the aim of life.
Na te viduḥ svārtha-gatiṁ hi viṣṇum. The aim of life is to understand Viṣṇu, the Supreme Lord. Durāśayā ye bahir-artha-māninaḥ. They are trying to become happy in the bahir-artha, in the external energy of God, material energy. And the so-called leaders, politicians, philosophers, scientists, they're all blind. They do not know what is the aim of life. Still, they are leading the whole society.
First of all, because we have no information of God but practically we see the vast land, the vast water, ocean, the vast sky, then fire, so many things, material things, material things also mind... Mind is also material. And then ego. Everyone is thinking that "I am something. I am..." Kartāham iti manyate. Ahaṅkāra-vimūḍhātmā. This false ego. This ego means false ego. And there is pure ego. That pure ego is ahaṁ brahmāsmi, and the false ego: "I am Indian," "I am American," "I am African," "I am brāhmaṇa," "I am kṣatriya," "I am this," "I am that." This is false ego, ahaṅkāra. So at the present moment... Not at the present, always, we are surrounded by all these things. That is our beginning of philosophy: wherefrom this land came? Wherefrom this water came? Wherefrom the fire came? That is natural inquiry. Wherefrom the sky came? How the stars are situated, so many millions and millions? So these are the inquiries of the intelligent person. That is the beginning of philosophical life. Therefore those who are thoughtful human being, gradually they are inquisitive of understanding the Supreme Lord, Kṛṣṇa.
So Kṛṣṇa is there, and Kṛṣṇa is explaining Himself, "I am like this." But unfortunately we'll not understand Kṛṣṇa, but we'll try to speculate what is God. This is our disease. Kṛṣṇa is explaining Himself; God is explaining Himself. We shall not take that statement, but either we shall deny or we shall accept God without any head and leg and so on, so many things. This is our disease.
So we should be very submissive. We should understand our position. Artificially, we should not be puffed up, the frog philosophy.
The frog philosophy is that a frog in the well, he was informed about the Atlantic Ocean by his friend, and the frog inquired from him, "Oh, what is that Atlantic Ocean?" "Oh, it is a huge, vast span of water." Now, the frog is in the well, he is thinking, "Oh, it may be double than this well or it may be triple than this well, or a hundred times," in this way, calculating. But do you think by such calculation the frog will ever come to the conclusion how length and breadth is of Atlantic Ocean? So this is all frog philosophy. We are very tiny. Our knowledge, power of speculating, is limited always. So we cannot speculate about the Supreme. It is a useless waste of time. Therefore Bhāgavata says, "You give up this. You give up this process of speculating." Jñāne prayāsam udapāsy a: "Give it up." Then what is next? "Now, be submissive. Be submissive." Then? "All right, let me become submissive. Then next?" Jñāne prayāsam udapāsya namanta eva san-mukharitāṁ bhavadīya-vārtām: "You just try to understand, just try to hear the message of God."
There is a story, I shall... It is not story. Or take it as story, that sometimes Nārada Muni was passing, and one very learned scholar, brāhmaṇa, he saw Nārada Muni, and he asked Nārada Muni, "Sir, where you are going?" He said, "I am going to Vṛndāvana, yes, Vaikuṇṭha, to see my Lord." "Oh, you are going there?" Nārada Muni has got free passage to everyone. So, "Will you ask Nārāyaṇa when my liberation will come?" "All right, I shall ask." Then he met another cobbler. He was sewing shoes. So he also asked, "Sir, where you are going?" "Now I am going to Vaikuṇṭha to see my Lord." So, "Will you ask when I shall get salvation?" So Nārada Muni noted, "All right, I shall ask." So when Nārada Muni met Nārāyaṇa, he, after finishing his business, he asked the two men's question, that "These two men, one very learned scholar, brāhmaṇa, he also asked me this question, and the cobbler also asked me." So Nārāyaṇa said "This cobbler will get his salvation after finishing this life, and this brāhmaṇa will have to take, wait for many, many births."
So Nārada Muni became very much inquisitive, "How is that?" So when he came back, first of all he met the brāhmaṇa. He inquired, "Did you inquire, sir, about me?" "Yes, yes. He said that you have to wait many, many births." No, He did not say many, many births, Kṛṣṇa said, Nārāyaṇa said that "When you meet them again, you say that, if they inquire 'What my Lord was doing at that time?' you say that 'He was pulling one elephant from the hole of a nail,' " what is called?
Needle. So when he met the brāhmaṇa he said... And he inquired, "What Nārāyaṇa was doing when you met Him?" "I saw that He was pulling one elephant through the hole of a needle." So he immediately said, "All right, sir, namaskāra. Your, all these big, big stories we cannot believe, that an elephant is being drawn through the hole of a needle." And the same question was raised by the cobbler, and he, Nārada Muni replied in the same way. And he began to cry, "Oh, my Lord is so powerful. He can do anything." So Nārada Muni inquired that "How do you believe that the elephant is being drawn through the hole of a needle?" "Now, why not? I am seeing daily. I am sitting under this banyan tree and there is fig, banyan fruit, and there are thousands of seeds, and I know that each seed's containing a big tree like this."
That's a fact. Everyone knows. Bījo 'haṁ sarva-bhūtānām. (Bg 7.10) Here Kṛṣṇa says, bījo 'haṁ sarva-bhūtānām. Is there any chemist? Just get one small seed like the fig seed. It is very small, but it contains that big tree. Where is that chemistry? Where is that physics? So here is the answer, Kṛṣṇa says, bījaṁ māṁ sarva-bhūtānāṁ viddhi. Big, even this big, gigantic universe, that is also bījaṁ māṁ sarva-bhūtānām. It is stated in the Vedic literature. Yasyaika-niśvasita-kālam athāvalambya jīvanti loma-vilajā jagad-aṇḍa-nāthāḥ (Bs. 5.48). There are so many things. Everyone is inquisitive, "Where is the beginning of this thing?" The beginning is the Supreme Lord. That is the Vedānta-sūtra, janmādy asya yataḥ (SB 1.1.1). Beginning is there.
This is our condition. We are under threefold miseries here in this material world. Always we are suffering by these threefold miseries: adhyātmika, adhibhautika, and adhidaivika, threefold miseries. Some miseries are pertaining to this body and mind. Just like one of our students—all of a sudden, he has got some aches and he has to undergo surgical operation. So this is going on. Something misery are due to the body, something miserable due to the mind, something miserable due to the nature. All of a sudden, it becomes very cold. All of a sudden, it becomes very hot, warm. Nature. All of a sudden, there is great snowfall. All of sudden, there is earthquake. So many miseries, due to nature, due to body, due to mind, and due to other living entities. Oh, somebody attacks me with dagger. A tiger attacks me with his jaws. So many difficulties, miseries in every step. Padaṁ padaṁ yad vipadāṁ na teṣām (SB 10.14.58). So we should remember this. But due to the illusion, being covered by the illusion, we don't take account of these miseries. But we must remember that we are always in miseries. An intelligent person who is developed in consciousness, he inquires, "Why I am in miseries? I do not want miseries. Why I am in miseries?" When this question arises, then there is chance of becoming Kṛṣṇa conscious. You will find how one becomes, comes to Kṛṣṇa consciousness. You will find, later verses. Catur-vidhā bhajante māṁ sukṛtino 'rjuna.
So now these two class and another class, jijñāsu. Jijñāsu means inquisitive. Just like an intelligent boy is very much inquisitive to understand. He asks always his parents, "Oh, mommy, what is this? What is this? What is this?" So mother explains. Similarly, one who is intelligent... These boys, these children who inquire, they are very intelligent boys. They will come out very intelligent in future. These are the signs of intelligence, the inquiring boy. So similarly, there are persons who are very inquisitive. They are studying. Just like the scientists, they are making research. Similarly, when one makes research what is God, what is God... Now, scientifically, with great intellect, one tries to understand what is God, oh, he is also good. He is also good. He is making proper research. Yes. Then the distressed and the person in want and the inquisitive and jñānī. Jñānī means who has understood his spiritual constitutional position. He is called jñānī, man in knowledge. He also inquires, he also becomes, he also goes to God. Maybe personal, impersonal conception, but he is trying to take shelter of the ultimate truth, Absolute Truth.
.Vedic civilization, unless one is inquisitive for the solution of the problems, he is not on the human being standard. Because there are so many problems. The animals cannot inquire, but a man can inquire. So unless one comes to this point, to inquire how these problems can be solved, he's not developed to human consciousness. He's still in the animal consciousness. Actually, the problem is that... What is this human civilization, advanced civilization? They are trying to solve problems. One problem is presented, and they try to solve it. Just like at the present moment they have manufactured atomic bomb, and all the nations are anxious to keep peace, and they have started that United Nations organization to solve the problem. Although they are unable, but they are trying. So advancement of civilization means by nature some problem is offered, and they are trying to solve it. Anything you take, it is an attempt for trying to solve the problem. Just like in your country there is subway. What is that subway? Because on the surface there is a lot of traffic, to solve this problem they want to go underground. And in this way somebody thinks, "Oh, Western countries have advanced than the Eastern countries. They have made some solution." But after that, there is another problem. So problem after problem.
Prabhupāda: It is his choice. Just like if somebody offers you one million dollars, "Take it." You do not know what is the value of one million dollars; you will refuse it. So little intelligence. So the choice is yours. In all the case, the choice is yours. If you know the value, instantly you accept it. If you do not know the value, then it will take time. But after all, the choice is depending on you to accept it or not accept it. It is your choice. Kṛṣṇa also says in the Bhagavad-gītā. After instructing him, He inquires, "Whether your illusion is now over? What you decide to do now?" He said, "Yes, my illusion is over. I will act what You say." That's all. The choice is mine.
German Devotee (4): I know so many people, young people, that when they see us chanting on the street, I can see their eyes, that they really want to chant also, but something is stopping them.
Prabhupāda: That is māyā. Māyā is there. Therefore Kṛṣṇa says, "The māyā is very strong." But if you capture Kṛṣṇa very, more strongly, then māyā cannot do anything. If something is opposing your chanting, then you'll have to chant more loudly: Hare Kṛṣṇa, Hare Kṛṣṇa, Kṛṣṇa Kṛṣṇa, Hare Hare/ Hare Rāma, Hare Rāma, Rāma Rāma, Hare Hare. So you defeat māyā. The medicine is the same. At least, I do so. When I am in some danger, I chant Hare Kṛṣṇa loudly. Hare Kṛṣṇa, Hare Kṛṣṇa, Kṛṣṇa Kṛṣṇa, Hare Hare/ (laughter) Hare Rāma, Hare Rāma, Rāma Rāma, Hare Hare. That's all. Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura... There is song: jāy sakal bipod bhaktivinod bole jakhon o-nām gāi. He says, "As soon as I chant this Hare Kṛṣṇa, I become immediately free from all dangers."
Māyayāpahṛta-jñānā āsuraṁ bhāvam āśritāḥ. Last day we have been discussing four classes of men who come to God and four classes of men who do not come to God. The four classes of men who do not come to God, they are impious, foolish, lowest of the mankind, and their knowledge is taken away by the illusory energy and they are atheists.
- na māṁ duṣkṛtino mūḍhāḥ
- prapadyante narādhamāḥ
- āsuraṁ bhāvam āśritāḥ
- (BG 7.15)
We have discussed this point in detail. The next, that four classes of men, ārto arthārthī jñānī ca bharatarṣabha... Ārto jijñāsur arthārthī jñānī ca bharatarṣa... (BG 7.16). Four classes of men who are pious but at the same time distressed, poverty-stricken, and inquirous, and inquisitive of transcendental knowledge, and jñānī, and philosopher, jijñāsu, inquisitive and philosopher—these four classes of men, they come to God.
Now, so far the four classes of men who do not come to God... That means the impious, the foolish, the lowest of the mankind, whose knowledge has been taken away by the illusory energy, and the atheists. Apart from these classes of men, the four classes of men who come to God, just like ārta, distressed, inquisitive, arthārthī... Arthārthī means poverty-stricken. And jñānī means philosopher. Now, out of these four classes, Lord Kṛṣṇa says, teṣāṁ jñānī nitya-yukta eka-bhaktir viśiṣyate: "Out of these four classes, men, one who is philosophically trying to understand the nature of God with devotion, with Kṛṣṇa consciousness, he is viśiṣyate."
So ārto arthārthī. Arthārthī. Ārta and arthārthī, these two qualities are alleged to belong to the gṛhasthas. And jñānī or jijñāsuḥ, these qualities are supposed to be belonging to the tyāgīs. The bhogīs... The gṛhasthas are called bhogīs, and the tyāgīs are brahmacārīs and sannyāsīs. So jñānī, when he makes searching after God, there is no question of being put into distressed condition or in need of money. They are searching after God for God's sake, what is the nature of God. Athāto brahma jijñāsā. They are inquiring, inquisitive about Brahman, what is the nature of Brahman. They are called jñānī. And jijñāsuḥ, they are also within the category of the jñānīs. So the jñānīs and the jijñāsuḥ, inquisitive, they are better than the ārta and the arthārthī. Ārta means distress, and arthārthī means those who are in need of money. So even being ārta or even being distressed and in need of money, we approach Kṛṣṇa... Kṛṣṇa says mām. Not any other demigods. Catur-vidhā bhajante mām. Mām means, Kṛṣṇa says, mām means Kṛṣṇa. So four kinds of men, those who are leading pious life, sukṛtino 'rjuna... Because they have no other alternative than to approach God for mitigating their distress. Actually our inventions or so many distressed mitigating instruments... Just like medicine. Take for example. When a man is diseased, generally the counterpart is physician and good medicine. But śāstra says that actually they are not counteracting agents, because it is found that a man suffering from certain type of disease, although attended by the first-class physician and although offered first-class medicine, he dies. Why? Because there is no sanction of the Supreme Lord.
So the impersonalists, brahmavādīs, they realize about that brahma-jyotir. And the yogis, they realize the Supersoul, Supersoul. Īśvaraḥ sarva-bhūtānāṁ hṛd-deśe arjuna tiṣṭhati: (BG 18.61) "Īśvara, the Supreme Lord, by His plenary portions, He is situated in everyone's heart." We are sitting together. Several times we have described this, that two birds are sitting in the same tree. The two birds means one, the Supersoul, and other, the individual living entity. So by yogic process, by concentrating our mind, focusing our mind to the Supersoul, one can experience that partial, plenary expansion of the Lord, Supersoul. Just like in the... The same example can be given, that the sun, at noontime, if you inquire thousands and thousands of people scattered over thousands and thousands of miles away, everyone will say that "The sun is on my head." Similarly, the Supreme Lord is also represented by the Supersoul conception in everyone's heart. Not only in everyone's heart, but even in every atom He is represented. So that realization is the second stage. And the third stage is to realize the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Kṛṣṇa.
Therefore it is said here that these stages... Bahūnāṁ janmanām ante (BG 7.19). Bahūnām means after many, many, many births. Spiritual realization is not achieved in one birth. If one is fortunate, oh, he can achieve in one second. He can achieve in one second. But generally, it takes many, many years and many, many births to realize what is God, what is the Absolute Truth.
Now, one can question why this perfection is required. What is the necessity of perfection? Because there are still... There are... People are mostly under the spell of the modes of nature of ignorance. Therefore they do not know the value of Kṛṣṇa consciousness. They can inquire that "What is the use of becoming Kṛṣṇa consciousness, Kṛṣṇa conscious, and become free from this conception of duality? What is the use?" So Lord Kṛṣṇa replies that question. Why?
- mām āśritya yatanti ye
- te brahma tad viduḥ kṛtsnam
- adhyātmaṁ karma cākhilam
This is necessary for you to become this Kṛṣṇa conscious, to adopt this life of Kṛṣṇa consciousness. Why? Because jarā-maraṇa-mokṣāya: "In order to get out of the miseries of jarā." Jarā means old age, invalidity. And jarā-maraṇa. Maraṇa means death. Due to ignorance, we forget the miseries of death, the miseries of invalidity, or old age. We think, "Now we are young, young man, young woman. Oh, we don't care for what is old age or what is death. Let us enjoy." We forget. But a man who is not in ignorance, he has always in his view that this material life is full of miseries because there is birth, there is death, there is old age and there is disease.
Now next chapter, Kṛṣṇa inquires, er, Arjuna inquires, "What is this adhibhūtam, adhidaivam, adhiyajñam?" These three questions are being put by Arjuna.
- arjuna uvāca
- kiṁ tad-brahma kim adhyātmaṁ
- kiṁ karma puruṣottama
- adhibhūtaṁ ca kiṁ proktam
- adhidaivaṁ kim ucyate
Now, this, these are technical terms. What are these technical terms? First technical term is "brahma." What is Brahman? Arjuna's question is first: "What is Brahman?" Then next question is: "What is adhyātmā? What is adhyātmā, spirit?" Then next question is: adhibhūtam. Adhibhūtam means "What is these material elements?" And adhiyajña: "What is Supersoul?" And "At the time of death, what are the perception of these three things?" Very complicated questions. Very complicated question. Adhyātma-brahma, adhyātmā, adhibhūta and adhiyajña and adhidaiva.
Nitāi: (leads chanting, etc.) Translation: "Arjuna inquired: O my Lord, O Supreme Person, what is Brahman? What is the self? What are fruitive activities? What is this material manifestation? And what are the demigods? Please explain this to me."
- arjuna uvāca
- kiṁ tad-brahma kim adhyātmaṁ
- kiṁ karma puruṣottama
- adhibhūtaṁ ca kiṁ proktam
- adhidaivaṁ kim ucyate
These are the subject matter of knowledge. Kiṁ brahma. Brahman means the biggest. Bṛhannatvāt bṛhatvāt. Biggest, it is already biggest, but still increasing. That is called brahman. So this cosmic mani..., universe, it is already the biggest, but it is increasing. That is also scientific, modern science. It is... The statement is already scientific. Modern science also, they say that the universe is increasing. So brahman means the biggest.
If you always remain in Kṛṣṇa consciousness, then gradually you'll develop and you will be able to leave or quit your, this material body in Kṛṣṇa consciousness, so that immediately you'll be transferred to the planet where Kṛṣṇa is. That is the process. So mām upetya. And if you can attain that situation, that is the perfection. That is highest perfection of your life, saṁsiddhiṁ paramām. Paramām means the highest, highest perfection.
Then people may inquire, "Well, you say that to enter into the planet of Kṛṣṇa is the highest perfection, but we are trying to enter into the moon planet. Is it not perfection?" Somebody, you may question. Yes. So in answer, this tendency to enter into the higher planets is always there in human mind. Don't think that we have advanced, and we have invented this sputnik for entering into the moon planet or sun planet. This tendency is always there. A living entity's name is sarva-ga. Sarva-ga. He wants to travel everywhere. That is his nature. Just like you, sometimes, you Americans, you go to India or Europe. You cannot stay stagnant at a place. That is our nature. So this tendency, that we are trying to enter into the moon planet, this is not a new thing. They are trying, maybe by different process, by yoga process, by other process. Everyone is trying to enter into the higher planets.
These things have been described very vividly in the second chapter. Na hanyate hanyamāne śarīre (BG 2.20). Because we are dull brain... There is no education actually. The modern education means simply a craftsmanship. If you can prepare a nice motor car, oh, that is advancement of the... And what is this? This is craftsmanship. It is the blacksmith's work. It is not knowledge. Knowledge is different. Therefore it is called jñānaṁ vijñāna-sahitam. This is knowledge,"What I am? I am this body or something else? Why I am suffering? If there is any remedy? I do not wish to die, neither I am subjected to death." Nityaḥ śāśvato 'yaṁ na hanyate han... This is knowledge, that "If I am eternal, if I do not die after annihilation of this body, then why I am subjected to this body?" This is knowledge. And to manufacture a motor car, that is not knowledge. That is craftsmanship. Knowledge is here, that "I am eternal. Why I am put into this condition of temporary body, not only one kind of body, but there are 8,400,000 different forms of body, and I have to accept one of them, tathā dehāntara-prāptiḥ (BG 2.13), according to my karma. This is my position. How to get out of it, to inquire about it? If there is any science to accept it?" That is knowledge.
Therefore Kṛṣṇa says, jñānaṁ sa-vijñānam, vijñāna-sahitaṁ yaj jñātvā: "If you are fortunate enough to understand this knowledge, then mokṣyase. You become liberated from this inauspicious condition of repeated birth, death, ignorance and suffering, so many things." So we shall try to explain one after another. This is the beginning. Thank you very much.
Devotees: Jaya Śrīla Prabhupāda! (break)
Guest (1) (young man): Śrīla Prabhupāda, I was inquiring about how the minad (?), or spiritual self, of an animal, or beast, how that enters into a human being.
Puṣṭa Kṛṣṇa: How does the spirit soul of a beast enter into the form of a human being?
Prabhupāda: Just like a thief in the prison house. How he becomes liberated? When his term of suffering in the prison house is finished, then he is again free man. And again if he is criminal, he is put into jail. So human form of life is meant for understanding, as I am explaining, what is the problem of my life. I do not wish to die; I am put to death. I do not wish to become old man; I am obliged to become old man. Janma-mṛtyu-jarā-vyādhi-duḥkha-doṣānudarśanam (BG 13.9). So he... Just like the same example, a thief. When he is free, if he thinks, ponders, that "Why I was put into this miserable condition of six month prison life? It was so botheration," then he becomes actually human being. So similarly, the human being has got advanced power of deliberation. If he thinks that "Why I am put into this miserable condition?" Everyone has to admit that he is in miserable condition. He is trying to become happy, but there is no happiness. So how that happiness can be achieved? That chance is in the human being. But if we receive, by the mercy of the material nature, a human being and we do not utilize it properly, if we misuse this benediction as cats and dogs or other animals, then we have to accept again the animal form, and when the term is finished... It takes long, long duration of time because there is evolutionary process.
Just like Caitanya Mahāprabhu, when He began His preaching, His first disciple was Sanātana Gosvāmī. He was a finance minister of Nawab Hussain Shah, but being attracted with Caitanya Mahāprabhu's movement, he retired from service and he joined Lord Caitanya. So at that time, when he came to Caitanya for the first time, his inquiry was that "What is education? What is education?" He was educated. He was highly educated. In those days Persian language was being taught in England, er, in India. Just like during British rule English language was taught to us, similarly, during Pathan rule, Persian language was state language. Besides that, Sanātana Gosvāmī was a great scholar in Sanskrit also. Still, he inquired that "What is education? What is education?" Why he inquired like that? He placed before the Lord that "People in general, they call me very educated, and I am also so fool that I accept that I am educated." So the next question is: "Then why do you think that you are not educated? You are great scholar in Sanskrit, you are great scholar in Persian language. Why do you think that you are not educated?" He replied that "I am thinking 'not educated' because I do not know what I am. I do not know what I am. I do not wish to be a suffering member, but these material miseries is enforced upon me. I do not know wherefrom I have come, where I have to go, and still people, they think that I am very much educated and they designate me that I am a great scholar, and I am satisfied. But I am such a fool that I do not know what I am."
Actually, this is the position of our present situation. We are very much proud of our advancement of education. But if you inquire from various persons that "What you are?" hardly some will answer what he is. Everyone is under the conception of this body. But we are not actually this body. This question we have discussed various times, many times. So this after passing this examination that "I am not this body," then one who, one comes into the real knowledge. That is real knowledge, "What I am." That is the beginning. So the knowledge about which Lord Kṛṣṇa is now imparting, giving instruction to Arjuna, He says, "This is rāja-vidyā." Rāja-vidyā means to know oneself what he is and act accordingly. That is called rāja-vidyā. If I do not know what I am, what is my position, then if I am in mistaken about my situation, then all activities, what I am doing, they are all mistaken. They are all illusion. Therefore this position, rāja-vidyā, means one should know himself, what he is, and act accordingly. Simply by knowing that "I am not this material body," that is not sufficient. You must act accordingly, that you are not material; you are spiritual. That spiritual activity is called Kṛṣ..., act in Kṛṣṇa consciousness, and that is called rāja-vidyā, the king of all education.
Our activities can be made a fried seed by the fire of Kṛṣṇa consciousness. So there will be no reaction. Pratyakṣāvagamaṁ dharmyaṁ susukhaṁ kartum avyayam (BG 9.2). Susukham, very pleasant. Śravaṇaṁ kīrtanaṁ viṣṇoḥ (SB 7.5.23). This devotional service is not very unpleasant. It is very pleasant. You very melodiously sing with instruments, and somebody will participate in hearing, śravaṇaṁ kīrtanaṁ viṣṇoḥ. Of course, it must be in relationship with the Supreme Lord. Not ordinary music. We take the advantage of musical science. But we don't sing any ordinary song. We glorify the Supreme Lord. But we enjoy. Therefore it is happy. Then again, śravaṇaṁ kīrtanaṁ viṣṇoḥ smaraṇam. Now, what you are hearing from Bhagavad-gītā, if you remember it at home, that "Swamiji was spoke, speaking like this, and how does it apply in my life?"... We should remember this. We should not forget just after leaving this place. And if there is any question, any doubt, we should place before this assembly. I am inquiring. I am inviting you for any question because we are trying to understand a very nice and great science.
So for a devotee these informations of Kṛṣṇa, oh, become so... "My Kṛṣṇa is so God. Oh, my God is so powerful." And, I think, sometimes I recited one story. This is for very instructive, that Nārada Muni, he used to visit Nārāyaṇa every day. So when he was passing on the road, so one very learned brāhmaṇa and taking thrice bath and everything very nicely, he asked Nārada Muni, "Oh, you are going to Lord. Will you inquire when I shall get my salvation?" "All right. I shall ask." And then another cobbler, he was under the tree, sewing the shoes, old shoes. He also saw Nārada Muni. He also inquired, "Will you kindly inquire from God when my salvation is...?" Now, when he inquired Kṛṣṇa, Nārāyaṇa... Nārada Muni goes generally to Nārāyaṇa, in another planet. So "Yes, two, one brāhmaṇa and one cobbler, they inquired like this. So may I know what is their destination?" So Nārāyaṇa said, "Well, yes, the cobbler, this after giving up this body, he's coming here at Vaikuṇṭha." "And what about that brāhmaṇa?" "Oh, he has to remain there still so many births, or I do not know when he's coming." So Nārada Muni was astonished, that "I saw that he's very nice brāhmaṇa, and he's a cobbler. Why is that?" So he inquired that "I could not, cannot understand the mystery. Why You say that cobbler is coming this, after this body, and why not this brāhmaṇa?" "Oh, that will, you'll understand. If they inquire that 'What Kṛṣṇa, or Nārāyaṇa, was doing in the, in His abode,' so just explain that He was taking one elephant from the holes of a," I mean to say, what is called...?
Needle. Yes. "Through the hole of a needle, He's pulling an elephant this side and this side." "All right." So when he again approached the brāhmaṇa, the brāhmaṇa said, "Oh, you have seen Lord?" "Yes." "So what was the Lord doing?" "He was doing this: through the point of a needle He was pushing one elephant this way and that way." "Oh, therefore I have no faith in your... I, I, I have got all respect for your garb, but we don't believe all this nonsense." Then Nārada could understand, "Oh, this man has no faith. He simply reads book. That's all." And when he went to the cobbler, he also asked, "Oh, you have seen? What Nārāyaṇa was doing?" He also said that "He was doing like this..." Oh, he began to cry, "Oh, my Lord is wonderful. He can do anything." So Nārada inquired, "So do you believe that Lord can push one elephant through the holes of a needle?" "Oh, why not? I must believe." "Then what is your reason?" "Oh, my reason? I am sitting under this banyan tree, and so many fruits are falling daily, and in each fruit there are thousands of seeds, and each seed there is a tree. If in a small seed there can be big tree like that, is it very impossible to accept that Kṛṣṇa is putting one elephant through the, I mean, the holes of a needle? He has kept such a nice tree in the seed." So this is called belief. So unbelievers and believer means the believers, they are not blind believers. They have reason. If by Kṛṣṇa's process, by God's process, or nature's process, such a big tree can be put within the small seed, is it very impossible for Kṛṣṇa to keep all these planets floating in His energy? So we have to believe. We have no other explanation. But we have to understand in this way. Our reasoning, our argument, our logic should go in this way.
So when we fall down in this material world... The material world is of three modes of material nature, goodness, passion and ignorance. So if we acquire the quality of goodness, there is chance of enlightenment, knowledge, so that again fire can be generated. But if we fall down on the water, practically it is finished. Ignorance. So sattva-guṇa, rajo-guṇa, tamo-guṇa. So in our fallen condition, mostly the rajo-guṇa and tamo-guṇa is very prominent, in our fallen condition, in this material condition. So symptoms of rajo-guṇa and tamo-guṇa means material desires and greediness. And sattva-guṇa means enlightenment. If we cultivate the sattva-guṇa quality, just means, if we cultivate the brahminical qualification, that is the platform of sattva-guṇa. So that is described in the Bhagavad-gītā, satyaṁ śamo damas titikṣā ārjavaṁ jñānaṁ vijñānam āstikyaṁ brahma-karma svabhāva-jam (BG 18.42). If we cultivate this kind of life, to be truthful, to be peaceful, to be tolerant, to be men of wisdom, knowledge, faith in God and the śāstras, in this way there are nine to twelve qualities. If we acquire that qualities, then we become brāhmaṇa.
Brāhmaṇa means there is chance of understanding Brahman. Brahma jānāti iti brāhmaṇa. And this human life is meant for inquiring about Brahman. Athāto brahma jijñāsā. This is the first verse, aphorism, of the Vedānta-sūtra. So the whole Vedic literature, in a gist form, is described in the Bhagavad-gītā. And it is being explained by the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Kṛṣṇa. So it is a very important book, spoken by God Himself. And another system of religion... Sometimes the representative of God is speaking, the servant of God speaking. They are also the same, but according to time and circumstances they are modified. But here in this Bhagavad-gītā, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Kṛṣṇa, is speaking.
Actually, I am not proprietor of the body. Actually proprietor of this body, Kṛṣṇa, Paramātmā, but I have given the place. That is explained in the Bhagavad-gītā: kṣetra-jñaṁ cāpi māṁ viddhi sarva-kṣetreṣu bhārata (BG 13.3). Jīvātmā is the proprietor of this body. He has been given this spot to act, just like this human body is given by nature to us. Now we can act. If we act just like human being, then your life is successful. The chance given by nature is fruitful. What is that chance? This body is given for inquiring about Brahman: athāto brahma jijñāsā. Atha, now we have got this human form of body. Now inquire about Brahman. Why you are going to the share market: "What is the price of this share?" But we are wasting in that way. (Sanskrit) Not inquiring about Brahman. (Sanskrit) The dogs and cats, they are all, "Where is some food? Where is some stool?" They are inquiring. Not that inquiry. Just like the hog is inquiring whole day, "Where is stool? Where is stool?" Not, not that inquiry. The human body is meant for inquiring about Brahman: athāto brahma jijñāsā. This is Vedānta-sūtra. But they're not interested in inquiring about Brahman. Nāyaṁ deho deha-bhājāṁ nṛloke kaṣṭān kāmān arhate viḍ-bhujāṁ ye (SB 5.5.1). Viḍ-bhujām, hogs, viḍ-bhujām. Viḍ-bhujām means stool-eater. They are working very hard, but this human body is not meant for that purpose. Kaṣṭān kāmān. Kāmān means the necessities to fulfill, to satisfy the senses, āhāra, nidra, bhaya, mithuna—where to eat, where to sleep, where to have sexual intercourse, where..., how to defend. These are kāmān. These are bodily necessities. But for fulfilling simply the bodily necessities if we work so hard, then where is the difference between us and the hogs? They're doing same thing.
We, we are all born fools and rascals. That is the statement of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam. Parābhavas tāvad abodha-jāto yāvan na jijñāsata ātma-tattvam. Parābhavas abodha-jātaḥ. Jātaḥ. We are all born fools and rascals. That is a fact. You (We) know. Therefore, we are sent to schools for education. Because we are fools and rascals. Unfortunately, after so-called education also, we remain fools and rascals. Because we do not know... There is no educational system to understand ātma-tattvam. Ātma-tattva... The human life is meant for understanding ātma-tattvam. Athāto brahma jijñāsā. Brahman, ātmā, the same thing, absolute. The human life is meant for inquiring about ātmā, what I am. And when he comes to the understanding ahaṁ brahmāsmi, that is his perfected education... Otherwise he remains a fool, rascal. So there is no educational system to teach people that he's not this body. He is ātmā, spirit soul. That is the beginning of spiritual education. In the Bhagavad-gītā, Kṛṣṇa first teaches this principle that
- dehino 'smin yathā dehe
- kaumāraṁ yauvanaṁ jarā
- tathā dehāntara-prāptir
- dhīras tatra na muhyati
- (BG 2.13)
Asmin dehe. Dehī. There is soul. Not that, that "I am this body." So the soul is moving the body, not the body is moving the soul. Similarly, Kṛṣṇa is the Supersoul. Kṛṣṇa is the Supersoul. That is also explained in the Bhagavad-gītā: viṣṭabhya aham idaṁ kṛtsnam ekāṁśena sthito jagat (BG 10.42). Viṣṭabhya, entering."Because I have entered within this material world, viṣṭabhya aham idaṁ kṛtsnam..." One partial representation, Paramātmā, ātmā and Paramātmā.
Sthāne sthitāḥ śruti-gatāṁ tanu-vāṅ-manobhiḥ. If you be situated in whatever position you are, it doesn't matter. We are not going to inquire what you are. "Are you businessman, engineer, doctor, or police, or intelligent, or educated, non-educated, black, white?"—there is no question, no question. The only thing is sthāne sthitāḥ śruti-gatām. Śruti-gatām means... Śruti means this aural reception. You have to receive this word little submissively. Namanta eva. Don't think yourself, that you are very man of knowledge. Because our knowledge is very limited, so we should not be puffed up with false thinking that I am very learned man. No. Just become a little gentle and submissive, and hear these messages from Kṛṣṇa. Sthāne sthitāḥ śruti-gatāṁ tanu-vāṅ-manobhiḥ. Tanu. Tanu means your body, and vāk means your words, and mana means mind. Just try to adjust your mind, your body, your words, and hear the Śrīmad-Bhagavad-gītā which is spoken by the Supreme Lord, and put your arguments, put your reason, whatever you have got. Don't accept it blindly. And think over it, and then you'll see what is the result. This is... So rākṣasīm.
Now, Lord Kṛṣṇa says that who are the mahātmās. The symptom of mahātmā is that he knows that the Supreme Lord, Śrī Kṛṣṇa, is the original Personality of Godhead, and He is the fountainhead and source of all emanation. Janmādy asya yataḥ (SB 1.1.1). In the Vedānta-sūtra it is said very nicely, athāto brahma jijñāsā: "Now this human form of life is meant for inquiring about Brahman, the greatest." We are all engaged in studying temporary, small things, problems, small problems. What is that problem? Āhāra-nidrā-bhaya-maithuna, the animal problems: how to eat, how to sleep, how to defend and how to mate. These four principles, they are very minor problems. They are not at all problems because automatically these problems are solved, automatically. Viṣayaḥ khalu sarvataḥ syāt. Viṣaya means this viṣaya, this object of enjoyment, these bodily necessities. Viṣayaḥ khalu sarvataḥ syāt: Viṣaya—means these objects of sense gratification—you will have in any form of body.
So these are not problems, but we have created problems only for these four demands of the body. So Vedānta-sūtra says that "Don't be busy about these problems." Viṣayaḥ khalu sarvataḥ syāt: "These problems are satisfied in any form of life." Why in human form? They have developed consciousness. They have got better business. Why they should be engaged only for these four principles of life? Huh? Their problem is to inquire, "What is the source of all these manifestations?"
Athāto brahma jijñāsā. The Vedānta-sūtra informs, "Now you should inquire. You have got this developed consciousness of life, human form of life, very intelligent, and you are simply wasting your time simply for this eating, sleeping and mating? Oh, this is not your business. This is not your business." Nāyaṁ deho deha-bhājāṁ nṛloke kaṣṭān kāmān arhate viḍ-bhujāṁ ye (SB 5.5.1). Viḍ-bhujām means stool-eaters, hogs. So Ṛṣabhadeva says, nāyaṁ deha, this body, is very valuable body. Every living entity has got a body, but this human form of body, especially the civilized form of body, oh, this is very important. And how to utilize it? Simply for eating, sleeping? No. Nāyaṁ deho deha-bhājāṁ nṛloke. In the human society this form of body is not meant for simply toiling hard only for gaining these four principles of life. Because these necessities are supplied even to the hogs, the stool-eater. The stool-eater is considered to be the lowest of the animals, the hog. Still, he has got mating facility, he has got eating facility, he has got sleeping facility, and he has got defending facility.
Just for example, take for example myself. I am a foreigner, Indian. I came here only with seven dollars with me. Dock, I got down from the ship. I did not know where to live, where to eat. But I am here, here for the last more than one year. So I am also eating, I am also sleeping, and I am also well-protected by my friends. So how it is being done? I am not serving here, I did not come with some money, but there is arrangement. Everyone, you have got arrangement made. Don't be very anxious for these problems. You should be anxious, athāto brahma jijñāsā. This is the problem of life. So who inquires about this, athāto brahma jijñāsā? Those who are actually developed in consciousness, they inquire, athātaḥ, "What is the source of myself? I am living entity, this world, this nature, this so many things we see, and what is the cause of, the cause of all causes? What is that?" That should be inquiry. Jijñāsuḥ, inquisitive, inquisitive. And the answer is given here in the Vedānta-sūtra, next. Athāto brahma jijñāsā: "Now this life is meant for inquiring about the Supreme Brahman." And what is that Brahman? That Brahman means that janmādy asya yataḥ: (SB 1.1.1) "Brahman means that source, that Supreme Absolute Truth from whom or from which everything emanates, the cause of all causes." That is Brahman.
This is not the process of getting yourself from the struggle-for-existence ocean. The thing is one must get you out from the ocean. Teṣām ahaṁ samuddhartā mṛtyu-saṁsāra-sāgarāt (BG 12.7). So Kṛṣṇa promises—you will find in the later, tenth, chapter, that "Those who are in Kṛṣṇa consciousness, I promise I shall take him from this ocean of birth and death."
- māṁ hi pārtha vyapāśritya
- ye 'pi syuḥ pāpa-yonayaḥ
- striyo vaiśyās tathā śūdrās
- te 'pi yānti parāṁ gatim
- (BG 9.32)
Now, somebody may inquire, "Now, to become a Kṛṣṇa conscious person, is there any qualification required? Bhagavad-gītā was spoken by Lord Kṛṣṇa. He appeared to be a Hindu, and it was spoken in India, and all the ācāryas, they are very learned men. They have adopted. But how we can take to this Kṛṣṇa consciousness? I am not... I do not belong to such particular creed or, say, particular country." Now Kṛṣṇa says, "No, that is not disqualification." Māṁ hi pārtha vyapāśritya ye 'pi syuḥ pāpa-yonayaḥ. Pāpa-yonayaḥ... Of course, according to Vedic literature, there are mentions of pāpa-yoni. Yoni means species. Pāpa-yoni. Just like it is mentioned here, striyaḥ śūdrāḥ, striyo vaiśyās tathā śūdrās te 'pi yānti parāṁ gatim. Even the striyaḥ, even women, they are also classified amongst the pāpa-yoni. Pāpa-yoni means those who have got little facility for advancing themselves in spiritual life. So it is particularly mentioned here, striyaḥ, the woman class, śūdra—śūdra means the laborer class—and the vaiśya, mercantile class. Or less than that.
Therefore, out of many, many fools... We are all fools. So it is said, manuṣyāṇāṁ sahasreṣu (BG 7.3), martyeṣu yatamāneṣu, that somebody tries to understand, "Oh, actually what I am? Am I American or Indian or Chinese or Japanese or cat or dog?" This inquiry. This is inquiry. This is really inquiry, "What I am?" So this inquiry goes on. This is called brahma-jijñāsā, this inquiry.
Now, if you inquire something, then you have to ask somebody. You cannot go on inquiring and answering yourself. That is another foolishness. If you inquire, then you have to inquire from a person who is bigger than you. Is it not? Can you inquire yourself when... Suppose you may cross a street. You have forgotten which way to go. Then you have to inquire some police standing there or some gentleman, "Where is this way?" So similarly, this inquiry, if this inquiry comes into you, that "What I am?" then you have to go to an authority. The Vedic injunction therefore asks you, tad-vijñānārthaṁ sa gurum evābhigacchet: (MU 1.2.12) "If you are actually seriously an inquirer, then you must go to a spiritual master."
And what is that? What is that spiritual master? Simply a red dress like this or having a big beard? No. Samit-pāṇiḥ. Samit-pāṇiḥ śrotriyaṁ brahma-niṣṭham. You have to go to a person who is conversant with the science of Kṛṣṇa. You have to go. So this is the formula. Manuṣyāṇāṁ sahasreṣu (BG 7.3). Martyeṣu yatamāneṣu sahasreṣu madhye yo yadṛk ca mat-tattva-vit. Nobody inquires even. But if a man is fortunate to inquire, he can make progress and come to this understanding, that Kṛṣṇa is the origin, cause of all causes.
Go on inquiring. The inquiry is called philosophy. Philosophy means to inquire, research. Or say... You have read in the Bhagavad-gītā, jñānī jijñāsuḥ. Jijñāsuḥ means inquiry. Four kinds of people who are in the righteous path, whose life is regulated, who is not upstart, who follows the rules and regulation of scriptures, and higher authority, or higher principles, such person, not all... That is also described in the Bhagavad-gītā: na māṁ duṣkṛtino mūḍhāḥ prapadyante narādhamāḥ (BG 7.15). Those who are simply addicted to, I mean to say, sinful activities, they cannot inquire. They will be in the darkness, gone, gone under some intoxication, gone. But those who are actually righteous and pious, they will have this inquiry, and they will come to God.
So sattva-saṅgī. And this inquiry, this association is made to give facility to the people that they may come and inquire about Kṛṣṇa. You see? And learn the science and apply it in our life and be happy. This is a process to make people actually happy. It is not a thing to exploit people. The exploitation is going on, but this society, Kṛṣṇa consciousness, it is... The aim of this society is to enlighten people about the science of Kṛṣṇa, or science of God, so that they can understand it rightly and apply it in the life and become happy.
So the villagers understood that a vyādha, a hunter, has become a great saint. So everyone was coming and offering some rice, some flowers, some fruits. So he was executing his devotional service according to the instruction of Nārada. Then, after some time, Nārada wanted to show that devotee to his friend, Pārvata Muni, and he was coming to that devotee, hunter devotee. At that time the devotee was going to receive Nārada, and while going, he was very careful that an ant may not be killed on the path. So he was jumping. Whenever there was an ant, he was jumping. So Nārada inquired that "While you were coming here, why you were jumping?" So he said, "Sir, there were so many ants. So how can I kill ant?" Just see. The same man who was without any kindness killing so many animals, he has become kind to the ant even.
This is universal. As soon as you become Kṛṣṇa conscious, as soon as you become God conscious, then your real universal, ideal, universal consciousness develops. Otherwise it is all simply jugglery. There are so many doctrines of universal love, universal friendship, fraternity, but they are fighting, and they are killing simply, because there is no God consciousness. If you are universal, if you are after universal love, then how you can maintain regular slaughterhouse? How you can think that an American gentleman or lady is your countryman and not a cow, and not a goat, not a serpent? Where is your universal idea?
So unless there is development of God consciousness, this universal ideas, oh, these are nonsense. There cannot be. It is all false, jugglery of words. So first business is to understand your identity, identity of God, your relationship, and your action reformed in that way. Then there is question of universal, brotherhood, universal... Otherwise it is simply jugglery of words.
People are accepting Bhagavad-gītā as something Indian or Hindu, but actually it is not. It is universal. Kṛṣṇa says that there are so many forms of living entities. There are 8,400,000 different types of bodies. "And all of them are My sons." So if you love Kṛṣṇa, then you love white man, you love American, you love European, you love Indian, you love cow, you love dog, you love serpent—everything.
So you have to know the techniques. Simply by theoretical knowledge you cannot make any improvement. And these are practical examples. Because there is no love for God at the present moment, all this nonsense universal love, fraternity, are going to hell. Therefore we are interested in this Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement. You have to change your consciousness, make it full with Kṛṣṇa or God. Then everything will be all right. All right. Thank you. And if you kindly come and inquire in this way, we shall be very glad to answer as far as possible.
Now let us have little kīrtana. It is quarter to nine. Please join with this kīrtana, Hare Kṛṣṇa. It is very simple.
Hare Kṛṣṇa Hare Kṛṣṇa Kṛṣṇa Kṛṣṇa Hare Hare
Hare Rāma Hare Rāma Rāma Rāma Hare Hare
(Prabhupāda leads kīrtana) (end)
(This) means those who are very pious, they are promoted to the higher planetary system. Those who are ordinary, they remain with the middle planetary system. And those who are very abominable, sinful, they go down the planetary systems or become lower than human being—animals, trees, birds, beasts, like that. So they have no sense, their so-called scientific understanding has no, I mean to say, advancement of knowledge. They do not inquire even wherefrom these living entities are coming, the trees, birds, beasts, lower than human being; wherefrom they are coming they do not inquire.
So the law is that according to your work you'll get your next life. It may be higher standard of life, it may be lower standard of life. So suppose higher standard of life, if we get, that's all right, but if we get lower standard of life... Just like today I am here and next life if I get the body of a tree and stand up for five thousand years, is it very nice proposition? In this way we have to understand how the process of life is going on and what is wanted, what is not wanted. In this way, when you are situated, fixed up in your spiritual understanding, that is called anartha-nivṛttiḥ syāt, all unwanted things are vanquished.
These four classes of men, if their background is life of piety, they go to God to pray, "My Lord, my Lord, give me some money. I am very poor. I am very distressed. Kindly mitigate my distress." Or jñānī, they are searching after actually what is God. Or inquisitive, simply inquiring what is God. So there are four classes. Whose background is life of pious activities, they go to God. And those who are...
There is sukṛtina. Sukṛtina means those who are background is pious activities. And just opposite number, duṣkṛtina. Those background is impious activities, sinful activities. Such persons, na māṁ duṣkṛtino mūḍhāḥ prapadyante narādhamāḥ (BG 7.15), the lowest of the mankind, full of sinful activities. Narādhama. Narādhama means lowest of the mankind. Why lowest of the mankind? Because mankind means those who are interested to understand God. That is mankind. Otherwise "dog-kind." The dogs and asses, they are not interested to know what is God. It is the prerogative of the human being to understand what is God. Therefore a man who has got this human form of body does not inquire about God, he is narādhama, the lowest of the mankind. Na māṁ duṣkṛtino mūḍhāḥ. And rascal, ass. Na māṁ duṣkṛtino mūḍhāḥ prapadyante narādhamāḥ māyayāpahṛta-jñānāḥ (BG 7.15).
Therefore Arjuna inquires from Kṛṣṇa that: prakṛtiṁ puruṣam. "Who is actually enjoyer, and who is enjoyed?" These two things I want to know from You." Prakṛtiṁ puruṣaṁ caiva kṣetraṁ kṣetra-jñaṁ cāpi. Another two items, kṣetram, the field of activities... Just like I am working. I am working. You are working. How you are working? Where you are working? I am working, being situated in this body. This is already described in the beginning that the living entity is within the body. Dehino 'smin yathā dehe (BG 2.13).
So kṣetra and kṣetra-jña. Kṣetra means the platform on which, or the stage on which we are dancing. That is called kṣetra. And kṣetra-jña means the person who is dancing. That is kṣetra-jña. When you, when you dance, you know that I am dancing on this ground, on this platform. So you are knower. Therefore kṣetra-jña. And the platform on which you are dancing, that is kṣetra. So we are all dancing... In the material world, we are all dancing. How we are dancing? Getting a particular type of body. That is kṣetra. There must be some platform.
For... Just like a kṛṣaka, a agriculturist, he is plowing the land. The land is called kṣetra, and the man who is plowing, he's called kṣetra-jña. He knows that; "I am plowing over this ground." So this is also another knowledge, kṣetra and kṣetra-jña. Then... (Sound is garbled, with words and phrases blipped out) ...etad veditum icchāmi. I wish to know this subject matter. Jñānaṁ jñeyaṁ ca keśava. As well as jñānam, knowledge, what is actually knowledge, and what is the object of knowledge.
So six things he's questioning. First of all, prakṛti, one, puruṣa, two, kṣetra, three, kṣetra-jña, four, knowledge, five, and the knowable object of knowledge, six. These are the subject matter, Kṛṣṇa, Arjuna is asking from Kṛṣṇa. Because he has accepted Kṛṣṇa guru. So for bona fide inquiries, transcendental inquiries, one must approach a guru. That is the Vedic injunction. That Arjuna has already done. When he was he was to fight or not to fight, But he could not make solution. So to make a solution we must approach Kṛṣṇa as guru, or Kṛṣṇa's representative. Kṛṣṇa and Kṛṣṇa's representative... In, they are the same.
Therefore Viśvanātha Cakravartī Ṭhākura says: yasya prasādād bhagavat-prasādaḥ **. By pleasing guru, you can please Kṛṣṇa. Even Kṛṣṇa is not pleased, if the guru is pleased, Kṛṣṇa has to be pleased. Because he's representative.
"Nature, the Enjoyer, and Consciousness." This is the thirteenth chapter of Bhagavad-gītā. The Lord is describing what is this material nature, who is the enjoyer of this material nature and what is the consciousness. We are preaching about Kṛṣṇa consciousness. Now, in this chapter Kṛṣṇa Himself is describing what is Kṛṣṇa consciousness. Arjuna uvāca. Arjuna inquired,
- prakṛtiṁ puruṣaṁ caiva
- kṣetraṁ kṣetrajñam eva ca
- etad veditum icchāmi
- jñānaṁ jñeyaṁ ca keśava
Kṛṣṇa is addressed here as Keśava, "the killer of the Keśi asura." You know, in Vṛndāvana there is Keśi-ghāṭa. That Keśi-ghāṭa is famous because Kṛṣṇa killed one asura of the name Keśi. He appeared in Vṛndāvana as a ferocious horse and Kṛṣṇa killed him. Since then, his name is Keśava. Kṛṣṇa has got many names according to His activities. He killed the demon Madhu, therefore his name is Madhusūdana. He killed the demon Kaṁsa, therefore his name is Kaṁsahāni. There are many names. Some of the names are in relationship with His devotees, and some of the names are there in relationship with the demons.
Therefore, according to Vedic civilization, this is a civilization of the cows and the asses. Sa eva go-kharaḥ (SB 10.84.13). So in other words, it is an animal civilization. So you cannot be happy in animal civilization, in the societies of animals. Just like in the jungle there are animals. There is no peace. There is always struggle for existence, fight between one animal. Still, they are peaceful. But at the present moment, throughout the whole world, we have become less than the animals because we do not know what is the basic principle of civilization, what is the ultimate goal of life, what is our perfection. These things we are lacking in knowledge.
Therefore Arjuna inquires, "What is jñānam, what is knowledge, and what is the object of knowledge?" So Kṛṣṇa replied that "This body, śarīram, idaṁ śarīraṁ kṣetram, this is our field of activities." We have got different types of body. Yesterday I have explained. There are eight million four hundred thousand forms of body, and according to our desire, nature is supplying a type of body for our activity.
That is explained in another place in the Bhagavad-gītā: īśvaraḥ sarva-bhūtānāṁ hṛd-deśe 'rjuna tiṣṭhati (BG 18.61). The Lord is situated in everyone's heart. Kṛṣṇa is situated outside and inside also. Kṛṣṇa, antar bahiḥ, He is situated outside and inside. Simply we have to make our eyes and senses perfect to see Him. Kṛṣṇa is not invisible. He is visible. But one who has got the eyes to see Him, one can see; otherwise not. Therefore in the Brahma-saṁhitā it is stated, premāñjana-cchurita bhakti-vilocanena santaḥ hṛdayeṣu sadaiva vilokayanti (Bs. 5.38). Those who have developed Kṛṣṇa consciousness, love of Godhead, they can see the Supreme Personality of Godhead, śyāma-sundaraṁ acintya-guṇa svarūpam, the reservoir of all transcendental qualities. Acintya-guṇa... Acintya means inconceivable. The qualities which Kṛṣṇa has got, that is inconceivable by us. He has got qualities.
The real knowledge is to know "What I am, what is this body, why I am suffering. I want to be happy but why sufferings are there, always some kind of suffering is always there." These are the questions. But people have become so foolish they do not inquire how to make solution of these sufferings, how to make solution of the problems of life. They are blindly being led.
- andhā yathāndhair upanīyamānas
- te 'pīṣa-tantryām uru-dāmni baddhāḥ
- na te viduḥ svārtha-gatiṁ hi viṣṇuṁ
- durāśayā ye bahir-artha-māninaḥ
- (SB 7.5.31)
Durāśayā, they are hoping something, that by making arrangement in this material world they will be happy. That is not possible.
In the Western countries, Europe and America, they have made sufficient arrangement for living materially very happy, but that has not been possible. They are also disappointed, confused. So materially you cannot be happy. You must know. You must have full knowledge what you are, what is this body, how you'll be happy. Then your life is successful. If you live like cats and dogs and try to adjust things like cats and dogs, that is a waste of life, waste of time.
So our Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement is teaching people to become submissive to the authority. That is the beginning of knowledge. Tad viddhi praṇipātena paripraśnena sevayā (BG 4.34). If you want to learn the transcendental subject matter which is beyond the scope of your thinking, feeling and willing... Mental speculation means thinking, feeling and willing, psychology. But subject matter which is beyond your thinking. So God or anything about God is beyond the limit of our thinking, speculation. Therefore, we have to learn it submissively. Tad viddhi praṇipātena, praṇipāta means submission. Prakṛṣṭa-rūpeṇa nipāta. Nipāta means submission. Tad viddhi praṇipātena paripraśnena. First of all find out somebody where you can fully surrender. Then you enquire about transcendental subject matter.
Just like Arjuna is following strictly. He has first of all submitted to Kṛṣṇa. Śiṣyas te 'haṁ śādhi māṁ prapannam: (BG 2.7) "My dear Kṛṣṇa, we are talking friendly, so on equal level. So You will speak something, and I shall speak something. In this way we shall simply waste our time, and there will be no conclusion. Therefore, I submit as disciple. Whatever You will say, I will accept."
Yantra means machine. So we are seated on this machine. This is the knowledge. The person who is seated in this car, on the machine, nobody knows. There are so many advancement of knowledge department, but where is the department to understand that the living force which is driving this machine, what is that living force? How it is working? There is no enquiry and no education. Therefore this education has no value. They do not know what is education. Education means to enquire about the living force which is moving this body. That is education. This is not education, that we have manufactured nice car or nice machine. That is called craftsmanship, that is not education.
Just like one electrician. He knows how to join the two wire and bring current. In India it is called mistri. Mistri means worker. Because he knows that technical art how to bring electric current, that does not mean he is educated. Education is different thing. The worker, they are just working so many wonderfully, but that does not mean they are educated. That is... In Sanskrit it is called... What is called? The English is "craftsmanship." He knows the art, how to do it. So at the present moment the technical education is there.
Formerly this technical education was entrusted to the demons. Formerly they were also manufacturing big, big aeroplanes, but they were being done by the demons, not by the great saintly persons, sages, no. They were being done by the demons. And the yogis, they could produce such wonderful things by their yogic mystic power. That was another thing. But generally, when there is question of manufacturing, that was being done by the demons.
So actually, at the present moment, although we are manufacturing so many nice things for the comforts of the body, but that does not mean it is education. Education means brahma-vidyā, to understand what is that living force within this body that is working, what is his position, constitutional position, how it is working, wherefrom it has come, so many things. That is called brahma-jijñāsā, to enquire about the spirit. That is education. So that education is lacking. Therefore there are so many problems at the present moment.
The problems are created. Just like if I do not give food to the driver, and he is entrusted with a nice car, and he is not happy on account of not being properly taken care of, then he must create disaster. There will be car accident. So that is happening. Nobody is taking care of the driver of this body. No education is there. They are simply trying to rectify the defects in the body.
That is enquired here, kṣetraṁ kṣetra-jñaṁ ca. This body is kṣetra, field of activities. But the field worker is different. Therefore this is the enquiry. Kṣetraṁ kṣetra-jñam. We are taking care of this kṣetra, this body, but we do not take care of the occupier of the body or the owner of the body. There are two kṣetra-jña, you will find in this verse, two living entities. One is called the soul, and the other is called the Supersoul. In this body there are two souls. One is the occupier soul, and the other is the proprietor soul.
So when a person eats another living entity, it is not unnatural. This is nature's law. But when you come to the human form of living entity, you must use your discrimination. Just like one living entity is food for the another living entity. It does not mean... In the lower animals sometimes the father-mother eat the offspring, but in the history of human society it has not come into notice that the father and mother eating the offspring. But time has come when the mother is killing offspring. That has come already. This is due to Kali-yuga.
So here Arjuna's question is to understand the field and the worker on the field. He questions, arjuna uvāca, Arjuna inquired from Kṛṣṇa,
- prakṛtiṁ puruṣaṁ caiva
- kṣetraṁ kṣetra-jñam eva ca
- etad veditum icchāmi
- jñānaṁ jñeyaṁ ca keśava
Kṛṣṇa's another name is Keśava. So he is addressing Kṛṣṇa, "My dear Keśava, I want to know these subject matters—prakṛti, puruṣa." Prakṛti means nature, material nature, and puruṣa means the enjoyer, just like the living entities. We are trying to enjoy this material nature. Another prakṛti-puruṣa... Puruṣa means, real puruṣa means, the supreme enjoyer, God, Kṛṣṇa. And prakṛti means which is enjoyed. Another meaning—prakṛti, means woman and puruṣa means man. So this material world is going on—one party is trying to enjoy, and the other party is being enjoyed.
Ordinary human being, they are not perfect. Ordinary human being, they are subjected to four deficiencies. We are ordinary human being; we commit mistake. That's a fact, every one of us. We are illusioned. Our senses are imperfect, and with all this paraphernalia, when we want to teach, that is not teaching; that is cheating. Because I am imperfect, how can I be teacher? That is not possible. Therefore we have to learn from a person who has no defects in his life or a liberated person. Liberated person means he does not commit mistake, he is not illusioned, he does not cheat and his senses are not imperfect. This is the four signs of liberated person.
So our process, the Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement, means we take knowledge from Kṛṣṇa who is liberated from these four kinds of deficiencies. That knowledge is perfect. Similarly, Arjuna is also inquiring from Kṛṣṇa. Etad veditum icchāmi. Etad veditum icchāmi jñānaṁ jñeyaṁ ca keśava. What is actual knowledge and what is the subject matter of knowledge. That means six questions are presented by Arjuna before Kṛṣṇa. One pair, prakṛti-puruṣa, kṣetra-kṣetra-jña, and jñānaṁ jñeyam, what is knowledge and what is the subject matter of knowledge. Six questions. Śrī bhagavān uvāca. Now, here Kṛṣṇa is speaking, but Vyāsadeva, who recorded this dialogue between Kṛṣṇa and Arjuna, he is writing, "bhagavān uvāca." He does not say, "kṛṣṇaḥ uvāca." "Kṛṣṇa" may be misunderstood. But Kṛṣṇa is bhagavān. He wants to stress on this point.
Suppose you are making a very nice house, very nice apartment. There is no guarantee that you will be able to enjoy this family life, house, and everything. Not... Forever, that is no question. Even you do not know how many years you will be allowed. Any moment you can be driven out, any moment. So this is intelligence. This is intelligence. When a man comes to inquire this point, that "Why I am forced to leave my comfortable position?" I may be now American or Australian, very nice living, very nice motor car, roads, everything, but why I am forced to leave immediately?
This is the problem of life. Janma-mṛtyu-jarā-vyādhi-duḥkha-doṣānudarśanam (BG 13.9). Bhagavad-gītā says that "You may think of yourself as very happy within this material condition. You may think. That is called māyā. Actually, it is not happiness. "I am working very hard day and night to decorate my country, my society, my family, my house. Everything. That is not very happiness, working very day and night. But it is māyā.
I am working day and night very hard, and I am still thinking I am very happy. Natural tendency is that not to work. Therefore as soon as one man gets some money, he wants to live peacefully in a country place, a nice bungalow, without any working, without any turmoil. That is our natural tendency, peaceful. But we are forced to work, especially in this modern world. So many factories, so many work, so many. Unless we work, we cannot get the so-called comforts of life. So for the comforts of life, the so-called comforts of life I shall be able to enjoy, I am forced to work day and night. And I am thinking I am happy. This is called māyā. He is not happy, but he is distressed, but he is thinking, "I am happy." This is called māyā.
Therefore Kṛṣṇa says, idaṁ śarīram. This body is the cause of my comfortable, uncomfortable position, this body. In another place when Arjuna inquired from Kṛṣṇa that "Whatever you are saying, it is all right. Still we sometimes feel pains and pleasures," so Kṛṣṇa answered,
- mātrā-sparśās tu kaunteya
- āgamāpāyino 'nityās
- tāṁs titikṣasva bhārata
- (BG 2.14)
Mātrā-sparśāḥ. It is due to the skin, the skin." It is sometimes comfortable or uncomfortable according to the atmosphere. Just like we feel cold during winter season. We do not like to take bath. It is very cold. And again, in the summer season, we feel very warm. We want to enjoy taking bath. Therefore the water, in some season it is comfortable; in some season it is uncomfortable. The water is what actually? A chemical. But the atmosphere makes it comfortable or uncomfortable.
You see. Either a flower or anything, nature's product, it is perfectly done. In this way you have to develop your God consciousness or Kṛṣṇa consciousness. There are books. There are explanations. There are teachers. So the human life is meant for this purpose, to understand how God is working, what is God, even what is His name, where does He live, what is our relationship with Him, how things are being managed. These are...
Athāto brahma jijñāsā. Therefore the Vedānta-sūtra says that "This life is simply meant for inquiring about the Supreme." That's all. The animal cannot do it. So simply if I waste our time just like the animals... The animals' life is simply busy for four things: eating, sleeping, mating, and defense. That's all. They do not know anything more than that. So human life, if we simply... Of course, so long we have got this body, we have to be seeking after eating, sleeping, mating, and defending. But not that we shall waste our time simply for these four things. There is a fifth platform which is brahma-jijñāsā, inquiry about the Supreme. And there are information, perfect knowledge. If you want to consult, you want to take it, then your life will be perfect.
Otherwise if we simply waste our time for the animal propensities of life, then again we glide down to the animal life. That is a great loss. After many, many births, we have got this human form of life. If we simply waste like cats and dogs, then again we become cats and dogs or tree or anything. There are so many species of life. That will be great mistake, great loss. Havoc it will be.
Eka-deśa-sthitasyāgneḥ. Agni, fire... Just like sometimes we see fire on the beach but illuminates. Similarly God, Kṛṣṇa, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, is situated in His planet, Goloka Vṛndāvana. Goloka eva nivasaty akhilātma-bhūtaḥ (Bs. 5.37). Although He is situated in one place, He can be present everywhere. That is God. We are sitting in this room. We are not sitting in other room. But Kṛṣṇa, He can sit in His Goloka Vṛndāvana, He can dance with the gopīs, but He is everywhere. With His full potencies. That is the difference.
That Kṛṣṇa explained to Arjuna that. "I first of all explained this Bhagavad-gītā to the sun-god." Arjuna, to clear the matter, inquired from Him: aparaṁ bhavato janma paraṁ janma vivasvataḥ. So Arjuna knew that Kṛṣṇa can remember forty millions of years ago He spoke to the sun-god, but to clear the misconception of others who will later on read Bhagavad-gītā, he inquired the question that "My dear Kṛṣṇa, we are born very recently. How is that You say that You explained this Bhagavad-gītā forty millions of years ago?" In that answer, Kṛṣṇa said that: "Yes, you were also present at that time, when I explained." Because Kṛṣṇa and Arjuna, they're constant companions, friends. Pārṣada. Eternal associate.
When Kṛṣṇa comes, He comes with His associates. Just like if you invite King. That does not mean the king alone. The king comes along with secretaries, commander, ministers, soldiers, so many things. Similarly whenever Kṛṣṇa comes... Yadā yadā hi dharmasya glānir bhavati bhārata, tadātmānaṁ sṛjāmy aham (BG 4.7). At that time, Kṛṣṇa, all His associates also come. So Kṛṣṇa said that "The difference is that you have forgotten." That is the difference between Kṛṣṇa, God, and ordinary living entity. Kṛṣṇa says: vedāhaṁ samatītāni (BG 7.26). He knows past, present, future.
Devotee: "O scion of Bhārata, you should also understand that I am also the knower in all bodies and to understand this body and its owner is called knowledge. That is my opinion."
Prabhupāda: So Arjuna inquired from Kṛṣṇa six things: kṣetra, kṣetrajña, prakṛti, puruṣa, jñānam, jñeyam. What is knowledge and what is the object of knowledge. Jñānam jñeyam. Kṣetra, field of activities, kṣetrajña, the worker on that field, kṣetra, kṣetrajña, and prakṛti, nature, and the puruṣa. Material nature and puruṣa means the enjoyer. Six question. Of course Bhagavad-gītā is each and every word and letter is full of knowledge. But these six inquiries, if actually can understand the six items, he becomes the perfect knower. That is said by Kṛṣṇa: yat taj jñānaṁ mataṁ mama. Jñānam means knowledge. So if anyone can understand the six items, then he is in full knowledge.
Yat taj jñānaṁ mataṁ mama. "You have asked me, Arjuna..." And bhagavān uvāca, and the Supreme Personality of Godhead speaking. Not only speaking, He says, just like a gentleman... Whatever He says is perfect but still He says, "This is My opinion." "This is My opinion." Now my opinion you can take or not take, that is up to you. But who can give better opinion than Kṛṣṇa? That is another knowledge. Why Kṛṣṇa? Arjuna is asking Kṛṣṇa. Because in the beginning he has said that "Nobody can make solution of my problem. You are the best." So following the footsteps of Arjuna, if we accept Kṛṣṇa's words, not blindly but with good logic, good scientific research, if we actually try to understand what Kṛṣṇa speaks, then all our problems are solved.
Here Kṛṣṇa says, kṣetra-kṣetra-jñayor jñānaṁ yad jñānam, taj jñānaṁ mataṁ mama. The kṣetra, this body, and the owner of the body... I am not this body, I am the owner of this body. This is jñānam. That is being explained in this chapter of Bhagavad-gītā by Kṛṣṇa. This is the thirteenth chapter, and Arjuna's question was
- prakṛtiṁ puruṣaṁ caiva
- kṣetraṁ kṣetra-jñam eva ca
- etad veditum icchāmi
- jñānaṁ jñeyaṁ ca keśava
This was the question in this chapter, "My dear Kṛṣṇa, I want to know what is the prakṛti, what is puruṣa, what is kṣetra, what is kṣetra-jña, what is jñāna?" These are the items inquired by Arjuna.
Arjuna is disciple, and Kṛṣṇa is the teacher. The disciple submissively inquired from the teacher about knowledge. That is the Vedic injunction. You cannot have knowledge, I cannot have knowledge, without teacher. By speculative advancement, one cannot come to the real platform of knowledge. At the present moment, so many philosophers, scientists, they are trying to advance in knowledge by speculation. "I think," "In my opinion," "Perhaps," like this. These things are going on. Big, big philosophers, scientists, they give their opinion. "I think like this." Everybody is thinking, "I think..." And it is being supported. Knowledge means anyone can think in any way, and at the present moment that is being accepted as knowledge.
Just like at the present moment we see that Kṛṣṇa and Arjuna, they are talking. Arjuna is direct disciple of Kṛṣṇa. So if you take Bhagavad-gītā as it was understood by Arjuna, then you get the right knowledge. And if you take the knowledge of Bhagavad-gītā explained by some so-called scholar and politician, then it is rascaldom only. It has no meaning. It has no meaning.
That is the process. You try to understand Bhagavad-gītā as Arjuna understood. Arjuna is asking Kṛṣṇa. So what Kṛṣṇa is answering, you take it. Arjuna accepted Kṛṣṇa, paraṁ brahma paraṁ dhāma pavitraṁ paramaṁ bhavān (BG 10.12). These are all statement in the Bhagavad-gītā. So our only request is that if you want knowledge as it is inquired by Arjuna, you take it from Kṛṣṇa or one who has accepted Kṛṣṇa as guru, the original. Then your knowledge is perfect. Otherwise you are cheated. You will not get the right knowledge. It is not possible. Evaṁ paramparā-prāptam imaṁ rājarṣayo viduḥ (BG 4.2).
So therefore Kṛṣṇa says that kṣetra-jñaṁ cāpi māṁ viddhi. Kṣetra-jñaṁ cāpi māṁ viddhi sarva-kṣetreṣu bhārata (BG 13.3). First of all He gave knowledge that "This body is kṣetra." Kṣetra means field of activities. Just like a cultivator. He has got a field, and he is working with plow. So according to his labor he is getting the fruit. Similarly, we have got this field, this body, and we are working—you, me, and everyone—according to our knowledge, according to my understanding capacity. So therefore... I am not this body; I am the owner of the body. I am working with this body. This is the position. Kṣetra-kṣetra-jña.
So as father is always kind to the son, similarly, the supreme father is so kind that we are flying from this tree to that tree, this body to that body. So Kṛṣṇa is also flying, but He's not affected. That is explained in the Upaniṣad, that the one individual soul bird, he is eating the forbidden fruit of the tree and enjoying or suffering the result. But the other bird, he's simply witnessing. Witnessing. Upadraṣṭā anumantā. That is described. Upadraṣṭā means witness. Upa means... You cannot avoid the vigilence of Kṛṣṇa. You cannot do anything concealed. Everything is known to Kṛṣṇa. Therefore He is called upadraṣṭā.
And He knows that he'll suffer. Therefore sometimes conscience beats. We sometimes inquire from our conscience. Conscience says, "No, don't do this." But still we do it. Still we do... That is our avidyā. Because we do not know, in ignorance, in spite of the Supreme Soul, Supersoul is forbidding, "Don't do this," still, we shall do it. That is called anumantā. We cannot do anything without the sanction of the Supersoul, but when we insist that "I must do it," then He says, "All right, you do it, but you'll suffer your sequence. My word is, Supersoul order is, that 'You give up all this nonsense. Simply surrender unto Me. I will give you all protection.' " But no, that he'll not do.
The Brahma-sūtra, or Vedānta-sūtra, is called nyāya-prasthāna. There are three different processes for understanding the Absolute Truth: nyāya-prasthāna, śruti-prasthāna, smṛti-prasthāna. Brahma-sūtra is nyāya-prasthāna. Nyāya-prasthāna means everything, all the sūtras and codes, are there with full reasoning. Hetumadbhir viniścita. And whatever Brahma-sūtra says, that is viniścita, means ascertained. There is no doubt. Just like Brahma-sūtra says, athāto brahma jijñāsā. Brahma-sūtra says, "Now it is the time for inquiring about the Absolute Truth." "Now" means in this life, human form of life, or...
Just like in Europe and America it is the time now to inquire about the Absolute Truth because materially they are advanced. They have seen all material advancements. The scientists are now perplexed that "How we shall maintain ourselves because we have nothing to give anymore? Whatever stock we had, that is finished." Now they are simply to bluff, no more stock to give. They have given us motorcar and atomic bomb and aeroplane and electronic activities. So many things they have given. That's all right. Simply they could not give us relief from birth, death, old age, and disease. That's all. The real problems are there. But they have given some superfluous...
So their time is now athāto brahma jijñāsā. Therefore from India, any rascal comes as yogi and sādhu and avatāra—they go. They are hankering after. We see practically this younger generation. They ask me sometimes that "Why so many younger, younger generation come to you?" Yes, they are frustrated. They are no more interested to live like their fathers and grandfathers. That is become... That has become hackneyed. The same things, same gambling, same meat-eating, same woman-huntering, and same intoxication—that has finished.
So when one has finished his material enjoyment, then the next question is brahma-saukhya. Athāto brahma jijñāsā. They try to inquire about the Absolute Truth. That is natural sequence. Therefore the Vedānta-sūtra, the first aphorism is athāto brahma jijñāsā. Yes, that is natural.
As you are, you young boys and girls, why you are after me? The natural sequence is that "Now we have to inquire what is the next because this material happiness has not given us any happiness actually." So when a man becomes civilized, when a man has enjoyed enough of this so-called material, the next inquiry is about the Absolute Truth. That is natural. That is natural because every living entity is spiritual spark. He's not this body.
Therefore Kṛṣṇa comes, being bothered by these rascals, that "You want from Me so many things, but you are not happy. Please, therefore, give up this business." Sarva-dharmān parityajya mām ekam śaraṇaṁ (BG 18.66). "Just become... Follow Me. You'll be happy." Therefore Kṛṣṇa comes. Real solution is that, Kṛṣṇa consciousness. Therefore the Vedānta-sūtra says, athāto brahma jijñāsā: "Now you don't inquire for any other things." Why should you? All other things required by you, that is already supplied. It will be supplied. Why you bother? You just try to understand the value of your life in Kṛṣṇa consciousness. That is your only business. Tasyaiva hetoḥ prayateta kovidaḥ. Kovida: "Those who are intelligent," tasyaiva hetoḥ, "for that thing," prayateta, "endeavor." So try to get that thing. For that thing... Na labhyate yad bhramatām upary adhaḥ (1.5.18).
Just like people are struggling. Wherever you go, material world, either you go to London or go to Paris or to Calcutta or Bombay, anywhere you go, what is the business? Everyone is struggling: (makes sounds) whoon, shoon, shoon, shoon, shoon, shoon, shoon. Day and night the motorcar going this way and that way, this way and that way. Last night I was speaking with Śrutakīrti. Wherever, we see this nonsense thing, whoo, shoo, shoon, shoon, shoon, shoon, shoo, shoo, shoo. Any city you go, the same road, same motorcar, same "whoo, shoosh," same petrol, that's all. (laughter) What is the difference? But we say—this is called illusion—"I have come to Paris. I have come to Calcutta." But where is the difference between Calcutta and Paris and Bombay? The same thing. Punaḥ punaḥ carvita-carvaṇānām. Again and again, chewing the chewed. That's all.
Then what is the use of your becoming nationalist? Your men, for whom you have worked so hard, next life, if you take your birth as a cow, the same men will send you to the slaughterhouse. But these rascals, they do not know what is the mystery.
Therefore to make solution of this problem—athāto brahma jijñāsā: "Now inquire what is the Absolute Truth." That is intelligence. Therefore Kṛṣṇa, although He is Kṛṣṇa, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, He is giving reference to the Brahma-sūtra. Whatever He speaks, it is all right. He doesn't require to refer any authoritative book. But He is also giving. You have seen Caitanya Mahāprabhu. That is the way. But these rascals are trying to avoid authoritative scriptures. Even Kṛṣṇa is giving reference to the authoritative scripture, and these rascals, they have so degraded, they say, "Oh, why these books? Now I can manufacture own knowledge." And other rascals, they are accepting: "Yes, it is right."
So this is called Kali-yuga. People are so degraded, less than animal, less than animal. Therefore to revive them, the Vedānta-sūtra says, athāto brahma jijñāsā: "Now you inquire about the Absolute Truth." Hetumadbhir viniścitaṁ. Now, hetumadbhiḥ. Hetumadbhiḥ means "with reason." Reason. What is that reason? Now, if I want to inquire about the Absolute Truth, so how I shall understand? Now... There are three ways, namely pratyakṣa, pratyakṣa, aitihya, and śruti, śruti-pramāṇa. Śruti-pramāṇa, pratyakṣa-pramāṇa, direct perception...
Now, Brahman, the Absolute Truth, how we can understand the Absolute Truth? Absolute Truth means the Supreme. Now we have got experience that everything is created by somebody, everything, whatever we see, this pillow, this seat, or this book, or this microphone, whatever we are seeing. Even my body is created by my father and mother. Everyone can understand. So why they should deny the creation of this material world?
We see. Everything material, that has got a beginning, date of birth and date of death. And there are, in the middle, between the birth and death, there is disease and old age, deterioration. Old age means deterioration. Just like this body. When I was young man, child, I was also jumping. Now I have to go with a stick. The deterioration... This is called de... Deterioration. Deterioration means now it is coming to be finished.
Nāsau ṛṣir yasya mataṁ na bhinnam. Śrutayo vibhinnāḥ. Vedic literature—Sāma, Yajur, Ṛg, Artharva—they are different. They are one, but we understand differently, according to our quality of understanding. Otherwise, all Vedic literature aims to understand Kṛṣṇa. Vedaiś ca sarvair aham eva vedyaḥ (BG 15.15). That is the purpose of Veda, to understand Kṛṣṇa. After many, many births of studying of Vedic literature, in the process of jñāna-mārga, when one becomes actually wise, bahūnāṁ janmanām ante (BG 7.19), when he is actually wise, jñānavān māṁ prapadyante, he understands Kṛṣṇa and surrenders unto Him. That is actually understanding. So chandobhir vividhaiḥ pṛthak.
But Śrī Kṛṣṇa, Bhagavān, is specially referring herewith, brahma-sūtra-padaiś caiva. Brahma-sūtra means Vedānta-sūtra. Vedānta-sūtra He's referring. That is approved. There are different philosophical ways: parāmaṇu-vāda, nirviśeṣa-vāda, saviśeṣavāda, māyāvāda. They are all rejected. Simply brahma-sūtra padaiś caiva hetumadbhir viniścitaiḥ (BG 13.5). Brahma-sūtra means Vedānta-sūtra. It is called Brahma-sūtra because the first aphorism of Vedānta-sūtra is athāto brahma jijñāsā: "This human life is meant for inquiry about Brahman, the Absolute Truth." That is human life. Therefore it is called Brahma-sūtra. What is Brahman. Athāto brahma jijñāsā. Janmādy asya yataḥ. Janmādy asya yataḥ: (SB 1.1.1) "Brahman is the supreme source of everything."
So therefore Brahma-sūtra is called nyāya-prasthāna. Nyāya-prasthāna, śruti-prasthāna, smṛti-prasthāna. We have to accept this prasthāna, the process of progress, to understand the Absolute Truth. So Brahma-sūtra is called nyāya-prasthāna. By logic, sufficient logic, Brahma-sūtra. Kṛṣṇa says therefore, brahma-sūtra-padaiś caiva hetumadbhir viniścitaiḥ (BG 13.5). Hetumat, with reason, you must understand.
Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu and Kṛṣṇa also recommended this process, that if you give chance to the people to understand the real knowledge from the Bhagavad-gītā... Now it remains to the people to accept it or not accept it. That is his choice. But our duty is... Just like representative of a business firm, he goes from door to door, from shop to shop, that "Here is a thing we are selling, and this is such and such." Now, it does not mean that wherever the representative will go the things will be sold. No. That is not expected. But maybe somebody may come and take to such transaction maybe seriously. But we cannot expect that everyone will understand the science of Kṛṣṇa consciousness. It is not for ordinary man, not for the proud man, especially, who is thinking that "I am God." It is for the humble and meek who can actually submit to a God-realized person and receive knowledge from him. But he has the, I mean to say, liberty to inquire from him. One should not blindly accept the thesis or the theory which is put forward from Bhagavad-gītā. Tad viddhi praṇipātena paripraśnena sevayā (BG 4.34). One should be asking questions by two principles. He should ask questions from a person whom he believes to be a man of knowledge. Otherwise it is simply waste of time. And at the same time, sevā, by service. Then question is allowed. Otherwise, blind acceptance is no acceptance. One should understand, but with service and surrender. These are the processes, and we are trying to administer this Kṛṣṇa consciousness under the principle of Bhagavad-gītā and Lord Caitanya.
So you are all welcome, and if you put up questions to understand, we shall be very glad to serve you. Any questions? (end)
Therefore Vedānta-sūtra says that this life is meant for inquiring about the Absolute Truth, tattva-jijñāsā. Jīvasya tattva-jijñāsā. In the Bhāgavata also says. Athāto brahma jijñāsā. So this Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement is awakening the dormant inquiry of the human society to inquire "What I am? What is God? What is my relationship with God? Why I have come here in this material world? What is the reason? Why I am suffering? I don't want to die, but why death is forced upon me?" These are the questions to be solved in human life. Not the economic development. There is no question of economic development. Everyone is taken care by the mercy of God. Just like we are human beings. We are only four hundred thousand species, forms. But out of eight million four hundred thousand species, the eight millions forms of life, birds, beasts, they are taking (taken) care. There is no economic development program. They are eating very nicely. In Africa there are millions of elephants. They are eating very nicely. There is no question of scarcity of food. So why don't you think like that? Tasyaiva hetoḥ prayeteta kovido na labhyate yad bhramatām upary adhaḥ (1.5.18).
Therefore human life is simply meant for inquiring about the Absolute Truth, not for engaging oneself for this so-called economic development. That is already there by God's arrangement. Actually, I am wandering all over the world. There are immense space in this planet also. In Africa, in Australia, ten times of the population can be accommodated, and they can produce their food. But the īśāvāsya... We have forgotten that everything belongs to God. We are thinking "It is my land. You cannot come here. It is my land. You cannot come here." This mismanagement of the human society is the cause of all troubles, all problems. Therefore the human society must have Kṛṣṇa consciousness to solve all the problems of life. Thank you very much. (end)
Therefore Vedic literature says tad vijñānārthaṁ sa gurum evābhigacchet (MU 1.2.12). Abhigacchet." This word is used when the sense is "You must." This is vidhi-lin form of verb, gacchet, abhigacchet. You must. There is no excuse. You cannot learn. Tasmād guruṁ prapadyeta jijñāsuḥ śreya uttamam (SB 11.3.21). If you want to know uttamam subject matter... Ut, ut means udgatam, transcending. Tamaḥ means this material world. This material world is tama, darkness. But if you are interested in the matter which is transcendental to this material world, that means spiritual world, then tasmād guruṁ prapadyeta, you must surrender to a guru.
Jijñāsuḥ śreya uttamam. Not ordinary jijñāsuḥ. Just like we go to the market, "What is the rate of this share? What is the rate of rice? What is the rate of dahl?" Not that kind of jij... Brahma jijñāsuḥ. Athāto brahma jijñāsā. This human life is meant for inquiring about Brahman, not this rice, dahl, share market. No.
So jijñāsuḥ śreya uttamam, what is the highest perfection of life, he requires to approach a guru. It is not a fashion. It is not a fashion that "I have made my guru, such and such Swami." But what you have learned? You cannot learn because you are not at all jijñāsuḥ. You do not know how to inquire, neither the guru you have met, he does know how to reply. Such kind of guru and disciple will not help. The disciple must be also serious to understand about the spiritual subject matter. That is knowledge, brahma-jijñāsā. One who is inquisitive to know about the Absolute Truth, he requires to approach a guru. That is jñāna. Jnana means brahma-jñāna. Ahaṁ brahmāsmi. This is jñāna. And if I am American, that is not jñāna. That is ajñāna. "I am Indian," "I am brāhmaṇa," "I am this," "I am that," "I am black," "I am white," "I am fat," "I am thin." These are all ajñāna, ignorance. You are neither fat nor thin nor black nor white nor American, but you are spirit soul. You have to know that. Ahaṁ brahmāsmi: "I am spirit soul. I am eternal servant of Kṛṣṇa." That is knowledge. And for this knowledge you must approach, ācāryopāsanam.
Everything we can know. This human form of body is specially meant for that purpose. You can understand what you are, what is this material nature, what is God and how we are related, how things are going on. Everything is there, but we are so foolish that we do not take care. We live like cats and dogs, eat something and sleep and have sexual intercourse and then we are afraid always and then die. This is cats' and dogs' life. Real life is to know, athāto brahma jijñāsā. That is real life, human life. One must be inquisitive to understand the Absolute Truth, brahma-jijñāsā, not inquiring in the market, "What is the rate of share? What is the rate of rice? No, not for this inquiry. Jijñāsuḥ śreya uttamam. To inquire about the Absolute Truth, uttamam, beyond this material nature. Udgata tamam. This material nature is called tama. Tamaso mā jyotir gama. These are the Vedic injunctions.
You have to enter, you have to understand the world of light. This world is the world of darkness. It is simply... We require, therefore, sunlight, moonlight, electric light. Otherwise it is dark. It is called tamaḥ. But there is another world which is full of light. It is so full of light that you do not require the sunlight, moonlight or electric light there.
Therefore here it is said, jyotiṣām api taj jyotiḥ, param. There are different kinds of illumination, sunshine, moonshine, electricity, fire. But that jyoti which is directly emanating from Kṛṣṇa's body, that is the real jyoti. So on account of Kṛṣṇa's bodily rays, the whole creation is coming out. That is Kṛṣṇa's inconceivable power, brahma-jyotir. Janmādy asya yataḥ (SB 1.1.1). Athāto brahma jijñāsā. In the Vedānta-sūtra, you have to inquire about that paraṁ jyoti, brahma-jyotir. And from that paraṁ jyoti, everything is coming out. Just like from the sunshine.
What is this material world? This material world is resting on the sunshine. Because the sunshine is there, therefore all the planets are rotating. There is a small machine. You'll find it. As soon as it is heated, within that machine the balls begin to rotate. Similarly, the certain temperature of the sunshine, the whole planetary system is rotating on the orbit, on account of the sunshine. This is scientifically true. And because there is sunshine, there is vegetation, there is water, there is rainfall, and from the rainfall, there is agricultural products.
What is our trying? We try for eating, sleeping, mating, and defending. So that is available by the laws of nature. Even a bird, beast, he has got arrangement. Birds, when they take birth, there are two birds, one male and female. So sex arrangement is already, ar... Because they have no marriage, I mean to say, problem. They eat from tree to tree there is fruit. They sleep also, they have their sex life, and when there is danger they try to defend. Everyone. So if you also try to improve, but that cannot be improved.
So now we have got higher consciousness, developed consciousness we should try to understand the problems of life. Athāto brahma jijñāsā. This human form of life is meant for inquiring about this Absolute Truth, the Supreme Soul. Ātma-tattva-jijñāsā. Therefore Bhāgavata says, parābhavas tāvad abodha-jāto yāvan na jijñāsata ātma-tattvam. Parābhavas tāvad abodha-jātaḥ. Everyone is born rascal and fool. Unless one is rascal and fool, one does not take birth in this material body. One who is actually in knowledge, he becomes liberated. Jñāna-vairāgya-yuktāya(SB 1.2.12). That is the result of knowledge. If we are not liberated, if we have not stopped our repetition of birth and death, that means we are in ignorance.
So this is the science of Bhagavad-gītā. One has to learn these things; otherwise he's spoiling his human life. One must know that what is the importance of this human form of life. One must take to Kṛṣṇa consciousness to save himself. Try to understand Kṛṣṇa only. Then you are saved. Janma karma me divyaṁ yo jānāti tattvataḥ, tyaktvā dehaṁ punar janma naiti (BG 4.9). The problem is janma-mṛtyu-jarā-vyādhi-duḥkha-doṣānu... (BG 13.9). This problem we have set aside. We are busy for a few years life, fifty years, twenty years or... We have forgotten that we are eternal. We don't die after the destruction of this body. Na hanyate hanyamāne śarīre (BG 2.20). This is my problem, what kind of body again I am going to get.
So therefore, parābhavas tāvat, yāvan na jijñāsata ātma-tattvam. So long we do not inquire about the ātma-tattva, whatever you are doing, it is all foolishness and defeat. It is actually defeat. We got opportunity, this human form of life, to get out of this control of material nature, get completely freedom. If we don't try for that, simply if we try like cats and dogs, how to improve the method of eating, sleeping, sex life and defending, we are spoiling our life. This is the instruction of Bhagavad-gītā. Thank you very much. Hare Kṛṣṇa. (end)
So kāraṇaṁ guṇa-saṅgo 'sya sad-asad... Sad-yoni (BG 13.22), high-class life, and asad-yoni, pāpa-yoni... So why one is born in lower grade family? Why one is born in high-grade family? Kāraṇaṁ guṇa-saṅgo 'sya. The cause is as he has associated with different types of qualities. So unfortunately, this science, that there is birth after death, and there is, actually, we are experience, we are seeing, but they do not inquire. They think that one can improve. That is not possible. Unless he changes the quality, he cannot improve. That is not possible. They do not know it. They are falsely trying to improve the position. Nobody is trying to become poor. Everyone is trying to become rich. But it is not possible. Because he has got a particular type of body, and that body is already destined, and he has to achieve happiness or suffer distresses according to the body.
Therefore śāstra says, tasyaiva hetoḥ prayateta kovido na labhyate yad bhramatām upary adhaḥ: (SB 1.5.18) "You should try for that thing which you did not receive in your past lives." Past life, by our pious activities or impious activities, we have got a different type of body, here or in higher planetary system. That's all right. But that is not solution of my problem. The real problem is janma-mṛtyu-jarā-vyādhi (BG 13.9). So we should try, we should save time and utilize it, how to get out of this janma-mṛtyu-jarā-vyādhi. That is the whole Vedic civilization.
If you neglect, if you remain like animal without studying all these what is the value of your life? So this Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement is trying to awaken people. "Wake up!" Uttiṣṭhata jāgrata prāpya varān nibodhata. You have got this opportunity. Try to understand yourself. Why you should go on like animals and imperceptibly change your body from one to another, one to another. This is bhava-roga. This is not very good position. we shall request you to take advantage of this movement, join it, study, and inquire, and be actually in knowledge. Jñānaṁ vijñānam āstikyaṁ brahma-karma svabhāva-jam (BG 18.42). This is the business of brāhmaṇa. One who knows Brahman. Jñānaṁ vijñānam āstikyam. Āstikyam means to have faith in the authoritative Vedic knowledge. That is called āstikyam.
According to our Vedic principles one who has full faith in the Vedic knowledge, he's āstika. And who has no faith in the Vedic knowledge, he's nāstika. So be āstika, don't be nāstika. There is no useful purpose becoming a nāstika. Be āstika. And the essence of Vedic knowledge is Bhagavad-gītā because the Supreme Personality of Godhead is speaking personally. Take advantage of it. Apply it practically life and be happy not only in this life, but the next life.
Thank you very much.
Brahmānanda: Śrutvānyebhya upāsate.
Prabhupāda: Śrutvā evam upāsa... (break) They'll inquire. They'll see how we are worshiping Kṛṣṇa, how we are offering prasādam, how we are offering ārati, how we are serving. (break) And they also learn... Then? What is this?
Brahmānanda: Te 'pi cātitaranty eva...
Prabhupāda: Te 'pi ca atitaranti. They also can go back to home, back to Godhead by learn... (break) It is school. We are teaching others. Unfortunately, they do not take chance of learning this great science. They are so unfortunate. We are canvassing, we are going door to door, we are publishing books, we are flattering them, "Please come here. Take prasādam. Hear something from Bhagavad..." "No." They have no time. They have no time. They are working like cats and dogs. They will agree to go to, transfer this body, from this body to another abominable body, but they'll not try to stop this repetition of birth and death. māyā is so strong.
So it is our duty to preach, to broadcast the message of Bhagavad-gītā as far as possible. That is our duty. It is not that it is a formality. It is not formality. It is our duty. Because Kṛṣṇa, we have accepted... We are eternally servant of Kṛṣṇa. That we forgot. Now, in this life, we have surrendered to Kṛṣṇa and accepted His service. "Kṛṣṇa, so long I forgot. I am Your eternal servant, but I forgot. Now, in this life, I can understand. Therefore I surrender unto You." This is our life. Kṛṣṇa consciousness people means this is, that "Kṛṣṇa, I forgot You. I forgot my relationship with You. But now I have come to know that I am Your eternal servant. Therefore engage me."
Nitāi: "One who knowingly sees this difference between the body and the owner of the body and can understand the process of liberation from this bondage also attains to the supreme goal."
Prabhupāda: In the beginning of this chapter, Arjuna inquired,
- prakṛtiṁ puruṣaṁ caiva
- kṣetraṁ kṣetra-jñam eva ca
- etad veditum icchāmi
- jñānaṁ jñeyaṁ ca keśava
Yesterday evening, those gentlemen who came from Protestant Church?
Prabhupāda: So they're talking about what is knowledge. Yes. This is very good question, what is knowledge. So Arjuna wanted to know this knowledge from Kṛṣṇa. Knowledge means to understand this body and the soul. Kṣetra-kṣetra-jña. Kṣetra means this body, and kṣetra-jña means the owner of the body. Just like if you study your body... "What is this?" Just like we ask any child. Sometimes we play with the child. We ask, "What is this?" He'll say, "My hand," or "My head." So even the child can say that the hand is different from him. We also say, "This is my hand," "This is my leg," "This is my head." We never say, "I head," or "I hand." No. "My hand." It is very simple thing.
But they are... What they are doing? In Australia, in Africa, they have got enough land, but the government... Maybe they have no sufficient men to utilize the land, but they won't allow any outsider to go there who can produce. I have seen in Africa. Very, very large tract of land was lying vacant, nobody is producing any food. They are producing coffee. That is not the local men. The Britishers who have gone there, They are producing coffee, tea, and keeping some cows for slaughtering. This is going on. In Australia, also, I have seen.
Even some priestly class. They invited me, received me, received me very well. So one of the priests, he inquired that "Why our Christian religion is dwindling? What we have done?" And actually, that's a fact. I have seen, in London at least, the churches are for sale. Nobody's going to the church. Some of the churches have been taken for making go-down, storehouse or some factory. Many hundreds of thousands... In London there are many churches. Churches are there in New York also, other places. Formerly, people were religious. It doesn't matter whether one constructed temple or church. It doesn't matter. There was prayer to the Supreme. But now people are forgetting.
Abhayam means fearlessness. So long we are in this body, material body, there are four principles, out of which one is bhayam, fearfulness, "What will happen? What will happen?" Because I am eternal, na hanyate śarīre, but my body is to be annihilated, but because I am... This is the psychology. Because I am eternal, I do not want my body be annihilated. But it will be. Therefore I am always fearful, "When it will be annihilated? When it will be annihilated? Is the time come? Is the time come?" This is called bhayam. Bhayaṁ dvitīyābhinniveṣataḥ syāt. Because I am identifying with this body, therefore there is fearfulness. And if by knowledge I can understand that "I am not this body, I am spirit soul," ahaṁ brahmāsmi, and if you are actually convinced, then there is no fearfulness. In the Western countries there is only one philosopher, Socrates. He was condemned to death because he was speaking that "I am soul. I am eternal." That was his fault. So the judges enquired, "Mr. Socrates, now you are going to die, so what kind of grave you want?" So Socrates replied, "First of all capture me. Then you put me into the grave." That is the fact. "You rascal, you are talking of my this body. So body is already material. You put it in the grave or in the hell. It doesn't matter. But I am eternal. You cannot capture me." So this is knowledge. This abhayam. He was going to be hanged or killed. He is fearless: "But what is this nonsense? He will kill my body. That's all."
So it requires very firm knowledge. Na hanyate hanyamāne śarīre (BG 2.20). That is possible. That is possible by jñāna. Just like Prahlāda Mahārāja. His father, demon father Hiraṇyakaśipu, was chastising him in so many ways. But he was not afraid at all, fearless, because he was convinced that "I am not this body. I am different from body." Na hanyate hanyamāne śarīre (BG 2.20). "I will not die." It is simply knowledge, firm knowledge. And as soon as you come to that position, that "I am not this body," then automatically you, become abhayam, no fear. Everyone is afraid of being killed. That is the most fearful position.
Self-realization does not mean something humbug. Self-realization means to understand his real constitutional position, what I am. Just like Sanātana Gosvāmī approached Śrīla Gaurasundara, Caitanya Mahāprabhu. He asked, ke āmi: "Who I am?" Ke āmi... Ke āmi, kene āmāya jāre tāpa-traya: "What is my constitutional position? Why I am suffering the three-fold miseries of this material existence?" This is the enquiry. Everyone is suffering. Somebody is in ignorance. Although he is suffering, he is thinking that he is very well. This is called māyā. Māyā means you are accepting something which is not. This is called māyā. Mā yā: "What you are accepting, that is false." This is called māyā. So we are accepting, "I am this body," "I am American," "I am Indian," "I am Christian," "I am Hindu," "I am black," "I am white," "I am thin," "I am fat." So this is māyā. So when we give up this māyā conception of life, that is mukti. You may remain in the same body, but if you are not under māyā, bodily concept of life, that is called mukti, liberation.
So therefore it is said, daivī sampad vimokṣāya. Mokṣa, mokṣa means liberation. If you develop this daivī sampat, then you become fit for becoming liberated because our... What is the position? Why we are suffering? Why we are dying? Why we are taking birth? Why we are becoming old? On account of this material body. This is knowledge. Jñāna-vairāgya. Jñāna-vairāgya-yuktāya(SB 1.2.12). Jñāna and vairāgya, these things are required. That is daivī sampat. All the daivī sampat means, jñāna-yoga. It is immediately analyzed. Abhayaṁ sattva-saṁśuddhir jñāna-yoga-vyavasthitiḥ. This is possible when you are situated on the platform of knowledge. This is knowledge, that "I am spirit soul. I am falsely identifying myself with this body. The body is the source of my all suffering and entanglement." This is knowledge. Then, when we try to give up the ignorance of bodily concept of life, then we become gradually liberated.
So therefore we are teaching cleanliness. "You rise early in the morning. Take your bath." He must be clean immediately. He rises early in the morning, evacuating. He takes his bath. Immediately becomes cleansed, śaucam. Sattvaṁ śaucaṁ śamo damas titikṣā. These are the qualification of brāhmaṇa or the suras. But they do not know it. Therefore we are training, "Rise early in the morning. Chant Hare Kṛṣṇa. Have maṅgala-ārati." This is ācāra. This is ācāra. By practicing this, you can see the distinction between ordinary men or our men. Anyone, practically you will see. In America they are surprised. Although they are Americans, they inquire, "Are you Americans?" Because there, in America, there is no such thing. Any inquisitive person inquires. The priest said that "These boys, they are our boys, and they never came to church to inquire about what is God. Now they are mad after God. What is this?" Because they have become suras by training. By training. So asuras can be turned into suras. There is no difficulty. Provided they abide by the rules and regulation, orders of the spiritual master, they can be suras. Because they do not know... Na śaucaṁ nāpi cācāro na satyaṁ teṣu vidyate. They do not know what is satyam. Satyaṁ paraṁ dhīmahi (SB 1.1.1). Therefore we are teaching them Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, satyaṁ paraṁ dhīmahi, the ultimate truth. They do not know what is satyam. This is the movement, to give them education to understand what is the Absolute Truth, satyaṁ paraṁ dhīmahi, to teach them how to behave in life, how to become purified in life. This is very scientific movement. If anyone wants actually to become sura, the perfect man, they must join this Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement. Then his life will be successful. Thank you very much. (end)
The modern scientists, they are of opinion that life comes from matter. We say, "No, life comes from life. Matter comes from life." This is satyam. I do not know how they get Nobel Prize, putting forward a false theory that life comes from matter. The matter... So why don't you produce life in the laboratory? Matter is there. Chemicals are there. You mix them and produce a life. When some such chemist is inquired, "Whether you can produce life if I give you the chemicals?" they will immediately say, "That I cannot say." Then why do you speak like that? So this is asuric. If they accept that everything comes from the living being, then they will have to accept God. So they want to avoid this: "Everything matter." But that is not the fact. Origin is life. That is explained in the Bhagavad-gītā. Kṛṣṇa says, ahaṁ sarvasya prabhavaḥ (BG 10.8). Aham. Kṛṣṇa is life. He's not dead matter. So...
Now, what to speak of Kṛṣṇa, you can, if you think of yourself... This material body, how it has developed, such big body? Because the living spark is there. The gigantic material thing grows on the basis of spirit soul. We can understand that. The spirit soul is the basis. Our body, very small particle, spiritual particle, takes shelter in the womb of the mother, and gradually the living spark develops this body. That is our practical experience. And if, some way or other, the living spark is gone... Suppose a dead child is born. It will not grow. It will not change. So this is very simple thing, that on this living being the matter grows, not from matter living being comes in. So we have written a small pamphlet, and in German language it is already published. People are very gladly accepting, reading this book.
Just like in business circle there is Bentley's code. So for business facility, for saving expenditure, the telegraphic codes are there. So one who does not know what is this code, but he can refer to the book. The explanation is there: "This code means this wording." Similarly, Brahma-sūtra means the whole Vedic knowledge is given in codes. Brahma-sūtra-padaiś caiva hetumadbhiḥ. It is called nyāya-prasthāna. Nyāya means logic. Nyāya means... There are three kinds of authorities: śruti-prasthāna, smṛti-prasthāna, and nyāya-prasthāna. So the Brahma-sūtra is nyāya-prasthāna, very logically, very logically given.
Just like in the first code in the Brahma-sūtra is athāto brahma jijñāsā. Brahma-jijñāsā, to inquire about the Absolute... The jijñāsā means inquiry. In the cats' and dogs' life the inquiry is "Where is food? Where is shelter? Where is sex?" and "Where is defense?" only these four inquiries. The cats and dogs, they are busy, "Where is food? Find out some food." The pig is finding out: "Where is stool? Where is stool?" Here I do not know whether you have got experience. In our country, in the villages, there are so many pigs loitering. They are simply finding out where is stool. In the village the children, they pass stool here and there, and the men, they go to the field and pass, evacuate. So all these pigs are always loitering there. So they're seeking. The inquiry is for stool. They may take it as food, but after all, it is stool. So according to the body, the different foods are there. That is also described. Sāttvika-āhāra, rājasika-āhāra, tāmasika-āhāra. Everything is there in the Bhagavad-gītā.
So in the animal life they are, after seeking where is food. Then, as soon as the body is strong, then "Where is sex? Find out the opposite sex." You'll find in the hogs' life very prominent, all these things. For sex they have no discrimination whether it is mother or sister or anyone. You'll find that. These are... We have to take lessons from nature's study. The hog is sometimes trying to drink the milk from the breast of the mother and sometimes trying to have sex.
So in the animal life they are, after seeking where is food. Then, as soon as the body is strong, then "Where is sex? Find out the opposite sex." You'll find in the hogs' life very prominent, all these things. For sex they have no discrimination whether it is mother or sister or anyone. You'll find that. These are... We have to take lessons from nature's study. The hog is sometimes trying to drink the milk from the breast of the mother and sometimes trying to have sex. You'll find it. This is hog life. This is dog life: no sex discrimination, no food discrimination, no shelter discrimination, no defense discrimination. But all these things—"Discrimination, the best part of valor"—that is in human civilization. Therefore the Vedānta-sūtra said, athāto brahma jijñāsā: "Now... In your previous lives as cats and dogs and hogs, you simply were busy for inquiring 'Where is stool?' 'Where is food?' 'Where is sex?' 'Where is this?' 'Where is that?' Now, because you have got human body, better consciousness, advanced consciousness, discrimination, now you inquire about Brahman."
This is Vedānta, beginning. So therefore human life is meant for understanding the absolute truth, God, the background of everything. Immediately answer is there: "The Brahman means janmādy asya yataḥ (SB 1.1.1), the origin of everything." That is Brahman, origin of everything. There must be something origin. That is consciousness. Not that asatyam: "There is no origin." What is the nonsense? This is not human consciousness. This is animal consciousness, "There is no origin." There must be origin. I am... Because my origin is the father, my father, cause... I am born by my father. Common sense. Then his father, then his father, his father, go on, go on, go on... Although you do not know, but this is a fact that father is born by his father, and his father is born by his father. How can you deny it? He may not know the grandfather, great grandfather or more than that, but there must have been some person. Similarly, we may be foolish—we do not know; we cannot understand who is the original father—but there must have been the original father. That is God. That is God. Where is the deficiency to understand this fact?
Because either you become Rockefeller or Ford in this life and next life the king of Moon planet or Sun planet or in any way, up to the Brahmā planet, Brahmaloka, Lord Brahmā, Kṛṣṇa says, ābrahma-bhuvanāl lokāḥ punar āvartino 'rjuna: (BG 8.16) "My dear Arjuna, by your endeavor, even you become promoted to the highest position of this material world, still, you have to die, and again—either come down or remain there—there will be change of body." Ābrahma-bhuvanāl lokāḥ punar āvartino 'rjuna (BG 8.16). "So why should you be implicated in these material activities? Try to come to Me, back to home, back to Godhead. Then you'll haven't got to return again in this material world. That is the highest perfection." So this is called brahma-jijñāsā. By inquiring about Brahman one can understand that "Even if I go to the topmost planet of this material world, the four principles of miseries—birth, death, old age and disease—there is."
When Brahmā, Lord Brahmā, was asked by Hiraṇyakaśipu to make him immortal... He was undergoing severe penances to become immortal. So Lord Brahmā immediately said, "I am not immortal. How can I give you the benediction of immortality? That is not possible." Then, indirectly... He was very cunning. Then he... Indirectly he thought that "If I get benediction like this, I'll automatically become immortal." What is that? "Now, no man can kill me." "All right, that's all right." "No demigod can kill me." "That's all right." But he forgot God. Because he is godless, he did not say, "Even God cannot kill me." That he forgot. In this way he took benediction that "I shall not die on the land." "Yes." "I shall not die on the water." "Yes." "I shall not die in the air." "Yes." "I shall not be killed by any animal." "Yes." In this way, whatever intelligence he got, but he forgot one thing, that "God cannot also kill me." Because māyā is there, he forgot it. He took so many benediction, but he did not take this benediction, that "Even God cannot kill me." That he forgot. Therefore, ultimately, with all his intelligence, he failed to become immortal.
So Kṛṣṇa doesn't want anything else. Kṛṣṇa does not say, "Give Me meat. Give Me eggs. Give Me fish." No. He says, patraṁ puṣpaṁ phalaṁ toyaṁ yo me bhaktyā prayacchati. So if you are devotee, you cannot take anything which is not offered to Kṛṣṇa. So Kṛṣṇa... I should offer to Kṛṣṇa what He wants. Just like if you want to offer me something, so you inquire that "What shall I offer you? What do you like?" So similarly, if you invite Kṛṣṇa to live in your house or temple, then you should ask Kṛṣṇa, "Sir, what can I offer You?" Kṛṣṇa said, patraṁ puṣpaṁ phalaṁ toyaṁ yo me bhaktyā prayacchati (BG 9.26). Kṛṣṇa said that "You give Me patram, means vegetables, flowers, fruits, and phalam, fruits, and some liquid, water or milk." Kṛṣṇa does not say, "You give Me meat or egg or fish." No. Kṛṣṇa can eat everything, He's all powerful, but He does not eat, although He is all powerful. He can eat everything. He can eat fire. That is another thing. But because we have to take prasādam, remnants of foodstuff, Kṛṣṇa, therefore He says, "Give Me this: food grains, milk, or fruits and flowers." Prepared or unprepared, it doesn't matter. Kṛṣṇa wants that. We... So far the Vaiṣṇava is concerned, sometimes they come forward to fight with us: "Why we should be vegetarian?" No, no, we have no quarrel with the nonvegetarian. Let them eat at their risk. But because we recommend, "You take Kṛṣṇa's prasādam," therefore we must be satisfied with this patraṁ puṣpaṁ phalaṁ toyam (BG 9.26), nothing more than that.
Just like that kite-flying. Kite-flying, there is that reel? What is called? No, you have no experience. So You can fly. The kite goes very high and high. In India kite-flying is very popular sport. So you can allow the kite go and go, very high, and at the same time you can bring it near and nearer by that wheel. So this wheel, this human form of body, is meant for not prolonging the unclean material life, but now stop it. Now stop it. It is meant for that purpose.
Therefore in the Vedānta-sūtra it is said, athāto brahma jijñāsā: "Now inquire about... Sit down about... Sit down quietly and inquire about the necessity or the aim of life." That is explained in the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, jīvasya tattva-jijñāsā nārtho yaś ceha karmabhiḥ, kāmasya nendriya-prītiḥ. Kāmasya nendriya, kāma. Here it is called kāma. Kāma means lust. So because we have got this body, therefore we must have some kāma. That is a fact. You cannot avoid it. Lusty desire there is, and for the up keep of the body the lusty desires may be fulfilled, but don't become lusty which is duṣpūram, which is never to be fulfilled. So kāmasya na indriya-prītiḥ. Just like lusty desires, generally it is with reference to sex life. So sex life is required for the physiological condition of the body. That is nature's way. Or by giving birth to some nice children, that sex life is required. Otherwise why God has made the arrangement of sex? There is need, but not duṣpūram. Kāmasya na indriya-prītiḥ: "Don't use it for sense gratification." You use it to fulfill the real purpose. So these lusty desires, unless you live a very regulated life, then it will be duṣpūram, it will be never be fulfilled—always desire, always desire, always desire.
So arjuna uvāca means Arjuna inquired from Kṛṣṇa. Kṛṣṇa is teacher, and Arjuna is student. So this is the process of spiritual advancement. As it is indicated in the Vedas, tad-vijñānārtham. Tad-vijñānārtham means "To understand that transcendental science," gurum eva abhigacchet "one must take shelter of guru." It cannot be manufactured. Those who manufacture the method of understanding transcendental science, they are not bona fide. So we have already discussed many times that śāstra-vidhi. Guru means one who teaches the regulative principle from śāstra, from authorized scripture. That is guru. Guru cannot be anyone. Ācārya. Ācārya means one who knows the regulative principle or direction in the śāstra. He practically behaves in terms of the śāstra regulative principle and teaches his student also in the same way. He is called ācārya. Acainoti yaḥ śāstrāṇi.(?) He knows the purport of śāstra, he behaves himself according to the terms of the śāstra and he teaches his disciple in the same term. Evaṁ paramparā-prāptam (BG 4.2). This is the process.
So similarly, Arjuna's inquiry is very nice that "One who is not following the śāstra-vidhi, the direction of the śāstra, but has got some faith, some vague idea, then what will be considered? They will be taken as sattva-guṇa or rajo-guṇa or tamo-guṇa?" It is... So Kṛṣṇa... Now, this is very important question, and Kṛṣṇa... It not said, "Kṛṣṇa said." It is said, it is mentioned here, śrī bhagavān uvāca. Kṛṣṇa may be taken by low-grade person as ordinary human being as it is done sometimes. Big, big scholars, big, big philosophers, they also become bewildered. Just like in India, there is a party called Arya-samaj. They accept Kṛṣṇa as a very big person but not God, not God. There is some mistake some time. Avajānanti māṁ mūḍhāḥ: (BG 9.11) "Those who are rascals, they sometimes take Me as ordinary human being." That is mentioned in the Bhagavad-gītā. He is Supreme Personality of Godhead. Therefore, when there is an authoritative judgement is required, you'll find in the Bhagavad-gītā, it is said, śrī bhagavān uvāca. That means you cannot defy this judgement. Bhagavān. Because the Supreme Personality of Godhead is speaking, that is final. No argument. No commentation. This is the meaning of śrī bhagavān uvāca. Similarly, after this inquiry, śrī bhagavān uvāca. Who has this, marked rules in the scriptures?
Therefore, the Vedānta-sūtra philosophy, that begins with the word athāto brahma jijñāsā. Now, this life, this human form of life, is meant for inquiring about the Absolute Truth. Athāto brahma jijñāsā. Brahma means the Absolute Truth. So, that should be the subject matter for studying in human form of life. So Bhagavad-gītā is the right book to understand about that brahma, or the Supreme Personality of Godhead, or the Absolute Truth, whatever you call. The Absolute Truth is known in three phases: Brahman, Paramātmā and Bhagavān.
- vadanti tat tattva-vidas
- tattvaṁ yaj jñānam advayam
- brahmeti paramātmeti
- bhagavān iti śabdyate
- (SB 1.2.11)
The Absolute Truth is one, but it is realized from three angles of visions. Some of them are realizing the Absolute Truth as impersonal Brahman, some of them are realizing the Absolute Truth as the localized Paramātmā, and some of them are realizing the Absolute Truth as the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Absolute Truth is one, but because we are under different modes of material nature, we are understanding the Absolute Truth in three modes of material nature.
So there should be educational department to create first-class men by all these qualities. How to become controller of the mind, how to become controller of the senses, how to become cleansed, bāhyābhyantaram, inside clean and outside clean. Śaucam, titikṣā, how to become tolerant, tolerant. One should be not agitated by a single cause. Tolerant, and similarly, simplicity. He should be so simple. It is said simplicity: even the enemy inquires from him some secret thing, he'll say, "Yes, it is like this." Simplicity. And jñānam full knowledge. Full knowledge, what is this world, what I am, what is my relation with this world, what is God, what is my relation with God. Everything full knowledge. And vijñānam, vijñānam means completely application of the knowledge of life. And āstikyam, āstikyam means full faith in transcendental literature, that is called also āstikyam, and full faith in the existence of the Supreme Lord. Āstik... These are the brahminical qualifications. So those who are claiming to become first-class, learned men in the society, they must have all these qualifications. This is Bhagavad-gītā's teaching. The second-class man, what is that?
- śauryaṁ tejo dhṛtir dākṣyaṁ
- yuddhe cāpy apalāyanam
- dānam īśvara-bhāvaś ca
- kṣātraṁ karma svabhāva-jam
- (BG 18.43)
Administrator class. Kṣatriya, kṣatriya means those who are in the governmental power. They should be śauryam, very powerful, and very influential. Śauryaṁ tejaḥ. Nowadays, without seeing these qualifications, a third-class, fourth-class man is voted, and therefore we find out that Mr. Nixon, he's attacked now so many... Because he has no kṣatriya qualification.
So we are speaking to persons who are at least eager to hear. Śuśrūṣave. Vācyaṁ na ca māṁ yaḥ abhyasūyati. Abhyasūyati means one who is envious. So this is right warning. But still, our Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement is to create the situation so that people may kindly hear about Kṛṣṇa. That is our business. Although it is warned that if we discriminate in that way, that here is a person, he has not undergone any austerities. He's not a devotee, he's not, I mean, prepared to hear, then where we shall find our customer? The whole world is like that. (Hindi) Phag gause sei gan oja.(?) If, if, if A gentleman tried to find out who is the thief in this village, and after scrutinizing, he saw everyone is thief. So what to discriminate? So world is so situated now—no tapasya. Just like we are simply asking people, requesting people: "Kindly give up these four principles." What is that? Illicit sex and meat-eating and intoxication and gambling. Oh, it is very difficult. People find it very difficult. Even a person like Lord Zetland. He was proposed that... He, he inquired... One of my Godbrothers went to London, and he was talking with Lord Zetland, Marquis of Zetland. So Marquis of Zetland inquired, "Well, Swamiji, can you make me a brāhmaṇa?" "Yes, we can make you brāhmaṇa." "How?" "Now, you just give up illicit sex, meat-eating, intoxication and gambling." "Ohhh, it is impossible. This is our life. This is our life, to have boyfriend and girlfriend and drinking and meat-eating and gambling. If we give up all this, then where is our life?"
So Bhagavad-gītā is to be understood by the paramparā system. Śrī-bhagavān uvāca. Kṛṣṇa is the Supreme Personality of Godhead Bhagavān, ṣaḍ-aiśvarya-pūrṇa. He has no defects because He is in full knowledge. Aiśvaryasya samagrasya vīryasya yaśasaḥ śriyaḥ jñāna (Viṣṇu Purāṇa 6.5.47). He has got full knowledge. Vedāhaṁ samatītāni... (BG 7.26). He says that "I know past, present, future—everything." This past, present and future, knowledge, how Kṛṣṇa knew, that was also proved. When Kṛṣṇa said that "I spoke this philosophy to Vivasvān..." Vivasvān means to the sun-god, in the beginning, before Manu. That means about forty thousand millions of years ago, according to Manu-saṁhitā. Then Arjuna inquired, "My dear Kṛṣṇa, we are contemporaries. We are born some years ago. How is that—You instructed the sun-god, Vivasvān, this philosophy?" This inquiry was made by Arjuna. Why? How Kṛṣṇa knows the past so long, long years ago? So Kṛṣṇa replied that "Yes, at that time, you were also present, but you have forgotten. I have not forgotten." That is the difference between ordinary human being and God. That is the difference. God does not forget past, present, future. God knows future. God knows past. And present, what to speak of? In the Second Chapter you'll find also. Kṛṣṇa says that "It is not that you, Me and all these kings and soldiers were not existing in the past. And we are existing at present. And it is not that we shall not existed in the future." These are the things.