In the Brahma-samhita it is stated that Visnu is like milk, whereas Siva is like yogurt

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Srimad-Bhagavatam

SB Canto 4

Lord Śiva is in one sense the Supreme Personality of Godhead, but in another sense he is not, just as curd is milk although we have to distinguish between the two.
SB 4.4.16, Purport:

In many Purāṇas it is sometimes asserted that a demigod is elevated to such a high position that he is almost on an equal level with the Supreme Personality of Godhead, but the conclusion that Lord Viṣṇu is the Supreme Personality of Godhead is confirmed in every scripture. Lord Śiva is described in the Brahma-saṁhitā to be like curd or yogurt. Curd is not different from milk. Since milk is transformed into curd, in one sense curd is also milk. Similarly, Lord Śiva is in one sense the Supreme Personality of Godhead, but in another sense he is not, just as curd is milk although we have to distinguish between the two. These descriptions are in the Vedic literature.

There is no difference between Lord Viṣṇu and Lord Śiva in their original positions, but still Lord Śiva is different from Lord Viṣṇu.
SB 4.6.42, Purport:

Although Lord Brahmā had received very respectful obeisances from Lord Śiva, he knew that Lord Śiva was in a more exalted position than himself. Lord Śiva's position is described in Brahma-saṁhitā: there is no difference between Lord Viṣṇu and Lord Śiva in their original positions, but still Lord Śiva is different from Lord Viṣṇu. The example is given that the milk in yogurt is not different from the original milk from which it was made.

The example given in the Brahma-saṁhitā is that milk and yogurt are simultaneously one and different; both are milk, but the yogurt has become changed.
SB 4.7.54, Purport:

Two words are very significant in this verse. Trayāṇām indicates "three," namely Lord Brahmā, Lord Śiva and Lord Viṣṇu. Bhidām means "different." They are three, and therefore they are separate, but at the same time they are one. This is the philosophy of simultaneous oneness and difference, which is called acintya-bhedābheda-tattva. The example given in the Brahma-saṁhitā is that milk and yogurt are simultaneously one and different; both are milk, but the yogurt has become changed. In order to achieve real peace, one should see everything and every living entity, including Lord Brahmā and Lord Śiva, as nondifferent from the Supreme Personality of Godhead. No one is independent. Every one of us is an expansion of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. This accounts for unity in diversity. There are diverse manifestations, but, at the same time, they are one in Viṣṇu. Everything is an expansion of Viṣṇu's energy.

Lord Śiva is considered to be like yogurt (dadhi). Yogurt is nothing but transformed milk; nonetheless, yogurt cannot be accepted as milk.
SB 4.30.24, Purport:

One who considers Lord Viṣṇu to be in the same category with devas like Lord Brahmā or Lord Śiva or who thinks Lord Brahmā and Śiva to be equal to Lord Viṣṇu is to be considered as pāṣaṇḍī (a faithless nonbeliever). Therefore in this verse Lord Viṣṇu is distinguished in the words namo viśuddha-sattvāya. Although a living entity like us, Lord Brahmā is exalted due to his pious activities; therefore he is given the high post of Brahmā. Lord Śiva is not actually like a living entity, but he is not the Supreme Personality of Godhead. His position is somewhere between Viṣṇu, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, and Brahmā, the living entity. Lord Śiva is therefore explained in Brahma-saṁhitā (5.45) in this way:

kṣīraṁ yathā dadhi vikāra-viśeṣa-yogāt
sañjāyate na hi tataḥ pṛthag asti hetoḥ
yaḥ śambhutām api tathā samupaiti kāryād
govindam ādi-puruṣaṁ tam ahaṁ bhajāmi

Lord Śiva is considered to be like yogurt (dadhi). Yogurt is nothing but transformed milk; nonetheless, yogurt cannot be accepted as milk. Similarly, Lord Śiva holds almost all the powers of Lord Viṣṇu, and he is also above the qualities of the living entity, but he is not exactly like Viṣṇu, just as yogurt, although transformed milk, is not exactly like milk.

SB Canto 9

Lord Śiva is the Supreme Personality of Godhead in the same sense that yogurt is also milk although at the same time it is not milk.
SB 9.9.7, Purport:

Lord Śiva is described in the Brahma-saṁhitā (5.45):

kṣīraṁ yathā dadhi vikāra-viśeṣa-yogāt
sañjāyate na hi tataḥ pṛthag asti hetoḥ
yaḥ śambhutām api tathā samupaiti kāryād
govindam ādi-puruṣaṁ tam ahaṁ bhajāmi

"Milk changes into yogurt when mixed with a yogurt culture, but actually yogurt is constitutionally nothing but milk. Similarly, Govinda, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, assumes the form of Lord Śiva for the special purpose of material transactions. I offer my obeisances at Lord Govinda's lotus feet." Lord Śiva is the Supreme Personality of Godhead in the same sense that yogurt is also milk although at the same time it is not milk. For the maintenance of the material world there are three incarnations—Brahmā, Viṣṇu and Maheśvara (Lord Śiva). Lord Śiva is Viṣṇu in an incarnation for the mode of ignorance. The material world exists predominantly in the mode of ignorance. Therefore Lord Śiva is compared here to the longitude and latitude of the entire universe, which resembles a cloth woven of threads extending for both its length and breadth.

Sri Caitanya-caritamrta

CC Adi-lila

Viṣṇu is like milk, whereas Śiva is like yogurt. Yogurt is nothing like milk, but nevertheless it is milk also.
CC Adi 5.105, Purport:

Maheśvara, or Lord Śiva, is not an ordinary living being, nor is he equal to Lord Viṣṇu. Effectively comparing Lord Viṣṇu and Lord Śiva, the Brahma-saṁhitā says that Viṣṇu is like milk, whereas Śiva is like yogurt. Yogurt is nothing like milk, but nevertheless it is milk also.

Lord Śiva is an expansion of Lord Viṣṇu, yet because of his taking part in the annihilation of the cosmic manifestation, he is considered to be changed, like milk converted into yogurt.
CC Adi 6.79, Purport:

In the Brahma-saṁhitā the relationship between Viṣṇu and Lord Śiva is compared to that between milk and yogurt. Milk is converted into yogurt by certain additives, but although milk and yogurt have the same ingredients, they have different functions. Similarly, Lord Śiva is an expansion of Lord Viṣṇu, yet because of his taking part in the annihilation of the cosmic manifestation, he is considered to be changed, like milk converted into yogurt.

Lord Śiva is not different from Lord Viṣṇu, but still Lord Śiva is not Lord Viṣṇu, just as yogurt is nothing but milk and yet is not milk nevertheless.
CC Adi 17.100, Purport:

Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu adopted the mood of Lord Śiva, for He is Śiva also. According to the philosophy of acintya-bhedābheda-tattva, Lord Śiva is not different from Lord Viṣṇu, but still Lord Śiva is not Lord Viṣṇu, just as yogurt is nothing but milk and yet is not milk nevertheless. One cannot get the benefit of milk by drinking yogurt. Similarly, one cannot get salvation by worshiping Lord Śiva. If one wants salvation, one must worship Lord Viṣṇu. This is confirmed in the Bhagavad-gītā (9.4): mat-sthāni sarva-bhūtāni na cāhaṁ teṣv avasthitaḥ. Everything is resting on the Lord, for everything is His energy, yet He is not everywhere. Lord Caitanya's adopting the mood of Lord Śiva is not extraordinary, but one should not therefore think that by worshiping Lord Śiva one is worshiping Lord Caitanya. That would be a mistake.

CC Madhya-lila

A Vaiṣṇava sees Lord Śiva as being simultaneously one with and different from the Supreme Lord. In this regard, the example of milk and yogurt is given.
CC Madhya 9.360, Purport:

When a Vaiṣṇava visits the temple of a demigod, his vision of that demigod is different from the vision of the impersonalists and Māyāvādīs. The Brahma-saṁhitā supports this. A Vaiṣṇava's visit to the temple of Lord Śiva, for example, is different from a nondevotee's visit. The nondevotee considers the deity of Lord Śiva an imaginary form because he ultimately thinks that the Supreme Absolute Truth is void. However, a Vaiṣṇava sees Lord Śiva as being simultaneously one with and different from the Supreme Lord. In this regard, the example of milk and yogurt is given. Yogurt is actually nothing but milk, but at the same time it is not milk. It is simultaneously one with milk yet different from it.

As yogurt is prepared when milk is mixed with a culture, the form of Lord Śiva expands when the Supreme Personality of Godhead is in touch with material nature.
CC Madhya 20.273, Purport:

The word svāṅga-viśeṣābhāsa-rūpe, indicating the form by which the Lord begets living entities in the material world, is explained herein. He is Lord Śiva. In the Brahma-saṁhitā it is stated that Lord Śiva, who is another form of Mahā-Viṣṇu, is like yogurt. Yogurt is nothing but milk, yet it is not milk. Similarly, Lord Śiva is considered the father of this universe, and material nature is considered the mother. The father and mother are known as Lord Śiva and goddess Durgā. Together, Lord Śiva's genitals and the vagina of goddess Durgā are worshiped as the śiva-liṅga. This is the origin of the material creation. Thus Lord Śiva's position is between that of the living entity and that of the Supreme Lord. In other words, Lord Śiva is neither the Supreme Personality of Godhead nor a living entity. He is the form through which the Supreme Lord works to beget living entities within this material world. As yogurt is prepared when milk is mixed with a culture, the form of Lord Śiva expands when the Supreme Personality of Godhead is in touch with material nature. The impregnation of material nature by the father, Lord Śiva, is wonderful because at one time innumerable living entities are conceived.

Milk is compared to Viṣṇu. As soon as milk touches a sour substance, it becomes yogurt, or Lord Śiva. Although yogurt is constitutionally milk, it cannot be used in place of milk.
CC Madhya 20.309, Purport:

Of the three deities supervising the creation, maintenance and dissolution of the universe, Lord Viṣṇu is never separate from the original Viṣṇu. However, Lord Śiva and Brahmā, due to their association with māyā, are different from Viṣṇu. Viṣṇu cannot be transformed into any form of material energy. Whenever there is association with māyā, the personality involved must be different from Lord Viṣṇu. Therefore Lord Śiva and Lord Brahmā are called guṇa-avatāras, for they associate with the material qualities. The conclusion is that Rudra is not exactly Lord Viṣṇu but rather a transformation of Viṣṇu. Therefore, he does not come within the category of the viṣṇu-tattvas. Thus he is inconceivably one with Viṣṇu and different from Him. The example given in this verse is very clear. Milk is compared to Viṣṇu. As soon as milk touches a sour substance, it becomes yogurt, or Lord Śiva. Although yogurt is constitutionally milk, it cannot be used in place of milk.

CC Madhya 20.310, Translation and Purport:

"'Milk changes into yogurt when mixed with a yogurt culture, but actually it is constitutionally nothing but milk. Similarly, Govinda, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, assumes the form of Lord Śiva (Śambhu) for the special purpose of material transactions. I offer my obeisances at His lotus feet.'"

This is a quotation from the Brahma-saṁhitā (5.45).

Other Books by Srila Prabhupada

Teachings of Lord Caitanya

Lord Śiva is not one of the living entities; he is, more or less, Kṛṣṇa Himself. The example of milk and yogurt is often given in this regard—yogurt is a preparation of milk, but still yogurt cannot be used as milk.
Teachings of Lord Caitanya, Chapter 8:

Similarly, by expanding Himself as Lord Śiva, the Supreme Lord is engaged when there is a need to annihilate the universe. Lord Śiva, in association with māyā, has many forms, which are generally numbered at eleven. Lord Śiva is not one of the living entities; he is, more or less, Kṛṣṇa Himself. The example of milk and yogurt is often given in this regard—yogurt is a preparation of milk, but still yogurt cannot be used as milk. Similarly, Lord Śiva is an expansion of Kṛṣṇa, but he cannot act as Kṛṣṇa, nor can we derive the spiritual restoration from Lord Śiva that we derive from Kṛṣṇa. The essential difference is that Lord Śiva has a connection with material nature, but Viṣṇu or Lord Kṛṣṇa has nothing to do with material nature. In Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (10.88.3) it is stated that Lord Śiva is a combination of three kinds of transformed consciousness known as vaikārika, taijasa and tāmasa.

Lectures

Srimad-Bhagavatam Lectures

Śiva is not different from Kṛṣṇa, but still, Śiva is not Kṛṣṇa.
Lecture on SB 3.26.17 -- Bombay, December 26, 1974:

So when Kṛṣṇa comes in touch with prakṛti for giving birth of these varieties of forms of life, that is Śiva. That is Śiva. Śiva is not different from Kṛṣṇa, but still, Śiva is not Kṛṣṇa. This is called inconceivable one and different. Inconceivable one and different. The example is given: just like milk and yogurt, dahi. Dahi is not different from milk. It is milk—it is milk, everyone knows—but it is not milk at the same time. You cannot get the benefit of milk by drinking dahi, or yogurt. Milk is used for different purpose, and dahi is different purpose. When you take too much milk, you get dysentery, and if you go to the physician, he gives you some medicine to take with yogurt, dahi. So dahi or yogurt, is not different from milk, but it is not milk. Similarly, all these demigods, especially Lord Śiva, Lord Brahmā... They are the original chief demigods from Viṣṇu.

Milk is transformed into yogurt, dahi. And when it is dahi, it is no more milk. This is the idea.
Lecture on SB 5.5.2 -- Hyderabad, April 13, 1975:

Kṛṣṇa is everything; at the same time everything is not Kṛṣṇa. This is called acintya-bhedābheda, simultaneously one and different. So Lord Śiva is also expansion of Kṛṣṇa. Ahaṁ bīja-pradaḥ pitā (BG 14.4), that form is Lord Śiva. So but, he said that dadhi vikāra. Dadhi. Dadhi means yogurt. Milk is transformed into yogurt, dahi. And when it is dahi, it is no more milk. This is the idea. If you require milk for some purpose and if I give you dahi, "That is same thing, sir. Why don't you take?" "No. It will be different effect."

Sri Caitanya-caritamrta Lectures

Just like if you mix up with milk something sour and it turns into yogurt or curd, similarly, the difference between Śiva and Lord Kṛṣṇa is like that.
Lecture on CC Madhya-lila 20.298 -- New York, December 20, 1966:

Now Lord Caitanya is quoting one verse from Brahma-saṁhitā about the real position of Śiva:

dugdha yena amla-yoge dadhi-rūpa dhare
dugdhāntara vastu nahe, dugdha haite nāre

A very nice example. Just like if you mix up with milk something sour and it turns into yogurt or curd, similarly, the difference between Śiva and Lord Kṛṣṇa is like that. He is Kṛṣṇa, but because he is mixed up with this material energy, therefore he is something like that yogurt. So yogurt, the constitutional position of yogurt is nothing but milk, but it cannot become milk again. Once turned into yogurt, there is no possibility of turning into milk. Neither you can derive the benefit of milk from yogurt. Yogurt is used for some purpose; milk is used for some other purpose. Similarly, those who are worshipers of Śiva, they cannot derive the same benefit as persons who are in Kṛṣṇa consciousness. Just like you cannot derive the same benefit by drinking, by taking yogurt. If you require milk, if I supply you yogurt, it will give another, I mean to say, disturbance. Similarly, the distinction is given here, and He is quoting from Brahma-saṁhitā, most authoritative literature in this connection.

kṣīraṁ yathā dadhi vikāra-viśeṣa-yogāt
sañjāyate na tu tataḥ pṛthag asti hetoḥ
(Bs. 5.45)

Śiva is not different from Kṛṣṇa, but it is added with this material energy. Therefore Śiva has turned into yogurt.

Conversations and Morning Walks

1975 Conversations and Morning Walks

Śiva is just like milk and yogurt. The yogurt is milk but it is not milk.
Conversation with Professor Hopkins -- July 13, 1975, Philadelphia:

Prof. Hopkins: What about those who would worship Śiva?

Prabhupāda: Śiva is just like milk and yogurt. The yogurt is milk but it is not milk.

Prof. Hopkins: In another form then. So, ah...

Prabhupāda: You will not derive the benefit of milk from yogurt.

Prof. Hopkins: But do you get benefits?

Prabhupāda: Benefit there must.

Prof. Hopkins: Benefits there are but not the same.

Prabhupāda: Yes. Lord Śiva means you get material opulence but not salvation.

Prof. Hopkins: So you would see Śiva as more related to material.

Prabhupāda: Yes.

Dahi is not anything but milk, but it is not milk. Similarly, Lord Śiva is nothing but Viṣṇu, but it is not Viṣṇu.
Morning Walk -- October 5, 1975, Mauritius:

Indian man (7): Swamijī, Śiva is not another name of God?

Prabhupāda: Yes. Śiva is next to God. Just like yogurt, dahi. You know dahi? What is this dahi? Milk. But it is not milk. Dahi is not anything but milk, but it is not milk. Similarly, Lord Śiva is nothing but Viṣṇu, but it is not Viṣṇu. Is it clear now? You can say, "Well, dahi is nothing but milk." Yes. But it is not milk. If instead of milk you take dahi, the result will be different. And if you take milk instead of dahi, that is..., that will be different, although the milk and dahi is the same thing, same ingredients. So you have to understand in that way. Lord Śiva is nondifferent from the Supreme Lord. Everyone is nondifferent from Supreme Lord, but he's still different. This is the perfect philosophy, acintya-bhedābheda, simultaneously one and different.

I have already explained that, that yogurt is not different from milk. It is milk but still, it is not milk. You have to understand like that. Lord Śiva is not different from Viṣṇu, but he's still not Viṣṇu.
Morning Walk -- October 5, 1975, Mauritius:

Indian man (7): But we consider Lord Śiva to be the supreme deity because we...

Prabhupāda: But that is your lack of knowledge. I have already explained that, that yogurt is not different from milk. It is milk but still, it is not milk. You have to understand like that. Lord Śiva is not different from Viṣṇu, but he's still not Viṣṇu.

Indian man (7): No, but do we offer the prayer first to Śiva...?

Prabhupāda: That you do. There is no harm. Lord Śiva is also called Mahādeva. Amongst the demigods, he is the chief. So if you worship Lord Śiva... We also worship Śiva. It is not that we disrespect Śiva. We offer our utmost respect to Lord Śiva. But that does not mean that he is the Supreme Lord.