This is the gift of Lord Caitanya. Namo mahā-vadānyāya. Therefore Rūpa Gosvāmī says, "You are the greatest of all charitable persons because You are offering the greatest boon." Kṛṣṇa-prema-pradāya te (CC Madhya 19.53). "You are offering love of Kṛṣṇa, which will get me to the kingdom of Kṛṣṇa." This is the greatest gift to the human society. But the foolish persons they do not understand it. What can I do? Daivī hy eṣā guṇamayī (BG 7.14). The māyā is very strong. If we say that "Here is a small booklet, Easy Journey to Other Planets," they'll not take it. They will make plan of how to go in other planet by sputniks, which is impossible. You cannot go anywhere. That is our conditioned life. Conditioned means you must stay here. You must stay here. Who is allowing to go other planet? For coming to, to take the permanent visa of your country, I had to fight so much, and you are going to moon planet? There is no visa? They will allow you only to enter? It is so easy thing? But they foolishly think that simply "I am the monarch of all I survey." That's all. This planet is the monarch, and all other planets they're all subservient. They will satisfy our senses. This is foolishness. All right. Chant Hare Kṛṣṇa.
Collaborate with us to invoke and fully manifest Srila Prabhupada's Vani-presence.
I am the monarch of all I survey
SB Canto 4
Real intelligence means linking with the Supreme Personality of Godhead. When this is done, the Supreme Personality of Godhead from within gives one the real intelligence by which one can return home, back to Godhead. Intelligence in the material world is described in this verse as pramadā because in material existence the living entity falsely claims things to be his. He thinks, "I am the monarch of all I survey." This is ignorance. Actually, nothing belongs to him. Even the body and the senses do not belong to him, for they are given to him by the grace of the Lord to satisfy his different propensities through the material energy. Nothing actually belongs to the living entity, but he becomes mad after everything, claiming, "This is mine. This is mine. This is mine." Janasya moho 'yam ahaṁ mameti (SB 5.5.8). This is called illusion. Nothing belongs to the living entity, but he claims that everything belongs to him. Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu recommends that this false intelligence be purified (ceto-darpaṇa-mārjanam [Cc. Antya 20.12)). When the mirror of intelligence is polished, the real activities of the living entity begin. This means that when a person comes to the platform of Kṛṣṇa consciousness, his real intelligence acts. At that time he knows that everything belongs to Kṛṣṇa and nothing belongs to him. As long as one thinks that everything belongs to him, he is in material consciousness, and when he knows perfectly that everything belongs to Kṛṣṇa, he is in Kṛṣṇa consciousness.
Bhagavad-gita As It Is Lectures
Of course here, in your country, there is no... In India there is a śūdra class. They are..., generally they are servant class. That is called nīcavat. So servant class... A brahmacārī living at the care of spiritual master, he is advised that "You shall carry out the orders of your spiritual master nīcavat, just like the śūdra class." Because a person coming to spiritual master, they are coming from brāhmaṇa family or kṣatriya family or high caste family. But he may say, "Oh, I am coming from a brāhmaṇa family, and my spiritual master is ordering to brush his shoes? Oh, how can I do?" Therefore it is advised, nīcavat. When you are serving spiritual master, you should always think that "I am lowest of the animals." Nīcavat. In that condition you can simply inquire. Otherwise, you have no capacity. There is no need of wasting time, because he will not understand. He will unnecessarily... Praṇipāta.
Praṇipāta means surrender. So nobody wants to surrender, especially in this material world. Everyone thinks, "Oh, I am the lord. I am the monarch of all I survey. Why shall I surrender?" Independent. Especially in the Western countries. They are refusing to surrender to the social laws, to the king's law, everything. But here is the process: surrender. Surrender means everyone is puffed up with some so-called knowledge, and he thinks that "I am perfectly all right. My knowledge is perfect. Why shall I surrender?" But if you want to receive knowledge actually from the person who has actually knowledge, then you must surrender there. This is the process.
The Brahman activities are this devotional service. People may see that "These Kṛṣṇa conscious people, they are also working, they are also eating, they are also sleeping, they are earning money. We are earning money in this way; they are earning money in another way." So they may see the similarity of action. Karma and bhakti to the fools appear to be the same. No. It is not the same. Here is realization that everything belongs to Kṛṣṇa, whereas in the karma platform, the realization is that "Everything belongs to me. It is my house, my money, my children, my country, my society, my property." "My" and "I." "I am the monarch of all I survey, and I am the proprietor of everything." So this misconception is not there in the bhakti. In the bhakti school, everything belongs to Kṛṣṇa. We don't take anything as our own. That is called Vaiṣṇava philosophy. Assimilate. Anubhāva.
This Kūrma, kamaṭha-rūpeṇa. Now, the surāsura-gaṇa, they are standing on the ocean. If you go up to your waist in the water, you become dangerously situated. But they were standing. This proves the law of relativity. Everywhere this law of relativity is working. You do not think, because you cannot stand in the midst of the water of the ocean, therefore nobody can stand. That is nonsense. Ant, the small ant, it is also working. The same thing is going on in the ant society. They are also struggling for existence, eating, sleeping, mating, and defending. And we are also doing that. And higher than us, surāsura-gaṇa, they are also doing that. But although the quality of the work is the same, the quantity is different. Quality of the work the same. Eating, sleeping, mating, and defending. Everywhere, all living entities, they are struggling. Whole day they are working according to their capacity. And the qualities, what for they are working? Eating, sleeping, mating, and defending. That's all. If you just resist one ant, it is coming, if you try to stop, the ant will also resist. It will go this way, that way, this way. It will not agree, "Why you are stopping me?" But it is trying in its own capacity. Similarly, you are also trying to resist in your own capacity by discovering atomic bomb. But as you can smash millions of ants simply by rubbing your leg on the ground, similarly there are other beings who can finish you simply by rubbing their legs. Don't think you are all and all. The rascals, the so-called human scientists, they are thinking they are all in all. "I am the monarch of all I survey." That is not. In God's creation there is smaller than the smallest and the bigger than the biggest. Nobody can claim that "I am everything." No. That is not possible.
Every one of us is conditioned. An animal is conditioned. He cannot... There are so many animals in the jungles. They are conditioned. They cannot come in the city or in the town. We are conditioned. We cannot go to the jungle. Conditioned. Every step there is condition.
So that is our bondage. We are mamaivāṁśo jīva-bhūtaḥ (BG 15.7). We are part and parcel of Kṛṣṇa. Why you are conditioned? The condition is because māyā-mohita-cetasaḥ. Māyā-mohita. They are bewildered by māyā. Māyā means "what is not." Mā-yā. So because we are under the clutches of māyā, this material world, therefore we have been conditioned. And what is that māyā? That māyā is forgetfulness of our relationship with God. That is māyā. Kṛṣṇa-bahirmukha hañā bhoga vāñchā kare. This jīva, when we forget Kṛṣṇa, our relationship with Kṛṣṇa... What is that relationship? Caitanya Mahāprabhu says jīvera svarūpa haya nitya-kṛṣṇa-dāsa (Cc. Madhya 20.108-109). That is our relationship. We are eternal servant of Kṛṣṇa. When we forget this, and we want to be master of all I survey... "I am the monarch of all I survey." I think, "I shall become independent and I shall enjoy. I shall improve my economic condition, and I shall be very happy." This is called māyā-mohita-cetasaḥ. He'll never be. Because he is conditioned. You cannot improve. That is not possible. That is called destiny.
So we must always remember that if we want to be recognized by Kṛṣṇa, if we want to become inhabitants of Vṛndāvana, then we must take this lesson given by Caitanya Mahāprabhu. Gopī-bhartuḥ pada-kamalayor dāsa-dāsānudāsaḥ. So to endeavor to become gopīs, that is also Māyāvādī, that "I shall become gopīs." No. You have to become the servant of the servant of the servant of gopīs. That is... Otherwise, the same ahaṅkāra. Ahaṅkāra-vimūḍhātmā kartāham iti manyate (BG 3.27). Then again we'll be misled. This is material disease. Everyone is full of some ahaṅkāra: "I am this," "I am this," "I am brāhmaṇa," "I am a sannyāsī," "I am lord," "I am this." So many things. So long this mentality will continue, then that is māyā. Ahaṅkāra-vimūḍhātmā kartāham iti manyate (BG 3.27). Actually, he is not that position. Therefore Caitanya Mahāprabhu teaches from the very beginning, jīvera svarūpa haya nitya-kṛṣṇa-dāsa (Cc. Madhya 20.108-109). Unless you come to that point, that "I am eternal servant of Kṛṣṇa,"... That is real knowledge. This knowledge is achieved bahūnāṁ janmanām ante (BG 7.19). Ante. Ante means at the end of many, many births' endeavor. Jñānavān. Not foolish rascals, but jñānavān. Then bahūnāṁ janmanām ante jñānavān māṁ prapadyate. This gopī-bhartuḥ pada-kamalayor dāsa-dāsānudāsaḥ (CC Madhya 13.80). After many, many births.
So Caitanya Mahāprabhu teaches from this point, that you are dāsa. Give up this idea that you are independent master, or one with God, or so many rascal ideas. That is not good. It begins with this point. As Caitanya Mahāprabhu teaches that jīvera svarūpa haya nitya-kṛṣṇa-dāsa (Cc. Madhya 20.108-109). Caitanya Mahāprabhu teaches from the point when Bhagavad-gītā ends. Bhagavad-gītā says, sarva-dharmān parityajya mām ekaṁ śaraṇaṁ vraja (BG 18.66). This is the relationship. We are trying to become master here, everyone. Kṛṣṇa says, "You give up this idea. You are planning so many things, to become master of the world, 'I am the monarch of all I survey.' Give up this idea. Then you'll be in proper position." Sarva-dharmān parityajya mām ekam (BG 18.66). That means "I am master. If you want to be peaceful, then accept this proposition that I am master; you are servant."
Puṁsaḥ means the bhokta, the enjoyer. Here the male and female, both of them are puṁsaḥ, puruṣaḥ, because everyone has got that feeling that "I shall enjoy." Nobody is feeling that "I shall be enjoyed." Everyone is thinking, "I shall enjoy." Nobody wants to be predominated; everyone wants to be predominator. This is the illusion.
So Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement means to learn how to be predominated, not to become predominator. Just the opposite. And Kṛṣṇa comes personally, and He says that "I am the predominator." Sarva-dharmān parityajya mām ekam śaraṇaṁ vraja (BG 18.66). "I am predominator. Why you are trying to be predominator? That is not possible." So as soon as artificially we want to be predominator, immediately the māyā is there.
- kṛṣṇa bhuliya jīva bhoga vāñchā kare
- pasate māyā tāre jāpaṭiyā dhare
Everybody is: "All right, come here." This is the human civilization, to learn that "Because I wanted to become predominator, 'I am the monarch of all I survey. Whatever I survey, that is my property...' " So this inclination, this false inclination, is the cause of our bondage within this material world. We should know that we are ahaṁ brahmāsmi, "I am spirit soul." And we learn from Kṛṣṇa that na jāyate na mriyate vā kadācin. "I cannot take birth, I cannot die, I am not subjected to sufferings of this material world, but why I am put into this condition?" That is called conditioned soul. That is called intelligence. I am not to be conditioned. I am part and parcel of Kṛṣṇa. Kṛṣṇa is free, I am also free, because I am His part and parcel. I may be small, very small. A gold particle is gold, that is not other. So all the qualities of gold is there, even it is part. So these things are to be considered, and this knowledge can be acquired. This is called brahma-jijñāsā. Athāto brahma jijñāsā.
Always remember that Prahlāda Mahārāja was talking with his child friends. So he says, tasmād bhavadbhiḥ kartavyam: "My dear friends, therefore it is your duty..." Kartavyaṁ karmaṇāṁ tri-guṇātmanām, tri-guṇātmanām... "Now, these activities of three material qualities, or material activities," bīja-nirharaṇam, "the seed of these material activities, you should crush it." Seed. There is a seed. Just like there is a seed, and so along the seed will remain... Just like you have seen in the fall season, so many creepers, they appear to be dried. There is no leaf. It almost dead. But as soon as the spring comes, oh, there is green leaf again. Why? The seed is there. Sometimes in India they set fire because it is very hot climate, so when there is no rainy season and by..., the sun is always bright there, so all these small plants, except big trees, they become dried up, and the cultivators, they set fire, and it becomes manure. But what is the fire? In the fire the outer portion is burned, but the seed is there. The next rainy season, again they awaken. Again there is, again green, again dry, again set fire, again green. Why? Now, seed is there. Seed is there. What is that seed? Bīja-nirharaṇaṁ yogaḥ. You are trying to practice yoga, but you do not know how to crush the seed of material life. That is... This is bīja-nirharaṇaṁ yogaḥ, this Kṛṣṇa consciousness. The more you become Kṛṣṇa conscious, that seed, that material... What is that material seed? The material seed that "I want to lord it over everything, all resources." This is struggle. Everyone is trying. What is economic development or, what is called, the exact technical word? In a country... Undeveloped. Undeveloped country, and to develop. So what is this development? Development means to lord it over these material resources. That is the seed. That is the seed. Everyone is thinking that "I am the monarch of all I survey. Whatever I am seeing, I shall be the monarch. I shall be a Rockefeller. I shall be a Ford. I shall be this. I shall be that." But what is this "I shall be"? For few years I shall be like this, and then, according to my karma, according to my work, I'll leave this body here. I take another body, the "I shall be" finished.
The Īśopaniṣad instructs us that everything that is within your vision, it belongs to Īśa, the Supreme Lord. Whatever you see, whatever you have got, that does not belong to you; it belongs to God. Tena tyaktena bhuñjīthā. This is the first verse in Īśopaniṣad. Tena tyaktena bhuñjīthā. You can simply enjoy whatever is given to you as prasādam. Mā gṛdhaḥ kasya svid dhanam. Don't touch any other's property. This is the instruction of Īśopaniṣad.
So we have forgotten this. So in order to instruct us the principle that everything belongs to God, this is the beginning, that we should try to offer whatever we have got. Kṛṣṇa is ready to accept from you a little bit of water, little bit of flower, a little bit of leaf, or fruit. Practically it has no value, but when you begin to give to Kṛṣṇa, then gradually a time will come when you'll be prepared to give everything to Kṛṣṇa like the gopīs. This is the process. Sarvātmanā. Sarvātmanā. Sarvātmanā means with everything. That is our natural life. When we are in consciousness that "Nothing belongs to me. Everything belongs to God, and everything is meant for God's enjoyment, not for my sense enjoyment," that is called Kṛṣṇa consciousness. Kṛṣṇa consciousness means to be situated in the actual fact. Whenever we claim something that "This is mine," it is called moha, illusion. Ahaṁ mameti (SB 5.5.8). Janasya moho ayam. This conception of "mine" and "I" is the platform of illusion. Janasya moho 'yam. This world, whole world, is moving under this illusion that "I am this body, and everything..." "I am the monarch of all I survey." This is the philosophy. "Whatever I can acquire, that is mine." This is wrong. This is called illusion.
Sri Caitanya-caritamrta Lectures
So this is intelligence, how to become a servant of Kṛṣṇa. That is the perfection of life. That means mukti. Mukti does not mean you'll get four hands and eight heads. No. Mukti means, as it is defined in the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, muktir hitvānyathā rūpaṁ sva-rūpeṇa vyavasthitiḥ. That is mukti. Sva-rūpeṇa, legally, constitutionally, I am servant of God, or Kṛṣṇa. Now I have become servant of dog and māyā. So if I give up this service and again become servant of God, that is mukti. That is mukti. Muktir hitvānyathā rūpam. We are trying to become... Here māyā means "which is not." Ma-ya. We are every one of us, we are thinking, "I am master." "I am the monarch of all I survey." Here is a poetry. Everyone is thinking. I made my plan, I make my survey, and I become king. But that is māyā. You cannot become. You are already servant of māyā.
So the philosophy is very simple, but unless one is fit or appropriate person, he cannot understand. No. So in the material world we are materially diseased; therefore it is very difficult for us to understand this Kṛṣṇa consciousness philosophy. Otherwise it is very simple thing. As Caitanya Mahāprabhu, jīvera 'svarūpa' haya kṛṣṇera nitya-dāsa (CC Madhya 20.108). Very simple thing. Everyone, even a child can understand that we are, our svarūpa, our constitutional position, is that we are servant of God, Kṛṣṇa. But the material world is so bewildering that everyone is thinking that "I am master of everyone." This is the disease. "I am the monarch of all I survey." There is an English poetry. Everyone is thinking. Why this is so much struggle in this New York City? Because now there is Presidential election, so everyone is thinking, "If I could become the President." That is everyone's desire. But those who are not so fit, they do not stand for election, but those who are little fit, so they stand, make competition, "I am the President." If you are President, why you require election? The simple truth. If you are actually President, then why do you depend on other's vote? You become President. No. Artificial President. Simply by votes he is President. Actually he is not; he is the servant of the voters, but he's thinking, "I am President." This is called māyā. Everyone is servant of Kṛṣṇa. He's servant. Every one of us, we are servant. So take this example. Actually the President means the servant of the voters, and as soon as the voters do not like him... Just like Nixon is drawn back.
So nobody can be master. That is not possible.
You have served your senses so many lives, life after life, 8,400,000 of species of life. The birds, they are also under senses. The beasts, they are also under senses. The men, human being, and everyone, the demigods, everyone within this material world, they are after senses, serving the senses. But Kṛṣṇa says that "You just surrender unto Me. Just agree to serve Me. Then I take charge of you." That's all. Ahaṁ tvāṁ sarva-pāpebhyo mokṣayiṣyāmi mā śucaḥ. Because by the dictation of the senses we are committing sinful activities life after life; therefore we are in different grades of bodily presentation. Don't think that everyone is of the same standard. No. According to one's own work he gets a type of body. So these different types of bodies are due to different grades of sense gratification. So sense gratification is there in the hog's life also. Why he has been offered a body of the hogs? So much sensuous that it has no discrimination who is mother, who is sister, or who is this, or who is that. This is practical, you'll see. The dogs and hogs, they are like that. In human society also there are many who don't care who is mother, who is sister, or who is this. The senses are so strong. And this is our cause of all miseries, try to understand. The threefold miseries that we are suffering, that we are trying to make a solution, is due to this dictation of the senses. Therefore Kṛṣṇa is there. Kṛṣṇa is there. His name is Madana-mohana. If you try to transfer your love from sense to Kṛṣṇa, then you see the result. Immediately you'll find. Sevonmukhe hi jihvādau (Brs. 1.2.234). So this false endeavor, that "I want to be master of all I survey," "I am the monarch of all I survey," this attitude should be given up. Every one of us is constitutionally servant. Now, at the present moment, we are servant of the senses. Now, this servitorship should be changed to Kṛṣṇa only. Sevonmukhe hi jihvādau svayam eva sphuraty adaḥ. And as soon as you change your servitorship to Kṛṣṇa, then gradually, as you become sincere, so Kṛṣṇa reveals to you, and reciprocation of service between Kṛṣṇa and yourself will be so nice. Either you love Him as friend, or master, or lover, or... There are so many items. Any way you can try to love Him and see how much you are satisfied. This is Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement. Please try to understand.
Prabhupāda: Just like a living entity is trying to become master—"I am the monarch of all I survey." That is untruth. The truth is that he is eternal servant. You cannot say that because one is trying to be imitation God, that that is another truth. You cannot say that. That is māyā. There cannot be a second God. God is one. That is truth, absolute truth. Our point is that we do not accept this proposition, that there are two types of truth. That is not at all acceptable. Truth is one.
Conversations and Morning Walks
1976 Conversations and Morning Walks
Prabhupāda: The law is law. Ignorance is no excuse for law. You have committed something wrong, and in the court you're going to be punished. If you say the clerk, "Sir, I did not know that by committing this act how I shall be, I will have to be punished." That is not excuse. Your ignorance they do not believe; you must go. That is the law. It is called foolishness. "They believe," "I think," "It may be." This is science. This is their proposition: "It may be," "I think," "I believe." What is the value of this? And everywhere you'll find all these philosophers, scientists, and they'll talk like this, nonsense: "I believe," "It may be." Believe in the words of Kṛṣṇa. But he believes himself. You see? Kṛṣṇa says it is this. That he doesn't believe. But he has become more than Kṛṣṇa, he'll believe something is correct. This is his foolishness. Mūḍha. You believe in the words of Kṛṣṇa, who is worshiped by everyone. Hm? But you won't. You believe in your conviction, "I believe." So what you are? First consider in comparison to Kṛṣṇa.
Devotee (6): Nothing.
Prabhupāda: Still he believes his own conviction. Don't believe Kṛṣṇa.
Devotee (6): Everyone feels he's the center of everything.
Prabhupāda: But he's not. That is his another foolishness. Even in this state, I am not center. I cannot do whatever I like. I have to believe the law. There is law, and it's sanity. And if he says, "I am the center. I am the monarch of all I survey," (everyone laughs) that is foolishness. He believes in his foolishness, that's all. If I claim, "I am the monarch of Hawaii," is that belief correct? "I am the center of everything. I am moving this." And this rascal's meditation is like this: "I am moving the sun. I am moving the moon." The meditation.
Prabhupāda: God is so kind. Before we were talking of God's mercifulness, so if you are thinking that it is very happy life to eat, without any discrimination, anything, so immediately God orders nature, "You give him body of a pig. He can eat anything, even up to stool. Give him this body." Yantrārūḍhāni māyayā (BG 18.61). This yantra, this vehicle, this body, is given to him: "Yes, now you can eat anything, up to stool." And he is very pleased. He wanted it. Mattaḥ smṛtir jñānam apohanaṁ ca (BG 15.15). He does not hesitate or feel any inconvenience. God is there, even within the heart of the pig, "My dear pig, you wanted a body like this. You have now got it, now eat, here is stool. You eat." And he enjoys. So the living entity within this material world, he wanted to enjoy, "I am the monarch of all I survey." So God gives him all facility: "Whatever you want, you do." Karaṇaṁ guṇa-saṅgo 'sya sad-asad yoni-janmasu. He wanted it, therefore he gets different types of body. That is transmigration. But still He comes and teaches, "Rascal, why you are suffering in this way? Give up this plan; surrender to Me immediately." But he is making plan only. Just like in your country, there is everything opulent. The hippies are making plan, "We shall be happy in this way." What can be done? Everyone has got little independence. Let him do. So, so long we shall make plan to enjoy this material world, God will give us all facility, "All right, enjoy." Not enjoy, suffer. But because He is compassionate, kind, merciful, still He comes and begs, "You rascal, why you are making plan? Give up this. Sarva-dharmān parityajya mām ekam... (BG 18.66). Then you'll be happy." So if anyone is intelligent, he takes God's direct instruction and he becomes happy. Otherwise, go on making plan. He'll give you facility. That is God's kindness. They are enjoying. The birds of the same feather flock together. They keep together, they fly together. They enjoy, they think it is enjoying.
Prabhupāda: Even in the stool, the worms in the stool, he's also thinking "I have got so much stool to eat." This same mastership. "I am the monarch of all I survey. I have got so much stool." And you just take the worm from the stool, put it here: "No, no, no, here is my enjoyment." This mastership mentality is there in Brahma, and the mastership mentality is there in the worm of the stool. This mentality you have to give up. Then you become liberated. That is liberation. The bondage is that mastership mentality. He's servant, but he's thinking falsely that he's master. Just like your President Nixon. He thought that "Now I have become master of America, I'm president." He forgot that he's servant. As soon as the people wanted, dragged him down. That he forgot, that "I'm servant of the people." So everyone is servant, but falsely thinking "I'm master." That is material disease. The best thing is that if I have to remain servant, why not become servant of Kṛṣṇa? That's all. That is perfection. That is perfect life. Even by becoming a false master of the whole American country, I was not happy, I am now dragged down as a common man, Mr. Nixon, then what is the use of becoming master? It is all false. Let me become servant of Kṛṣṇa; then it is perfect. Instead of becoming a false master of the American country, let me be a real servant of Kṛṣṇa. That is liberty, liberated. Because any stage of my life, to become master is false. That is not possible. He has to be convinced that he cannot be master. Your constitution is to remain servant. If you prefer to remain servant of a big populace in America... But you are servant; don't think you are master. That is sane. And soon as you commit mistake as master, immediately he's in trouble. Is it not? That's it. You give up this false notion that "I am master." Then your all welfare is there. We teach that ask a Godbrother, "Prabhu." Don't become master, but become servant. Prabhu means "my lord." So everyone, if you address each other "prabhu," that mastership mentality will be less. If you remember that "I am not master. I am servant."
Prabhupāda: Sarva-dharmān parityajya mām ekaṁ śaraṇaṁ vraja (BG 18.66). So anyone who voluntarily offers obeisances, immediately he becomes fifty percent advanced. Because.... Who is talking? This material world means nobody wants to surrender. Everyone wants to become master: "I am the monarch of all I survey." Everyone is planning how to become a master. Therefore the struggle for existence. Nobody wants to become a servant. You know very well in European history, Napoleon wanted to become the master of all Europe. Hitler wanted also. Similarly, there were so many leaders, sometimes Roman leaders, sometimes Greek leaders, sometimes French leaders, sometimes German leaders, English leader. The whole European history is full of fighting, war. The basic idea is that everyone wanted to become master. That is the material disease. We are now discussing Bali Mahārāja. He also wanted to become master of the whole universe. So that is the material disease. Actually, master is one, Kṛṣṇa. There cannot be two masters. There is only one master, that is Kṛṣṇa, or God. But in the material world, because we have forgotten the real master, every one of us is trying to become master. This is material disease. Not only in one life, but life after life. The cats and dogs, they also want to be master. The dog, if he finds another dog coming, he immediately begins barking very loudly, "Why you are coming here?" So this mastership competition is going on life after life, sometimes as human being, sometimes as animal, sometimes as fish, aquatic, sometimes as demigod, bird. This is the whole material situation. And the difficulty is that we cannot become master, but on account of our false ambition that "I shall become master," we are becoming servants of material nature. We are acting in a certain way to become master, creating a situation, mentality, and at the time of death, when this body finishes, the mind absorbed in that mastership idea takes me to another body according to my ambition, so I become again manifest in different body to exhibit my mastership. Another chapter begins.