There are many descriptions in many śāstras that one should avoid asādhu and try to associate with sādhu. Then his life will be successful. Because human life is meant for spiritual advancement of life, not for advancement of eating, sleeping, mating and defending. That is cats and dogs life. Human life means advancement in spiritual life. Tapo divyaṁ putrakā yena śuddhyet sattvam (SB 5.5.1). We have to purify our existence. That people do not know, what is impure existence and pure existence. They do not know. There is no education, there is no science. The... Because we do not, do not understand that we are living entities, we are part and parcel of God. God is eternal, so I am also eternal. God is always fresh. I am also fresh. Nityaḥ śāśvato 'yaṁ purāṇaḥ. Although Kṛṣṇa is the oldest person. Kṛṣṇa is ādi-puruṣa. He must be the oldest.
Human life means
- 1 Srimad-Bhagavatam
- 2 Lectures
- 3 Conversations and Morning Walks
- 4 Correspondence
SB Canto 5
Lord Ṛṣabhadeva told His sons: My dear boys, of all the living entities who have accepted material bodies in this world, one who has been awarded this human form should not work hard day and night simply for sense gratification, which is available even for dogs and hogs that eat stool. One should engage in penance and austerity to attain the divine position of devotional service. By such activity, one's heart is purified, and when one attains this position, he attains eternal, blissful life, which is transcendental to material happiness and which continues forever.
In this verse Lord Ṛṣabhadeva tells His sons about the importance of human life. The word deha-bhāk refers to anyone who accepts a material body, but the living entity who is awarded the human form must act differently from animals. Animals like dogs and hogs enjoy sense gratification by eating stool. After undergoing severe hardships all day, human beings are trying to enjoy themselves at night by eating, drinking, having sex and sleeping. At the same time, they have to properly defend themselves. However, this is not human civilization. Human life means voluntarily practicing suffering for the advancement of spiritual life. There is, of course, suffering in the lives of animals and plants, which are suffering due to their past misdeeds. However, human beings should voluntarily accept suffering in the form of austerities and penances in order to attain the divine life. After attaining the divine life, one can enjoy happiness eternally. After all, every living entity is trying to enjoy happiness, but as long as one is encaged in the material body, he has to suffer different kinds of misery. A higher sense is present in the human form. We should act according to superior advice in order to attain eternal happiness and go back to Godhead.
Bhagavad-gita As It Is Lectures
Therefore mostly people are engaged in the animal propensities of life. Āhāra-nidrā-bhaya-maithunaṁ ca: eating, sleeping, sex life and defense. They are busy. But these things are visible in the animal life also. Then what is the special significance of the human life? Human life means athāto brahma jijñāsā. They, the human being should be inquisitive to understand Brahman. That is the special significance of human life. Narottama dāsa Ṭhākura therefore sings, manuṣya-janama pāiyā, rādhā-kṛṣṇa nā bhajiyā, jāniyā śuniyā biṣa khāinu. Narottama dāsa Ṭhākura laments, hari hari bifale janama goṅāinu: "My Lord, I have simply spoiled my life." Why you have spoiled? You are eating very nicely, sleeping very nicely. "No." Manuṣya-janama..., rādhā-kṛṣṇa, manuṣya-janama. This human form of life is especially meant for understanding Rādhā-Kṛṣṇa. Kṛṣṇa means Rādhā-Kṛṣṇa. Kṛṣṇa means everything, samagram. To understand Kṛṣṇa, that is the special mission of human life.
This is the variety of creation. So out of all these living entities, the human form of living entity is very important. So that is the life wherein we can understand what is God. Therefore in the human society there is some process of understanding God which is called religion. Religion means a process by which we can understand what is God, what is our relationship with Him, and what is our duty towards Him. So therefore it is said, these human beings who are actually trying to fulfill the mission of human life... To fulfill the mission of human life means that we living being, spirit soul, we are now entangled within this material body. This is our problem. Really the... To understand the position of the living being is the beginning of Bhagavad-gītā. Bhagavad-gītā does not begin with some utopian ideas of humanitarian work. No. Śrī Kṛṣṇa wanted Arjuna to understand in the beginning that "First of all, you understand your constitutional position, what you are."
Human life means religion. Dharmeṇa hīnāḥ paśubhiḥ samānāḥ. The cats and dogs, they have no religion. But if the human being has no religion, then he is no better than the cat and dog. Therefore all over the world, either he's a European or American or Indian or Canadian or Russian, everyone has got some religion. It doesn't matter whether it is Hinduism, Muslimism or Christianism. Because human society without religious conception—religious conception means to understand God—he's animal. Dharmeṇa hīnāḥ paśubhiḥ samānāḥ. So gradually, the whole world is becoming animal because they are rejecting religion. They are rejecting religion. Therefore Kṛṣṇa says, dharma-saṁsthāpanārthāya sambhavāmi yuge yuge. Because these rascals, they give up religion and become animals and fight between themselves and make the whole world a confusion and chaos, therefore it is required that Kṛṣṇa comes.
The mind is within, the intelligence is within, the soul is within, and outside your body... So this body made of five elements, they are also Kṛṣṇa's energy, and within, the mind, intelligence and the soul, that is also Kṛṣṇa's energy. Two kinds of energies: supreme, er, inferior and superior. Therefore He is outside and inside both. Bahir antaś ca bhūtānām. Every living entity, Kṛṣṇa is existing outside and inside. Therefore we have to purify both outside and inside. That is our human life. Human life means to become purified. Because we are not purified, therefore we have to accept birth, death, old age and disease. This is the problem. Because we are not purified...That is stated in the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, tapo divyaṁ putrakā yena śuddhyet sattvam (SB 5.5.1). Ṛṣabhadeva advised his sons, "My dear sons," tapo divyam, "just undergo austerities." This life, human life is for austerities, penance. Therefore you'll find in the Vedic civilization, big big saintly persons, big, big brāhmaṇas, kṣatriyas, rājarṣis, they are engaged. Just like Lord Buddha. Lord Buddha was the prince, royal family, but still he left everything and underwent meditation to understand himself. There are many others. Bharata Mahārāja, under whose name this country is called Bhāratavarṣa, at the twenty-fourth years of his age, he left his kingdom, his wife, little children, and went for austerity, penance. This is meant for. This life is meant for not to live extravagantly without any responsibility like cats and dogs. We should be very responsible. Austerity. Little austerity. In the Kali-yuga you cannot undergo severe austerity, but even if you follow little austerity, little something must be done. Little austerity.
So there is no need of remaining poor. You can make your economic development. This is required. Dharmārtha-kāma-mokṣāṇām. Human life means four things he must develop. First thing is dharma. He must know what is religion. Every human being—not Indians or Europeans or Americans. That is the prime duty of every human being. Without following the religious principles, then he is not human even. Dharmeṇa hīnāḥ paśubhiḥ samānāḥ. If the human society... It doesn't matter what kind of religion you follow. It doesn't matter. But you must follow. (aside:) Sit down properly. Don't go out now and come. They, that is the duty, dharma. Dharmeṇa hīnāḥ. Human civilization begins when there is religious conception of life. Therefore all over the world—it doesn't matter whether Europe, America or India or China, Japan—there is some kind of religion. There is some kind of religion—either Hindu religion or Muslim religion or Christian religion, Buddhist religion. These are the prime religions of the world.
And then the indriyas are misguided, simply sense gratification, not for controlling the senses. Human life means to control the senses, not to open the senses, naked. This is not human life. So control... That is the distinction between animal and human life. Animal cannot control. The human civilized man must be, must have the capacity to control. That is human civilization. That is called tapasya. Tapasā brahmacaryeṇa yamena damena vā (SB 6.1.13). This is human life. So Parīkṣit Mahārāja, in so many ways... He was king, emperor, not for exploiting the citizen, but to give them real sense, real consciousness, so that they may become happy. And you can read some of the description of the places, we have selected from Mahābhārata.
In this Kali-yuga everything is topsy-turvied. The Vedic way of life... For living condition, we require to eat, we require to take bath, we require to sleep, we require to have sex also. Everything must be in regulative principle. Because human life means regulative principles. Unfortunately, the human life has become irregulated than the animals. This aśana, pāna, vāsaḥ, and snāna, and sexual intercourse, there is, at the present moment, there is no regulative principle. The Vedic principle is early in the morning one must take bathing, then worship the Deity, read Vedic literature, mantra, then offer foodstuff to the Deity, then take prasādam. Everything is regulative principle. And it is the duty of the government to see that these regulative principles are being observed by the citizens. This is government. The Vedic system, these brāhmaṇa, the topmost class of the human society, their business is to study the Vedas, paṭhana pāṭhana, yajana yājana, dāna pratigraha. Ideal character, very learned. Still in India... Now it is formality. A brāhmaṇa is called paṇḍitajī. Paṇḍita means very learned. Without being very learned scholar, one cannot become brāhmaṇa or Vaiṣṇava. Vaiṣṇava is farther above the brāhmaṇa. Brāhmaṇa is the preliminary qualification for becoming a Vaiṣṇava later on.
This life is meant for inquiring about the Supreme Being, Brahman, Parabrahman. That is human life. The whole Vedic civilization is based on this basic principle that to understand the Absolute Truth. So in this Kali-yuga nobody is interested even. We are spreading Kṛṣṇa consciousness, very few people are interested to know about Kṛṣṇa or the Supreme Being. So that is not human life. Human life means when we inquire about the Absolute Truth. That is human life. So there are so many societies, so many religious institutions. But nobody is interested to know Kṛṣṇa, or the Supreme Being. Kṛṣṇa means the Supreme Being, all-attractive. No educational system, no university. Therefore Kṛṣṇa said, manuṣyāṇāṁ sahasreṣu kaścid yatati siddhaye (BG 7.3), that is siddhi of... Siddhi means perfection of life, to understand God. Because in the human life if one tries he can understand God, he can understand himself, he can understand what is his relationship with God, he can understand how to act in that relationship and thus make his life perfect. That is human life. So manuṣyāṇāṁ sahasreṣu kaścid yatati siddhaye. Siddhi. Siddhi means self-realization. And yatatām api siddhānām (BG 7.3). And even though one is siddha, or self-realized, he also does not understand what is Kṛṣṇa. Even one is siddha. That siddha has still to be progressed. Then he will come to jñānavān. Jñānavān means one who is siddha, one who has understood himself. That siddhi means to understand oneself that "I am not this body." That is siddhi.
"My dear sons, don't live like hogs, toiling whole day and night and eating stool and without any sex discrimination you go on satisfying your senses." This is the first attack to the human civilization, that simply work very, very hard and then satisfy your senses and you take it as civilization. It is not civilization. If we think over these two lines, then we can find out that our modern civilization... It was formerly also the same, but not so extensively. At the present moment, in this age of Kali, the hog civilization is spread very widely. Therefore this instruction is very important. Nāyaṁ deho deha-bhājāṁ nṛloke kaṣṭān kāmān arhate viḍ-bhujāṁ ye (SB 5.5.1). Human life means very peaceful life, without any trouble. That is Vedic civilization. These books written by Vyāsadeva, he was writing these books, such exalted knowledge, in Hardwar, in a secluded place, very peacefully situated. And that knowledge was taken by the kṣatriyas, and they were distributing. As it is said in the Bhagavad-gītā, imaṁ rājarṣayo viduḥ (BG 4.2). Vedic knowledge was first of all taken up by the kṣatriyas. Brāhmaṇas, they used to cultivate knowledge and they used to advise the kṣatriyas, rulers, and they took it and they distributed to the general mass of people for the elevation of the spiritual platform. This is civilization.
But real, real fact is if you want to advance in spiritual understanding, if you want to make a solution of all the problems of your life, then you have to accept this life of austerity, tapasya. Restriction. Restriction is meant for human beings, not for the animals. Just like in our common dealings, when you drive your car, you have got some restriction. You cannot drive your car on the left side. That is offense. "Keep to the right." You cannot drive your car when there is red light, or yellow light. You have to follow the restriction. But the dog, if it keeps to the left or crosses the street when there is red light, it is not punished, because it is animal, dog. But if you violate the laws, you'll be punished. Why? That means you have got advanced consciousness. If you do not follow the rules and regulation, then you are nothing but animal. Human being, human life means voluntarily accepting the laws, the rules and regulation. That is human life. But now the propaganda is that everyone, one wants to be free, no regulative life. This is animal life. Just try to understand. The regulations, lawbooks, restrictions, they are meant for human being, not for animals. And if you want freedom from all restrictions, then you come to the animal life. Therefore Śukadeva Gosvāmī recommends first tapasya. If you want to stop the problems of life, then you have to accept the life of austerity, tapasya.
We must be very careful for the next life. That is human life. Cats and dogs, they cannot think of next life. They can do. They also do not do, because they are protected by nature. But when a man comes, becoming human being, the living entity, he must be responsible, "What I am doing?" Actually, we are reponsible. So for the next life we must be responsible. Yānti deva-vratā devān (BG 9.25). This is the life junction. If you like, you can go to the higher planetary system, you can go to the pitṛ-lokas, or lower down in the hellish lokas, or you can go to Kṛṣṇa also. That information we have got from the śāstra. So the human life means responsible life, not extravagance, "Whatever I like, I do like cats and dogs." That is not good. And in another place Ṛṣabhadeva has said also..., several times we have repeated, na sādhu manye yata ātmano 'yam, kleśada āsa dehaḥ. This world is going on not now. So long the material world is there, the living entities are after sense enjoyment like a madman. This is the position.
When we speak of Kṛṣṇa, means God. Kṛṣṇa is the God, Supreme. Kṛṣṇas tu bhagavān svayam (SB 1.3.28). Kṛṣṇa is the Supreme Personality of Godhead. So Kṛṣṇa has very kindly agreed to come to your city, Denver city, this temple. Take advantage of it. Come daily, see Kṛṣṇa, think of Kṛṣṇa, chant Hare Kṛṣṇa, take Kṛṣṇa's prasādam, and be happy. This is our movement. We want to see that everyone is happy. That is the Vedic vision. Sarve sukhino bhavantu. This is human life. Human life means paropakāra. That is Caitanya Mahāprabhu's mission, to do others something auspicious. That is human life. The animal life means do..., "For my good, I will do harm to many others." That is animal life. So this is not life, the human life, that for our sense gratification, we are killing so many animals, we are doing so many mischievous things, we are cheating others. We can do that, but we are becoming more and more implicated. At the time of death the Yamarāja will come and take us to the hellish condition.
So long the human history is there, there must be war. You cannot avoid it. Because it is material world, disagreement, misunderstanding must be there. You cannot avoid it. Because everyone is not of the same standard. That is not possible. Somebody is in the lower standard, somebody is in the middle standard, and somebody in the highest standard. That is division: goodness, passion, and ignorance. You cannot avoid it. So out of these three qualities, goodness, passion and ignorance, the ignorance and passion are base quality, and goodness is first-class quality. So the human life means we are born either in the base qualities... Nobody is born in the first-class quality. One who is born in this material world... May be somebody has taken his birth in the mode of goodness, but very rare. But maybe. Mostly they are born in the base qualities, ignorance and passion. But the śāstras are there. Anyone can be raised to the first-class quality by training. That is human civilization.
If you do not follow the injunction of the śāstra, then your human life is unsuccessful. Na siddhim. Human life means that you stop the process of transmigration from one body to another. That is human life mission. Tyaktvā dehaṁ punar janma naiti (BG 4.9). One should endeavor in such a way that you do not take again birth in this material world. Tyaktvā dehaṁ punar janma naiti (BG 4.9). Because as soon as you accept any material body, either the material body of Lord Brahmā or the material body of an ant, most inignificant, the trouble is there. You will have to suffer. You cannot escape it. Nūnaṁ pramattaḥ kurute vikarma (SB 5.5.4). Irresponsibly, we, if we act, pramattaḥ, like madman, without following the sastric injunction... That is a madman. Just like a madman does not care for any instruction. He acts according to his own whim. That is described here: svaira-cāri. Svaira-cāri. Svaira-cāri means "I will act according to my whims. I don't care for any authority." That is called svaira-cāri. No. The laws are meant for human beings. Even on the street, as soon as you go out on the street, immediately the law is there: "Keep to the right. Keep to the left." And if you violate, immediately you'll be punished, immediately become criminal. Similarly... This is government law. Similarly, law given by the Supreme Lord.
This morning there was press representative. So they came to take some information. Our first information is that we are trying to bring human being to the standard of human being from the standard of cats' and dogs' life. This is Kṛṣṇa consciousness... Cats' and dogs' life means these adānta-go, uncontrolled senses. That is cats' and dogs' life. Just like one dog, one female dog, is surrounded by one dozen male dogs. Why? Adānta-gobhiḥ: they cannot control their senses. On the street they are having sex. They cannot control the senses. Adānta-gobhiḥ. So human life means control the senses. That is human life. If you remain like cats and dogs, adānta-gobhiḥ, without controlling the senses, then where is the difference between dog and you? There is no difference. Actually that is being accepted at the present moment. The so-called civilization means to allow the senses to enjoy as far as possible. This is advancement of civilization. The same example: Just we can be very happy by eating the food grains which must we have to produce either for me or for the animal. Without producing food grain you cannot even eat the meat. Because they want food grains, they want vegetables, so you have to produce. But because we have uncontrolled senses, instead of eating the grains, we are eating the animals.
Therefore what is going on at the present moment as Hindu... This word you won't find in the Vedic literature. Varnāśrama. This is real Vedic system, varṇāśrama. And human life begins when one observes the varṇāśrama regulations. Varnāśrama. Human life means to elevate oneself to spiritual consciousness or God consciousness. That they do not know. Na te viduḥ svārtha-gatim... (break)
...is the life. Because there is no education, there is no Bhāgavata-dharma preaching, people are kept completely in darkness. This is modern civilization. Mandāḥ sumanda-matayo manda-bhāgyā hy upadrutāḥ (SB 1.1.10). Prāyeṇa alpāyuṣaḥ kalāv asmin yuge janāḥ. In this age, first of all, the duration of life is very small. Although in Kali-yuga one is destined to live up to hundred years, but they, with the progress of Kali-yuga, the duration of age will be decreased. Nowadays, nobody lives for hundred years. If one is eighty years old he is supposed to be very old man. But time will come when one is twenty years old he will be considered a very old man. That time is coming gradually. If one lives from twenty to thirty years, he'll be considered a very old man. So alpa-āyuṣaḥ. This is the effect of Kali-yuga. Duration of life, mercifulness, bodily strength, memory, these things will be reduced gradually. You won't find nowadays very fertile brain. It will reduce. Not very strong man, bodily very strong, and mercy, there is no question. On the street, in your front, if somebody's being killed, nobody will take care; he'll go on. There is no mercifulness. Even the mother has no mercifulness, killing the child. This is Kali-yuga. So just imagine what is the duration of this Kali-yuga.
Because we become diseased, we become subject to birth and death, we... This is all due to our sinful activities. Why are repeatedly...? We are eternal. Na hanyate hanyamāne śarīre (BG 2.20). This is our position, that we do not die even after the body's destruction. Then why should I be in this position, that repeatedly I have to die, I have to give up this body, again accept another body, again suffer? This is the problem, but mūḍhā, duṣkṛtina, they do not see to the real problem. That is their fault. Neither they have knowledge to see the real problem. Therefore they are mūḍhā. Is it not? He's understood that na hanyate hanyamāne śarīre (BG 2.20). So this question does not come, that "I am eternal. I do not die after the annihilation of the body. Why I am subjected to this tribulation?" Nobody thinks; therefore mūḍhā. Just like animal. Animal, in the slaughterhouse, one animal is being killed, and the other animal is eating grass. He's thinking that "I am safe." He does not know that "Next moment I'll be killed." This is animal life. The human life means if somebody is being killed, so he should be immediately warned, taking warning, "Oh, my turn is coming. Let me go away."
Human life is meant for performing yajña, give in charity and practice austerities, three things. Human life means that. Human life does not mean to live like cats and dogs. That is failure. That kind of civilization, dog civilization, is failure of human life. Human life is meant for three things: yajña-dāna-tapaḥ-kriyā. One should know how to perform sacrifices, how to give in charity, and how to practice austerities. This is human life.
Śyāmasundara: Intelligence is the basic...
Prabhupāda: Yes. No. By intelligence one can inquire what is the cause of this. Jijñāsu. It is called jijñāsu. Those who are not jijñāsus, śreya uttamam, they are third class. Just like animals, they cannot ask, "What is its cause?" That is animal life. And human life means when the inquiry is "What is its cause?" That is the distinction between animal life and human life. Human life must be inquisitive, "What is its cause? What is the essence?" Just like Sanātana Gosvāmī approached Lord Caitanya that "Why I suffer some threefold miseries? I do not wish to suffer, but why?" This "why" question, unless this "why" question is there, then he's not to be considered as human being.
Prabhupāda: That's all right. But the inquiry is there. That inquiry will make you wise by inquiring from the spiritual master or the authority. But the inquiry is there. Human life means..., developed consciousness means..., the animal cannot inquire. The human being can inquire. That inquiry will give him everything—the spiritual master, knowledge, wisdom—everything. But inquiry; simply this inquiry. That inquiry is there.
Conversations and Morning Walks
1973 Conversations and Morning Walks
Prabhupāda: Good citizenship means living under the direction of the government. That is good citizenship. Similarly, human life means to live nicely under the direction of God. The cats and dogs, they cannot understand. But the human life, (pause) That first verse: imaṁ vivasvate yogaṁ proktavān aham avyayam, vivasvān manave prāha manur ikṣvākave 'bravīt (BG 4.1). So what is your explanation of this verse?
1974 Conversations and Morning Walks
Prabhupāda: The yoga system is very strict regulative principle. I do not know what they are doing. Generally, they misuse also that, but yoga means indriya-saṁyama, controlling the senses. That is real yoga system. Because as the animals, they cannot control their senses, similarly... So the human being, having higher intelligence, they should learn how to control the senses. This is human life. Human life means controlling. I give this example. Just like in the... In your country, there is no such shop. In our country, the confectioner's shop is on the roadside, very nice. You have seen in India. They have prepared very nice, nice preparation and exhibited. People come and purchase.
1975 Conversations and Morning Walks
Prabhupāda: If you do not become cautious and if you infect the smallpox disease, you have to suffer. Therefore a civilized man takes process, caution, "Oh there is smallpox disease, I shall not go there. Or if I go there, I must take vaccine." This is human civilization, caution. And if you are animal, you do not know. So human life means not animal life. Very reasonable, very cautious, educated, cultured, that is human life. Not animal life. Drink like animal, or eat like animal, have sex life like animal. Freedom, animal has got all freedom. So that freedom is not allowed to the human beings. That is civilization.
1976 Conversations and Morning Walks
Prabhupāda: Sannyāsa means ultimate success, because this human life is meant for becoming disgusted with this material life: "No more." Material life means to take a body and enjoy this material āhāra-nidrā, sleeping twenty-four hours, eating like elephant, and sex life like a monkey, these animals. This is material life, eating, sleeping, mating, and always afraid of. This is material life. And human life means to take freedom from these four things: no more afraid, no more sex, no more hankering after eating or sleeping. That is success. Everyone... You'll see in the sparrow in the morning. They're enjoying sex. So this is material life: eating, sleeping, mating and fearing. Āhāra-nidrā-bhaya-maithunaṁ ca. And spiritual life means to become free from all this nonsense. That is spiritual life. They do not know what is spiritual life. The whole world, they do not know what is spiritual life. This is spiritual life, to become free from these four abominable things.
Prabhupāda: This is the beginning of spiritual education. One has to learn it, that "I'm not this body; I'm within this body, and I'm transmigrating from one body to another." That means repetition of birth, death, old age and disease. This is the main problem of life. So human life means to make a solution of these problems, not to be entangled with these problems again and again.
Prabhupāda: The major problem is birth, death, and old age, and disease. You do not want that. You must seek the measures. That is human life. Whether birth, death, old age, disease can be stopped? If there is any such life that there is no more birth, death, that is human life. Athāto brahma jijñāsā. That is the Vedānta philosophy: "Now the human life is meant for enquiring about these things." If you don't enquire, then you remain animal. So this Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement is trying to save the human society from this animal life. To bring him to the real human life. Animal life means there is suffering—go on suffering. Human life means there is suffering—how to get, how to counteract. That is human life. Suffering—so long you have got this body, there must be suffering.
Prabhupāda: We have in the newspaper different subject matters for different public interest, but those who are searching after spiritual realization, athāto brahma jijñāsā. As it is stated in the Vedānta-sūtra, also in Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam also, jīvasya tattva-jijñāsā. Human life means tattva-jijñāsā, inquiry about the Absolute Truth. That is now stopped. People are not interested, self-realization, tattva-jijñāsā. So this is an attempt to revive their spiritual consciousness, and it is authorized on the basis of Bhagavad-gītā as it is, without misinterpretation, and people are taking to it.
I was discussing this point in my lecture last night here in Bombay, that human life means tapasya, and tapasya must begin with brahmacaryena, life at Gurukula. The boy is supposed to lie down on the floor, collect alms for the spiritual master—not that they are trying very hard to make a comfortable material arrangement. But the result is that although in this age everyone is born a sudra, we are producing first class brahmanas who can actually do good for their fellow man.