Śrīpāda Rāmānujācārya has explained the word sanātana as "the thing which has neither any beginning nor any end." And when we speak of sanātana-dharma we must take it for granted on the authority of Śrīpāda Rāmānujācārya that it has no beginning, nor any end. The word religion is a little different from sanātana-dharma. Religion conveys the idea of faith. Faith may change. One may have faith in a particular process, and he may change the faith afterwards and adopt another faith. But sanātana-dharma means which cannot be changed, which cannot be changed. Just like water and liquidity. Liquidity cannot be changed from water. Heat and fire. Heat cannot be changed from fire.
Different from... (Lectures, BG)
Bhagavad-gita As It Is Lectures
Devotee: "Arjuna was a devotee in relationship with the Lord as a friend. This friendship is different from friendship in the mundane world. This kind of friendship is transcendental. Everyone has some relationship with the Lord. Unfortunately, in our present status, we have forgotten that eternal tie. Yet each of the millions upon millions of living beings has his particular relationship. By the process of service one can revive one's original status with the Lord. Now Arjuna..."
Prabhupāda: This relationship is already established, because I am eternal, God is eternal, therefore my relationship with God is also eternal. That relationship is there. Now, due to my covering of this material body or influence of material energy, I have forgotten. This is my position. In the conditioned state, in this material condition of life, our position is that I..., we have forgotten our relationship with God. But therefore you are trying to establish so many relationships with this material world. I am trying to find some relationship with particular type of society, particular type of community, particular type of nation, particular type of family or individuals. So many ways, I am searching where is my relationship, because I have lost my relationship with God.
So therefore śāstra says that "You may be god in your own atmosphere, in your own jurisdiction. You may think that you are God." And everyone thinks like that. "But the Supreme God is Kṛṣṇa." Eko yo bahūnāṁ vidadhāti kāmān. In the Upaniṣads it is said that God is also a person like me, you. Nityo nityānāṁ cetanaś cetanānām (Kaṭha Upaniṣad 2.2.13). But His personality is different from your personality, from my personality. What is that difference? Eko yo bahūnāṁ vidadhāti kāmān: "He supplies all the necessities of all other personalities." That is the difference. God is supplying us food. This conception is there in the Bible, "God, give us our daily bread." This is nice. Accepting that you are getting all supplies from God, this is sukṛti, this is puṇyavat.
Just imagine, a big bag of mustard seeds. "And this universe is just like one mustard seed." There are so many universes, so many universes. And it is confirmed in the Brahma-saṁhitā: yasya prabhā prabhavato jagad-aṇḍa-koṭi (Bs. 5.40). Jagad-aṇḍa. Jagad-aṇḍa means this universe. Brahmāṇḍa, jagad-aṇḍa. Koṭi, innumerable. Jagad-aṇḍa-koṭi. Yasya prabhā prabhavato jagad-aṇḍa-koṭi-koṭiṣv aśeṣa-vasudhādi-vibhūti-bhinnam (Bs. 5.40). And each universe there are innumerable planets. And each planet is different from others. This is God's creation. And these rascals are manufacturing God. And there is other description also. Yasyaika-niśvasita-kālam athāvalambya jīvanti loma-vilajā jagad-aṇḍa-nāthāḥ (Bs. 5.48). This jagad-aṇḍa, the universe. And there, in each universe, there is a controller of the universe, Brahmā. He is called jagad-aṇḍa-nātha, master of this universe. Because it is controlled by Brahmā, therefore each universe is called brahmāṇḍa. It is controlled by Brahmā.
So Arjuna is preparing the ground, how to receive the instruction of Bhagavad-gītā. Because spiritual instruction will begin to separate the soul from the body. Unless one understands that there is a soul different from this body, there is no spiritual education. This is the basic principle. If you do not understand what is soul, what is spirit soul, then where is spiritual education? So Arjuna was affected. He says frankly, dṛṣṭvā tu svajanaṁ kṛṣṇa yuyutsuṁ samupasthitam: (BG 1.28) "What is this? I have to kill my own men." Svajanam. Svajanam means own men. "No, no." Sīdanti mama gātrāṇi: "Oh, I am shivering." Mukhaṁ ca pariśuṣyati: "My mouth is being dried up." We have got this experience. When there is danger, these things happen, so many symptoms.
So Arjuna said that sarvam etad ṛtaṁ manye yad vadasi keśava (BG 10.14). "My dear Kṛṣṇa, whatever You are saying, I accept in toto," in the Tenth Chapter. Just like Dr. Radhakrishnan says, "It is not to Kṛṣṇa, it is something else." He does not accept in that way. He says that "Whatever You are saying, I accept it. You are saying that You are the Supreme, I accept it. I don't say that You have got a separate thing within. That is Supreme, You are not Supreme, as person." This is impersonalist. They do not know that Kṛṣṇa has no such... A conditioned soul... Just like we are, I am different from my soul. "I am" means my body, or I am soul, different from the body. So Kṛṣṇa has no such differentiation. He does not know that. Because he's not following Kṛṣṇa, the perfect spiritual master. He's following some rascal spiritual master. Therefore he has this mistake. But if we follow Arjuna and Kṛṣṇa, then we get the perfect knowledge. We may not be cent percent perfect, but as far as possible, if we follow the instruction as it is, that much perfect. In this way one will get perfection.
Just like after leaving this room, you have to enter another room. You cannot say that "After leaving this room, I shall live in the sky." Similarly, after leaving this body, if you go to Kṛṣṇa in the spiritual kingdom, your individuality will be there, but you'll have that spiritual body. When there is spiritual body there is no perplexities. Just like your body is different from the body of the aquatics. The aquatics, they have no disturbance in the water because their body is made like that. They can live there peacefully. You cannot live. Similarly, the fishes, if you take them out of the water, they cannot live. Similarly, because you are spirit soul, you cannot live peacefully in this material world. This is foreign. But as soon as you enter into the spiritual world, your life is eternal, blissful and full of knowledge, real peace. Tyaktvā dehaṁ punar janma naiti (BG 4.9). Kṛṣṇa says, "After leaving this body, he does not come to this perplexities of material world." Mām eti, "He comes to Me." "Me" means His kingdom, His paraphernalia, His associates, everything.
Yes. Yasya prabhā prabhavato jagad-aṇḍa-koṭi (Bs. 5.40). Jagad-aṇḍa-koṭi. Jagad-aṇḍa means universe, and koṭi means millions. So there are millions and millions of universes, and in each universe there are millions and millions of planets. Yasya prabhā prabhavato jagad-aṇḍa-koṭi-koṭiṣv aśeṣa-vasudhādi-vibhūti-bhinnam (Bs. 5.40). And each planet is differently constituted. The atmosphere of each planet is different from another. This is God's creation. Now as there are innumerable universes, there may be innumerable suns also.
So here they say that gatāsūn agatāsūṁś ca. There are two, two sort of bodies in which we are now entered. Now, suppose this gross body appears to be now dead and gone, stopped, but one must know that subtle body has carried him to another body. So subtle body is not lost life. The life is there. So here Kṛṣṇa says that either of the gross body or of... Subtle body has to be also left. When you get liberation, when you get liberation, that subtle body, that egoistic life, has also to be left. Now, at any condition, the body has to be left. So why one should cry for this body? Therefore Kṛṣṇa says that "A learned man does not lament over this body." The whole question, that a soul is different from this body, the whole question is solved in one verse. You see? Gatāsūn agatāsūṁś ca nānuśocanti paṇḍitāḥ (BG 2.11). "One who is actually learned, he does not, he has no concern of this body. He's concerned with the activities of the soul.
So our point is that Kṛṣṇa informs Arjuna that "Why you are deviating from your duty? Do you think that your brother or your uncle or your grandfather on the other side, they will be dead after fighting? No. That is not the fact." The point is that Kṛṣṇa wanted to teach Arjuna that this body is different from the person. Just like every one of us, we are different from the shirt and coat. Similarly, we living entities, soul, is different from the gross body and the subtle body. This is the philosophy of Bhagavad-gītā. People do not understand it. Generally, people understand that he is this body. That is condemned in the śāstras.
- yasyātma-buddhiḥ kuṇape tri-dhātuke
- sva-dhīḥ kalatrādiṣu bhauma ijya-dhīḥ
- yat-tīrtha-buddhiḥ salile na karhicij
- janeṣv abhijñeṣu sa eva go-kharaḥ
- (SB 10.84.13)
Go means cow, and khara means ass. Anyone who is living on the bodily concept of life, yasyātma-buddhiḥ kuṇape tri-dhātuke... The bodily concept of life is meant for the animals. The dog does not know that he's not this body, he's pure soul. But a man, if he's educated, he can understand that he's not this body, he is different from this body. How he can understand that we are different from this body? That is also a very simplified method.
Even if we know, still, if there is some bodily pain we become very much disturbed. But we should know, always remember, that "I am not this body." The same example, that I have got a very nice car, Rolls Royce car, I have got attachment, that is all right, but we should know always that "I am not this Rolls Royce car. I am different from it." This is knowledge. "I may have some attachment for my car. That is natural. I have paid for it. I like it. But in spite of all these consideration I am not the Rolls Royce car. The Rolls Royce car is a lump of matter. I am using it." Similarly, we should always remember that "I am using this material body for my transaction, different transaction, but I am not this material body." But a devotee, he uses this material body, utilizes it properly. Just like we are also going by aeroplane, by motorcar, but we have no concern with the... I have come to your country by aeroplane not to see your country. I have come for Kṛṣṇa's business: to see if I can induce you to Kṛṣṇa consciousness. Otherwise we have no concern with this aeroplane or motorcar or anything. We take advantage. Similarly, when we take advantage of this body for advancing in Kṛṣṇa consciousness, then it is very nice.
So Bhagavad-gītā means to understand what is God, the science of God. And God Himself is speaking about Himself. Otherwise it is not possible to understand what is God. So if we carefully understand the ślokas and the passages mentioned in the Bhagavad-gītā, we can understand what is God. And the human form of life is meant for understanding God. He has no other business. In the lower bodies, less than human form of body... According to Darwin's theory, the human form of body comes from monkey. But the evolution is accepted in the Vedic literature but not like Darwin's. The evolution, again according to Vedic scripture, is that the living entity is different from the body, and the living entity is passing through many forms of body. We shall read that. So the bodies are according to my desire. I am desiring something. Just like here we are sitting, so many ladies and gentlemen, but not one of them is similar to anyone else. They have got different bodies. That body is created according to one's desire. The mind, the subtle mind, is the creator of the next body. Yaṁ yaṁ vāpi smaran bhāvaṁ tyajaty ante kalevaram (BG 8.6). At the time of death whatever I am thinking, a similar body will be offered to me by the laws of nature. Subtle body.
The Hindus, they say that cow-killing is irreligious. The Muhammadans say, "No, cow-killing is religious." There is some adjustment, but... Now, in the scripture I see that the cow-killing, in some scriptures it is said that cow-killing is irreligious, and another scripture says that cow-killing is religious. So which of them I shall accept? This is ni... This is all right, or that is all right? So therefore it is said that smṛtayo vibhinnāḥ. If you consult different scriptures, you'll find different contradictory statements. Your scripture may be different from my scripture. And nāsau munir yasya mataṁ na bhinnam. If you consult philosophers, you'll find one philosopher is differing from another philosopher. A big philosopher means who has cut down other philosophers and put up his own theory, "This is true." This is going on. So tarko 'pratiṣṭhaḥ smṛtayo vibhinnā nāsau munir yasya mataṁ na bhinnam. Then how to conclude what is the right path? I cannot establish it by my imperfect arguments. I cannot consult even the scriptures.
Woman: What kind of bodies...
Prabhupāda: The body may be different. Just like your body is different from me.
Woman: Yes, but we're the same in...
Prabhupāda: That does not mean, because you have got a different body, therefore you are not a living being. Or because I have got a different body from you, I am not a living being. So body... Because a living soul is not the body, he might have different body. That doesn't matter; that doesn't matter. Why should we consider, identify with the body? The whole question is there. The body, you'll find your body is different from animal body. Animal is different from human body. Or the so many difference of body. But the four principles of bodily wants, āhāra... Āhāra means requiring some foodstuff, and nidrā, sleeping, and fearing and mating. These four principles you'll find in the birds, in the animals, in the human beings, or even the devatās, or gods, or everywhere you'll find, these four principles. The only difference between the animal and higher, developed consciousness living being is that they are God conscious. They accept the Supreme Lord. That makes the difference between lower animals and others.
So Arjuna was calculating as a human being about Kṛṣṇa. That was his mistake. That was his not mistake. That was his inquiry to clear the mistake of our. We mistake Kṛṣṇa as one of us. Because Kṛṣṇa comes down as human being, we, due to our lack of knowledge, poor fund of knowledge, we think Kṛṣṇa is as good as we are. But actually it is not. Kṛṣṇa is God. We are ordinary living entities. His knowledge, His power of remembrance, His power of knowing everything perfectly is different from our knowing. But unfortunately we think, "God may be little greater than me." That is that Dr. Frog philosophy. We have explained several times. Kūpa-maṇḍūka-nyāya. The frog within the well, he is calculating the dimension of Pacific Ocean. So by this dog, frog philosophical way, we can, we cannot understand what is God. We must receive the knowledge from God Himself, or from a person who knows God. Otherwise, there is no possibility.
The Vaiṣṇava Purāṇa says, yas tu nārāyaṇaṁ devaṁ brahma-rudrādi-daivataiḥ, samatvenaiva vīkṣeta sa pāṣaṇḍī bhavad dhruvam: (CC Madhya 18.116) "Anyone who calculates Nārāyaṇa, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, equal with such demigods, not, what to speak of ordinary human beings, even big, big demigods like Lord Śiva, Lord Brahmā, he immediately becomes a pāṣaṇḍī, atheist." So if... The Māyāvādī philosophy, they put forward this argument that "Because we are now in māyā, we are thinking that we are different from God." But Kṛṣṇa is making thus such differentiation that... He's making, He's saying, "You and I and all these." So does it mean that Kṛṣṇa is also covered by māyā or illusion? Because He is very clearly differentiating between Him and the living entities, all individuals. So if the Māyāvādī philosopher is right that this differentiation is due to our illusion, then we have to accept Kṛṣṇa is also in illusion. Because He's making differentiation. So if Kṛṣṇa is in illusion, then what is the use of taking His version? Because our proposition is that we have to take knowledge from the perfect person. So if Kṛṣṇa is in illusion, then how He can become perfect person, and the knowledge delivered by Him is perfect? No. Kṛṣṇa is not illusioned. We are in illusion. Kṛṣṇa is not in illusion. Kṛṣṇa cannot be in illusion.
"The same Vedic truth given to Arjuna is given to all persons in the world who pose themselves as very learned but factually have but a poor fund of knowledge." This is poor fund of knowledge that "God and I, we one. Now, because we are illusioned, we are thinking that God is different from me, but when the illusion is over, then I and God become one." This is Māyāvādī theory, monism. But actually this is not clear knowledge. God is..., God is always distinct from me. He's the Supreme. It is not that we are equal to God. We are equal to God in quality, not in quantity. Therefore those who are thinking that they are equal to God in every respect, they are illusioned. Māyā, māyayā apahṛta-jñānāḥ. They have been called, they have been designated by Kṛṣṇa as māyayā apahṛta-jñānāḥ. Although they appear to be very learned scholars, but the essence of the knowledge is taken away by māyā. Therefore they say that God and ordinary human being is the same. Māyayā apahṛta... Asura. This is called āsura-bhāva.
Therefore He's ādi-puruṣa. Actually, within this creation, Lord Brahmā is the original person, because he was firstborn. There was no other person before him. But he's given birth by Nārāyaṇa, from the abdomen of Nārāyaṇa in the lotus flower. Therefore He's the father of Brahmā. Prapitāmaha (BG 11.39). So Kṛṣṇa here says, because that Māyāvādī philosophy's also nullified here. Because here it is said, na jāyate, na jāyate mriyate vā kadācin nāyaṁ bhūtvā bhavitā vā na bhūyaḥ. Māyāvāda philosophy says that the living entity has become separated on account of illusion. Not becomes separated. He is... There is no separation. But it is illusion; he's thinking, "I am different from God." But Kṛṣṇa says, mamaivāṁśo jīva-bhūtaḥ jīva-loke sanātanaḥ (BG 15.7). That aṁśa, part and parcel of God, he's sanātana. Not that, being covered by illusion, he's thinking "I am separated." He's separated always, sanātana. That is the statement of the Vedas. Separated. Although separated, quality one, but that separation, that fragments of Kṛṣṇa, that is sanātana. It is not that by māyā we are fragmental separated; when we are liberated, we merge into the body or the effulgence of God.
If you say, "This is my body," there is no wrong because finger is also part of the body. But if you say that "The finger is body," that is also wrong. This is dvaita-advaita. It is simultaneously one and different. Similarly, the soul and the Supreme Lord, equal in quality. Kṛṣṇa says, mamaivāṁśa. The small particle of gold is gold. That is advaita. You cannot say, because it is small particle of gold, you cannot say, "It is iron." It is gold. That is advaita. But the gold mine and the gold earring, there is difference. You cannot say the gold earring is as good as the gold mine. That is dvaita. so in this way, as so far our spiritual existence is concerned, we are one. But so far our energies are concerned, that is different. That is dvaita-advaita. You have no such big energy as God has. In that sense you are different. God can create millions of universe by His breathing. Yasyaika-niśvasita-kālam athāvalambya jīvanti loma-vilajā jagad-aṇḍa-nāthāḥ (Bs. 5.48). You can create one small sputnik, and take credit. But God can create innumerable universes simply by breathing. So your energy, your power, is different from God's power. But in quality, you are one with God.
So this is the position for everyone. You ask any learned scientist, professor, "Who are you?" He'll say, "I am Mr. John." He'll say, "I am Mr. John, I am American," or "I am Mexican," "I am Indian," like that. So this is ignorance. Nobody is this body. That is the first lesson of spiritual knowledge. So long we identify with this body, that "I am Mr. Such-and-such," "I am American," "I am Indian," this is all ignorance. When you actually understand that you are not this body—therefore you are not American, nor Indian nor Mexican, but you are spirit soul—then your spiritual education begins. And that is... In Sanskrit it is called ahaṁ brahmāsmi: "I am spirit soul." Spiritual... Spirit soul has no connection with this material world. When one understands fully this, I mean to say, fact, that spirit soul is different from this material world, then he's actually learned. In that stage he's called situated in brahma-bhūtaḥ stage. The symptom of brahma-bhūtaḥ is brahma-bhūtaḥ prasannātmā (BG 18.54). As soon as one becomes self-realized, he becomes jubilant, jolly. So long one identifies with this body, he is unhappy, full of anxiety.
So when you are put into the prison house, you have to keep aside your own household dress, and you have to take that particular dress. If you say, "No, no. I cannot accept this dress. I am a gentleman. I have got costly dress. I shall put on that," no, you must, forced. Similarly, we, we living entities, we are forced to accept different kind of dress. There are 8,400,000 kinds of dresses like this body. And your body, my body, you see? Now we are here, several ladies and gentlemen, but you'll find that nobody's body will be similar to the other's body. God's arrangement is so nice that everyone has got his particular body according to his work. It is so nice arrangement. You see. You'll find millions of persons, and everyone you'll find different from the other. You won't find two similar persons. You see? So dehinām. Because there are different kinds of mentality, not that all our mentality is one and the same. No, no. We are... And the law of nature is so finer that, according to the different kinds of mentality, they have got different kinds of bodies. So dehino 'smin.
So soul, the individual soul, is different from the very beginning, nitya. Nityaḥ śāśvato 'yam. In later verses we will come to understand. The Lord says that "These individual souls, they are My part and parcels." Mamaivāṁśo jīva-bhūtaḥ: (BG 15.7) "Jīva-bhūtaḥ, or these living entities, they are My parts and parcels." How it is that? I can give you a very good example. Just like the sun, sun and the sun rays. What is the sun ray? Sun ray, if you analyze physically, you'll find small molecules of raising (raysing ?) atoms, shining atoms. This is material. You see? The sun ray is nothing but combination of, I mean to say, shining atoms. It is not a homogeneous thing. Anything you take. Anything you take. You are artist. You take a point, any color, and you photograph. If you analyze with a microscope or magnifying glass, you'll find so many spots. Is it not? You are also artist. So in God's nature, there is no, nothing homogeneous. There is nothing homogeneous. All molecules, atoms, particles, even in the matter.
Prabhupāda: Yes. The answer is also very simple. Paramātmā is great. You are small. That's all.
Indian: But whether the, our ātmā is the part and parcel of the ātmā, Paramātmā.
Indian: Paramātmā is entirely different from the ātmā and...
Prabhupāda: That I will explain. In quality, you are one. Because a particle of gold is also gold. But the gold mine is not equal to the gold earring. That is mistake.
Indian: They say ātmā is the Paramātmā.
Various Indians: Not, not, the... Not the whole.
Prabhupāda: Not the... One is great. Another is small. That is the difference. Quality is the same.
Indian: That means Paramātmā and the ātmā...
Prabhupāda: Quality same.
Prabhupāda: Quantity different.
Indian: But the ātmā, it is functioning in the body.
Indian: Is, according to the Paramātmā, it is entirely different from the Paramātmā.
Prabhupāda: According to the Paramātmā.
Indian: Every, our action is according to the Paramātmā.
Indian: So why do you abuse one person to other person?
Indian: Why a person,...
Indian: ...to abuse other person, he says many things...
Prabhupāda: But you should remember that you are in quality Paramātmā. So Paramātmā has got supreme independence. You have got little independence also. You, when you misuse that little independence, you create havoc.
Now they have changed their body. Again they will change their body, but they will exist." This is the instruction. The body is changing, and the vivid example? That in this life you are changing body. So what is the difficulty of understanding this simple truth that the soul is different from the body? And so far eternity of the soul, that is also, there is proof. Because in childhood I was present, in boyhood I was present, in youthhood I was present, and in this old age I am still present. (baby fussing) So naturally it is concluded that when I change this body, I exist. When I change this body... This body will be changed. Tathā dehāntara-prāptiḥ (BG 2.13). As the parents of this child... Now she is, say, one-feet long only. When this child will grow five feet long, the father and mother, will they cry, "Oh, my child! Where is my child, that one-feet long?" He knows. The parents know that my child is there, but changed the body. This is a fact. Similarly, "You are lamenting on the body of your grandfather and teacher, even they change their body, what is the cause of lamentation? They will exist." This is the beginning of instruction of Bhagavad-gītā or spiritual instruction. Unless one understands this simple fact, that the soul is different from this body, the soul is eternal, the body is temporary, changing... Because without understanding this, there is no spiritual education. A false education. If one identifies with this body, there is no understanding of spiritual knowledge.
So mātrā-sparśās tu kaunteya śītoṣṇa-sukha-duḥkha-dāḥ (BG 2.14). So that, according to the body, you get pains and pleasure of this material world. A very rich man, living very comfortably, a little painful thing is intolerable by him, because he has got a such body, so delicate body. Just like a child. Because he has got delicate the body, little pinching makes him crying, uncomfortable. So it is all due to body. But the soul is different from the body. So Kṛṣṇa is trying to convince Arjuna that "Why you are hesitating to fight? Do your duty. Your so-called grandfather or so-called guru, as you say, your teacher, they are not this body. So in this fight, if your grandfather or teacher is killed, why you are lamenting? They are eternal." That is also explained, that "They were existing in the past, they are existing at present, and they will continue to exist. Simply the body will change. So why you are lamenting? Rather, it is a great facility that your grandfather has got now old body, he is not very comfortable, but he will get next life a very new body. So it is good for him if you kill him." Of course, that is not the point. (laughter) You cannot kill without any reason. That is not point. But here, "It is fight. It is duty. They have come to kill you."
So how to take Kṛṣṇa consciousness? That is also answered by Prahlāda Mahārāja. Matir na kṛṣṇe parataḥ svato vā mitho 'bhipadyeta gṛha-vratānām. Kṛṣṇa consciousness cannot be awakened for a person who wants to stay in this material world and become happy. He cannot become Kṛṣṇa conscious. Gṛha-vratānām. Gṛha means home, and vratānām means one who has taken the house or home or this body as everything. Vrata. Vrata means... Just like you are observing this today, a Janmāṣṭamī-vrata, under vow. We shall fast, an austerity. The aim is different from the gṛha-vrata. Gṛha-vrata's aim is how to decorate the home, how to become happy in this home, in this world, in this material world. That is their... So they cannot become Kṛṣṇa conscious. One who has become callous of this material happiness, he can become Kṛṣṇa conscious. Therefore it is said here, yaṁ hi na vyathayanty ete. These material things, seasonal changes, so-called happiness, so-called distress, if one is not disturbed... There is no cause of disturbance. This is another foolishness. Why one should be disturbed? Because the so-called happiness or happiness or distress, whatever you are destined to receive, you must get it. You try or do not try, it doesn't matter. Whatever portion of happiness you are destined to get, you'll get it. And whatever portion of... Because this material life is mixture. You cannot get unadulterated happiness or unadulterated distress. No. That is not. You'll get distress and happiness both.
Then every one of us, we can understand that "I am not this body. I am not American. I am not Indian. I am not Mexican. I am spirit soul." This stage is called brahma-bhūtaḥ, means self-realization. That is stated in the Bhagavad-gītā, brahma-bhūtaḥ prasannātmā (BG 18.54), means as soon as you are self-realized, you become jubilant. In the bodily concept of life we are always full of anxiety and morose. Yes, that is the material condition. But as soon as you realize yourself that you are not this body, you are different from this body, you become jubilant. Brahma-bhūtaḥ prasannātmā (BG 18.54). This means as soon as one is self-realized, immediately he becomes happy, jubilant. And what is the symptom of becoming jubilant? That is also stated, na śocati na kāṅkṣati: "He does not hanker after anything; neither he laments for any loss." In the material condition we are in the platform of lamentation and hankering. Everyone is trying to possess something which he does not possess, and everyone is lamenting after losing his possession. These are the condition of the materialistic person.
So I am individual spirit soul. I am conscious. My consciousness is spread all over the body. But my consciousness is not spread over your body. If you are pinched by somebody, I don't feel. Because your consciousness is different from my consciousness. You cannot say that the consciousness is the same in you and me. No. Everyone is individual. Therefore there is another consciousness. That is explained in the Bhagavad-gītā. Kṣetra-jñaṁ cāpi māṁ viddhi sarva-kṣetreṣu bhārata (BG 13.3). I am kṣetra-jña, conscious. I know about the pains and pleasures of my body. You know about the pains and pleasures of your body. I do not know about your pains and pleasure. You do not know about my pains and pleasure. Therefore you are individual soul. I am individual soul. But there is another soul, Supersoul. That is Kṛṣṇa. Īśvaraḥ sarva-bhūtānāṁ hṛd-deśe arjuna tiṣṭhati (BG 18.61). That Supersoul is present both in you and in me. Kṣetra-jñaṁ cāpi māṁ viddhi sarva-kṣetreṣu bhārata (BG 13.3). Sarva-kṣetreṣu bhārata. In every living entity.
This is plural number. Śarīriṇaḥ. So śarīrin or śarīrī means the proprietor of the śarīra, or body. Śarīra means this body, and śarīrin, one who possesses the body. So plural number is śarīriṇaḥ. In a varieties of ways, Kṛṣṇa is convincing Arjuna that the soul is different from this body. So this body, antavat, it will be finished. However you may try, so scientifically, applying cosmetic and other things, you cannot save the body. That is not possible. Antavat. Antavanta means, anta means end, and vat means possessing. So "You have got your duty to fight, and you are lamenting that the body of your grandfather or teacher or kinsmen, they'll be destroyed and you will be unhappy. That's all right, you'll be unhappy, but even if you do not fight, their body will be finished today or tomorrow or say a few years after. So why should you go back from discharging your duty? This is the point. "And so far the soul is concerned, of your grandfather, teacher and others, they are nitya, eternal." Already explained, nityasya uktāḥ.
So, immeasurable. You cannot measure what is the soul, but the soul is there, and the body is perishable. "If you, even if you do not fight, you save the bodies of your grandfather and teacher and others as you are so much overwhelmed, so they are perishable. Antavanta means today or tomorrow. Suppose your grandfather is already old. So you do not kill him just now or, say, after one year or six months, he may die because he's already old. These are the arguments put forward. The main point is Kṛṣṇa wants Arjuna that he must fight. He must, he must not deviate from his duty as a kṣatriya. He should not be overwhelmed by the bodily destruction. Therefore He is giving instruction: "The body is different from the soul. So don't think that the soul will be killed. You stand up and fight." This is the instruction.
You'll find in the Fourth Chapter. Ajo 'pi. Kṛṣṇa is aja. Aja means who never takes birth. Similarly, we being part and parcel of Kṛṣṇa, we also never take birth. The birth and death is of this body, and we are so absorbed in the bodily concept of life that when there is birth or death of the body we feel the pains and pleasures. There is no pleasure of course. Birth and death, it is very painful. Because... That is already explained. The consciousness of the soul is spread all over the body. Therefore, the pains and pleasures felt on account of this body. So Kṛṣṇa has already advised that such kinds of pains and pleasure, mātrā-sparśās tu kaunteya (BG 2.14), touching the skin only, one should not be very much bothered. Tāṁs titikṣasva bhārata. In this way if we think about our position, self-realization, how we are different from the body... Actually, this is meditation. If we think very seriously about ourselves and about the body, that is self-realization. Self-realization means I am not this body, I am ahaṁ brahmāsmi, I am spirit soul. That is self-realization.
So here it is said, Arjuna might be thinking that "Kṛṣṇa says this body is different from the soul. The soul is within. So now suppose when I place my sword on the body of my grandfather or my kinsmen, the body will cut, and, in the meantime, the soul is within the body. It may be cut because the soul is there. By accidentally, he may be cut." Therefore Kṛṣṇa says very distinctly; nainaṁ chindanti śastrāṇi, that "Soul cannot be cut. Any weapon. It cannot be pierced by your arrows, it cannot be cut into pieces by your sword, or if you use firearms it will not burn." Nainaṁ dahati pāvakaḥ. This is the position of soul. Immutable, indestructible. Another... This is the negative description of the soul. Nainaṁ chindanti śastrāṇi. Is there anything in this material world which cannot be cut into pieces? Have you got any experience? Take wood, stone, iron, or anything. It can be cut into pieces. Therefore, the..., when Kṛṣṇa says nainaṁ chindanti śastrāṇi, that means it is nothing like anything material elements. It is different. It is different.
Therefore, they paint pictures of Kṛṣṇa, His affairs with the gopīs. But they do not paint picture how He is killing Kaṁsa, how He is killing the demons. They do not like this. This is sahajiyā. They, for their debauchery, for their business of debauchery, they like to be supported by Kṛṣṇa. "Kṛṣṇa has done this." "Kṛṣṇa has become immoral. So therefore we are also immoral. We are great devotee of Kṛṣṇa, because we are immoral." This is going on. Therefore, to understand Kṛṣṇa, it requires a little better intelligence. Better intelligence. Bahūnāṁ janmanām ante jñānavān (BG 7.19). Jñānavān means the first-class intelligent wise. Māṁ prapadyate. He understands what is Kṛṣṇa. Vāsudevaḥ sarvam iti sa mahātmā sudurlabhaḥ. Such kind of intelligent mahātmā... You can find out rascal mahātmā, simply by changing dress, without Kṛṣṇa consciousness, declaring himself as God or Kṛṣṇa. Kick on their face. Kṛṣṇa is different from all these rascals. But if you understand Kṛṣṇa, if you are so fortunate—ei rūpe brahmāṇḍa bhramite kona bhāgyavān jīva (CC Madhya 19.151). Only the most fortunate persons can understand Kṛṣṇa, what is Kṛṣṇa. Ei rūpe.
If you cannot see Kṛṣṇa physically... Although Kṛṣṇa is present everywhere, but we have no eyes to see Him. Therefore this Deity worship... Deity is not hedonism or idol worship. No. Deity is as good as the original Supreme Personality of Godhead. He's absolute. His form and He is not different. Abhinnatvān nāma-nāminoḥ (CC Madhya 17.133). Abhinna, identical. We are chanting Hare Kṛṣṇa, not that like gramophone.(?) No. We are associating with Kṛṣṇa. Abhinnatvān nāma-nāminoḥ. By chanting Kṛṣṇa's name, Kṛṣṇa is present on your tongue. Unless we realize in that way, then it is the period of nāma-aparādha or nāmābhāsa. Not nāmābhāsa—nāma-aparādha. This is nāma-aparādha, to consider that the name is different from the person. As we have got experience in the material world that the name is different from the substance. If you want to drink water, simply if you chant "water, water, water," your thirst will not be satisfied. But in spiritual world, the absolute world, the name and the person is the same. Otherwise, why we stress so much on chanting Hare Kṛṣṇa name? Not we, it is in the śāstra. Harer nāma harer nāma harer nāma eva kevalam, kalau nāsty eva nāsty eva nāsty eva gatir anyathā (CC Adi 17.21). This is shastric. But there are many rascals.
So this system of human civilization as conceived by the Vedic process is completely different from the rascal civilization at the present moment. Therefore, people cannot be happy. It is not possible. If we... At the same time, it is impossible to go back to that type of civilization, because people are so polluted. It is not possible. Therefore the only means is, as enunciated by Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu from Bṛhad Nāradīya Purāṇa,
- harer nāma harer nāma harer nāmaiva kevalam
- kalau nāsty eva nāsty eva nāsty eva gatir anyathā
- (CC Adi 17.21)
You take this process. Chant Hare Kṛṣṇa mantra. At least, you will be purified, you'll understand the situation. And if you follow the rules and regulation... It is very simple to avoid these four principle of sinful life and chant Hare Kṛṣṇa. Then you are sure, back to home, back to Godhead, and be happy eternally.
Therefore it is a fact that the soul, soul is different from this body. So long the soul is there, the body acts. And we, with our blunt senses, our gross senses, we cannot see the soul. Therefore we deny it. Because our imperfect senses cannot see this. We cannot see so many things. So many things. Just like we are seeing this place is vacant, the outer space, but there are instruments. If you see with those instruments, you will find they are full of germs. Full of germs. Take a drop of water, as clear as possible. But if you see with microscope, you will see, "Oh, it is full of germs." So imperfect vision of existence, of the existence of the soul, does not mean that there is no soul. The soul is there. Soul is there, and we can feel the presence of the soul by the symptom of consciousness. Consciousness. And that's a clear fact.
They restrict your bodily activities under certain conditions, under certain conditions. That is called morality. Just like your Bible has got ten commandments. Ten commandments. What is that commandments? To regulate your life. Because without regulation you cannot... Because we have to control the body to reach to the highest perfection. So if we don't follow any regulative principles, how we can make our life perfect? So that regulative principle may be a little, little different from my country to your country or my Veda to your Bible, but that does not matter. That is made according to the time, condition and the mentality of the population. But there is the regulative control. Regulative control. A human society is not considered civilized unless, unless and until the members of the society are put into some regulative control. The whole state, your American state or any state, the citizens are controlled by regulative principle. Without regulative principle, you cannot make the progressive march of the state or the people or the citizens.
Prabhupāda: Mental speculators are called muni. There are so many munis. Go on.
Tamāla Kṛṣṇa: "It is said that every muni has a different angle of vision, and unless one muni is different in view from another, he cannot be called a muni in the strict sense of the term. But a sthita-dhīr muni, the kind mentioned herein by the Lord is different from an ordinary muni. The sthita-dhīr muni is always in Kṛṣṇa consciousness for he has finished all his business with creative speculation. He is called praśānta-niḥśeṣa-mano-rathāntara, or one who has surpassed the stage of mental speculation and has come to the conclusion that Lord Sir Kṛṣṇa, Vāsudeva, is everything. He is called a muni fixed in mind. Such a fully Kṛṣṇa conscious person is not at all disturbed by the onslaughts of the threefold miseries, those due to nature, to other beings, and to the frailties of one's own body. Such a muni accepts all misery as the mercy of the Lord, thinking himself only worthy of more trouble due to his past misdeeds, and sees that his miseries, by the grace of the Lord, are minimized to the lowest. Similarly, when he is happy, he gives credit to the Lord, thinking himself unworthy of that happiness. He realizes that it is due only to the Lord's grace that he is in such a comfortable condition and thus able to render better service to the Lord. And for the service of the Lord..."
Prabhupāda: You mark this. When there is miseries, a Kṛṣṇa conscious person takes the responsibility himself, and when there is happiness, it is due to Kṛṣṇa. But the materialistic person is just the opposite. When he is in miseries, he'll say, "Oh, God has put me into such miseries." And when he's happiness, his friend says, "Oh, you are now well-to-do." "Yes, you do not know how much I have worked hard." When he's happiness, he takes the credit for himself, and when he's in distress, he gives the discredit to Kṛṣṇa. "Oh, Kṛṣṇa has put me into such miserable..." But a Kṛṣṇa conscious person, when he's in distress, he'll say, "Yes, due to my misdeeds I should have suffered a hundred times more than this distress, but Kṛṣṇa is so kind, He has given me little.
Yes, that is the way. That is the way of understanding. Just like I am in America. It is very easy to understand. I am not adopting any ways of life as the Americans do. So I am not in America. Not only myself, all my disciples who are following me, they are also not Americans. They're different from American behavior, American ways of life. In that sense I'm not in America. I am in Vṛndāvana because wherever I go in my apartment or in my temple I live with Kṛṣṇa and Kṛṣṇa consciousness. I don't accept any consciousness of America. And I teach my disciples also to take to that consciousness. So one who takes to that consciousness, he is also not in America, not in this world. It is... I have given this example many times. Just like a king and a bug is sitting on the same throne. The bug is biting and the king is ruling. It is not that because the bug is there on the throne, he is king, or the king is sitting with the bug, he is bug. Why this difference? Difference of consciousness. The king knows his duty. He is working in his duty; therefore he's king. And the bug knows his business, to bite; therefore he's bug. But sitting on the same place. But because due to different consciousness, one is bug, one is king. So if you take to Kṛṣṇa consciousness and if you remain in Kṛṣṇa consciousness, you don't belong to this world. You are no more bug, you are king.
We are consciousness undoubtedly, but we are not supreme consciousness. If we falsely claim that "I am also the supreme consciousness," that will be a false claim. We are not actually the supreme consciousness. Qualitatively, we are one. Qualitatively, we are one. The supreme consciousness and my consciousness is qualitatively one. But quantitatively, the supreme consciousness is different from individual consciousness. Individual consciousness is limited, and the supreme consciousness is unlimited. That... Just like you can think of your consciousness within this body... Whenever there is something painful or something itching in any part of my body, I am conscious of it. I know it, where and how it is being done. I do not know how it is being done, but I know where it is. So that consciousness, as I am conscious in any part of my body, but I am not conscious of your part of your body. Therefore my consciousness is limited. Similarly, you take the whole cosmic manifestation and the external body of the supreme consciousness. Therefore supreme consciousness is, I mean to say, conscious of anything which is taking part in any part of the conscious, supreme, I mean, manifestation. And you'll find in the Bhagavad-gītā that the supreme consciousness knows the past, present and future, but we, we are not, I mean to say, conversant in that way, that I know the present, past and future. That is my deficiency.
The beginning of our Bhagavad-gītā lesson is based on that we are spirit consciousness. We are not this body. And the whole function of the human society is to be enlightened in that spiritual consciousness of life instead of wasting time in sense gratification like the animals who are concerned with eating, sleeping, fearing, and mating. That is the background of our, this discussion, that we are different from the ordinary animals.
So the common factor of animal life and human life is these four principles of bodily demands, namely that we require to eat, and we require to sleep, we require some defensive measures for protecting ourself from the enemies, and we require some extent of sense gratification. That is the needs of my body. They are not the needs of my self as I am, spirit soul.
Now, if I want to get rid of this bodily encagement or the threefold miseries of material existence, then I must put myself under treatment. Just like a diseased man goes to a physician for treatment to get out of, get relief from the sufferings of the disease, similarly, our material existence consisting of threefold miseries and birth, death, old age, and diseases... If we are actually conscious for our happiness, we must make a permanent solution of these miseries. That is the mission of human life. So for making that mission fulfilled, we have got developed consciousness than the animals. That developed consciousness should not be misused only for the animal propensities of life. That is the whole thing.
Now people are trying to travel in the space, but the yogis can travel in the space very swiftly, more swifter than any sputnik. Just like the other day I narrated, the Durvāsā Muni traveled all over the space in the universe and outside the universe, and he came back within one year. So therefore Kṛṣṇa's another name is Yogeśvara. Yogeśvara. There are many yogis and many yogic principle, but Kṛṣṇa is the master of all yoga. So if ordinary yogis, they can display some wonders, so why not Kṛṣṇa? He is the Yogeśvara; He is the lord of all yogis. So by performance of this yoga-prakriya(?), or the yogic mystic powers, one cannot become God. God is different from all of them. So Kṛṣṇa was that God. So His manifestations, His work...
Now, here He says which I was going to explain from Vedic scripture. So Kṛṣṇa says, na me pārthāsti kartavyam: "I have nothing to do." He has nothing to do; still, He is so powerful? Yes. That is confirmed in the Vedic scripture, that Brahman, the nature of Brahman, is described like this, na tasya kāryam karaṇaṁ ca vidyate: "The nature of Brahman is that He has nothing to do." He has nothing to do. That is the difference between God and ourself. We have to do everything to achieve a certain aim, but God has nothing to do. Na tasya kāryaṁ karaṇaṁ ca vidyate na tat-samaś cābhyadhikaś ca dṛśyate: "And nobody is found who is equal to Him and or greater than Him." Nobody is found. These are the definition in the Vedic literature, that "God has nothing to do. Nobody is equal to Him, and nobody is greater than Him."
Prabhupāda: Yes, it is always existing. Those who are expert, they are seeing Him. Kṛṣṇa is... Just like Brahmā, Brahma-saṁhitā. He mentions Kṛṣṇa. Īśvaraḥ paramaḥ kṛṣṇaḥ (Bs. 5.1). So many, many Dvāpara-yugas before, many millions of Dvāpara-yugas before, he mentioned Kṛṣṇa. Do you understand it? Brahmā said. Brahmā is the first creature in the creation. Many millions of years ago he uttered this word, īśvaraḥ paramaḥ kṛṣṇaḥ (Bs. 5.1).
Indian (8): Is Lord Kṛṣṇa in the Bhagavad-gītā different from the one in Bhāgavatam?
Pūrṇimā-candra : Is Lord Kṛṣṇa in Bhagavad-gītā...
Prabhupāda: Kṛṣṇa is one.
Indian (9): May I ask a question, sir. The movement is very popular in the USA and few other countries. To my experience it is not quite popular... This is the country where originated... (break) ...not so much in India.
Prabhupāda: It is very popular here also. Otherwise why you have come here? (laughter)
In India there are disciplic successions. Now, so far we are concerned, we are following the disciplic succession. Just like Rāmānujācārya and the Madhvācārya and Nimbārka, Viṣṇu Svāmī. So we try to understand the Vedic literatures from our superior spiritual master. That is the process. Just like Arjuna is trying to understand from Bhagavad-gītā, or from Kṛṣṇa, similarly, if we want to understand Bhagavad-gītā, then we have to understand it from Arjuna, not from any other person.
If you have got any knowledge of Bhagavad-gītā, you have to see how does it tally with the understanding of Arjuna? That you'll find in the tenth chapter. If you find that, that you have understood in the same way as Arjuna understood it, Bhagavad-gītā, then your understanding of Bhagavad-gītā is right. Otherwise, if you have understood in a different way which is not corroborated by the understanding of Arjuna, then your understanding of Bhagavad-gītā is different from the Bhagavad-gītā as it is. This should be the criterion of your study.
Similarly, the intention of the Bhagavad-gītā is known by Kṛṣṇa, the author. So we have to understand the intention of the author. We cannot exact any meaning by our own scholarship which is different from the intention of the author. So anyone who is not in the disciplic succession, he cannot understand the intention of Kṛṣṇa, why this Bhagavad-gītā, why this yoga was imparted. You can... You are a good scholar. You can make a... something... Just like our president, Mr. Goldsmith, he knows that expert lawyers, by interpretation, they can do so many things. That is another thing. And in Calcutta, when I was in Calcutta, there was a rent tax passed by the government, and some expert lawyer changed the whole thing by his interpretation. The government had to reenact, you see, because the purpose was foiled by the interpretation of the lawyer. You see? So we are not out for foiling the purpose of Kṛṣṇa for which the Bhagavad-gītā is said. These persons, these unauthorized persons, they are practically trying to foil the purpose of Kṛṣṇa. Therefore, that is unauthorized. All right, Mr. Goldsmith, you can ask anything.
The fish has got a certain body to live in the water. You cannot live in the water. The fish cannot live on the land. That does not mean that it is impossible to live in the water. Similarly, because you cannot live in the fire, that does not mean for others it is impossible. This is foolishness. This is foolishness. The sun planet is there. It is made of fire. The bodies are so suitably made that those who have got this body, they can live there. Yasya prabhā prabhavato jagad-aṇḍa-koṭi-koṭiṣu vasudhādi-vibhūti-bhinnam (Bs. 5.40). Vibhūti. The atmosphere is different in every planet. Just like the atmosphere in the water is different from the land, but we know there are living entities within the water, on the land, on the air, within the earth, within the ether. Everywhere there is. Sarva-ga. Therefore living entity is called sarva-ga. The body is differently made. The spirit soul is the same. Your spirit soul, my spirit soul, is the same. But your body is called American body, my body is called Indian body. That is the difference. Just like you have got a different dress. I have got a different dress. Vāsāṁsi jīrṇāni yathā vi... The body is just like dress.
In the Bhagavad-gītā you will understand in the Thirteenth Chapter that Kṛṣṇa says, kṣetra-jñaṁ cāpi māṁ viddhi sarva-kṣetreṣu bhārata (BG 13.3). The living entity... I am living entity; you are living entity, every one of us. I am living in this body; you are living in this body. We have got different bodies. So Kṛṣṇa said that "The living entity is the proprietor or the knower of the particular body." But He says again, kṣetra-jñaṁ cāpi māṁ viddhi: "I am also knower of this particular body," sarva-kṣetreṣu bhārata, "in every body." Aṇḍāntara-stha-paramāṇu-cayāntara-stham (Bs. 5.35). He is in every body, in every atom. That is Kṛṣṇa.
Now I am living in my body. If there is pain here, I can understand, "Here is pain." But if there is some pain in your body, I cannot understand. Therefore I am different from you. But Kṛṣṇa can understand what is pain or pleasure in my body, and what is pain or pleasure in your body and everyone's body. That is Kṛṣṇa. Sarva-kṣetreṣu.
Just like you have got this body, American body, I have got this Indian body, and the dog has got dog body. These are all manufactured by the law of nature. According to my mind, according to my activities, the body is developed. But Kṛṣṇa's body is not like that. He appears. There is no distinction between His body and Himself. The same thing. The nondevotees, they cannot understand. They cannot understand that there is no difference between Kṛṣṇa and His body. We are different. I am soul, but I am different from this body. These things will be explained in this chapter of transcendental knowledge. Go on.
Madhudviṣa: "He is advaita, which means there is no distinction between His body and Himself. Everything is spirit, whereas the conditioned soul is different from His material body. And because the Lord is identical in His body and self, His position is always different from the ordinary living entities, even when He descends to the material platform. The demons cannot adjust themselves to this transcendental nature of the Lord, as the Lord explains in the following verse."
Prabhupāda: Therefore, if we try to understand God by our limited knowledge, it will be a failure. We have to understand God from God. Then that will be perfect knowledge. So this Bhagavad-gītā is the science of God where God is speaking about Himself. And it is accepted by all great scholars, philosophers, and, I mean to say, religionists, everyone.
Factually His appearance and disappearance are like the sun rising, moving before us and then disappearing from our eyesight. When the sun is out of sight, we think that the sun is dead. And when the sun is before our eyes, we think that the sun is on the horizon. Actually the sun is always there. But owing to our defective, insufficient eyesight we must calculate the appearance and disappearance of the sun in the sky. And because His appearance and disappearance are completely different from that of any ordinary common living entity, it is evident that He is eternal in blissful knowledge by His internal potency, and He is not contaminated by material nature. The Vedas confirm that the Supreme Personality of Godhead is unborn, and yet He still appears to be taking His birth in multi-manifestations. The Vedic supplementary literature also confirms that even though the Lord appears to be taking His birth, He is still without change of body. In the Bhāgavatam He appears before His mother as Nārāyaṇa with four hands and the decorations of the six kinds of full opulences. His appearance in His original eternal form is His causeless mercy, according to the Viśvakośa dictionary.
Now from this verse, Kṛṣṇa says that tāny ahaṁ veda sarvāṇi. That means "For Me, there is no past and present and future." That means His body is different from Arjuna's. Because He knows... Why I forget? Because I have got this material body. And Kṛṣṇa does not forget, therefore He has no material body. It is natural conclusion. Because past, present, and future is due to this material body. Otherwise, there is no... Just like for the sun. These are all scientific truth. You know when from Russia the first sputnik was started, in one hour they circumambulated twenty-five times the whole world. In one hour and twenty-five minutes. Now the circumambulating the whole world means so many twenty-five day and night. That twenty-five day and night was finished in one hour. And it is scientific truth. Professor Einstein has established that in the higher planetary system the timing system is different.
Pradyumna: "Actually, the sun is always in its fixed position, but owing to our defective, insufficient senses, we calculate the appearance and disappearance of the sun in the sky. And because His appearance and disappearance are completely different from that of any ordinary common living entity, it is evident that He is eternal blissful knowledge by His internal potency, and He is never contaminated by material nature. The Vedas also confirm that the Supreme Personality of Godhead is unborn. Yet, He still appears to take His birth in multi-manifestations. The Vedic supplementary literatures also confirm that even though the Lord appears to be taking His birth, He is still without change of body. In the Bhāgavatam, He appears before His mother as Nārāyaṇa with four hands and the decoration of the six kinds of full opulences. His appearance in His original eternal form is His causeless mercy, according to the Viśvakośa dictionary. The Lord is conscious of all of His previous appearances and disappearances, but a common living entity forgets everything about his past body as soon as he gets another body. He is the Lord of all living entities because He performs wonderful and superhuman activities while He is on this earth. Therefore the Lord is always the same Absolute Truth, and is without differentiation between His form and self or between His quality and body. The question may now be raised as to why the Lord appears and disappears in His form. This is explained in the next verse."
Prabhupāda: Thank you very much. Hare Kṛṣṇa. (end)
That is real dharma. Just like the spirit soul is eternal, similarly, the spirit soul's natural occupation is also eternal. That cannot be changed. But when the spirit soul identifies himself with this body and the mind, that is changed. Just like at the present moment you have got American body. So your dharma or your occupational duty is different from another body. And the next life, if you change this body, you become say other animal or human being, then your occupational duty changes. But if you stick up to the spiritual platform, then that service mood to the Supreme Personality of Godhead will never change, either in this body or next body.
Similarly, religion means love of Godhead. Now, that love of Godhead you may learn under certain process. I may learn under certain process. Just like love between boys and girls may be different from India to America. In India there is still. No young man can mix freely with a young girl, but still, there is love. So process may be different, but we have to accept the basic principle. Basic principle is love of God. That is religion. Don't bother about the ritualistic process. Just try to see how much you are increasing your love of God. Then you are religious. That's all.
That is bhāgavata-dharma. Śrīmad-Bhāgavata says, sa vai puṁsāṁ paro dharmo yato bhaktir adhokṣaje: (SB 1.2.6) "That is first-class religion." What is that? "Where love of God is enthused." That is first-class religion. And if you follow ritualistic processes and your love of Godhead is gone to hell—your love of materialistic life or love of this world is increasing, love of sense gratification is increasing—that is not religion. That is not religion. Test of religion is how much you are increasing your love of God.
The difference between the appearance of God and appearance of myself is that I appear in different bodies as it is offered by the material nature according to my karma; God appears in His own original body. That is the difference. And because God appears in His own original body, therefore He is not forgetful of the past, present and future. And so far we are concerned, because we appear in different material bodies, therefore we forget our past, present and future. This is the difference. And in this verse it is specifically mentioned here that janma karma me divyam (BG 4.9). Divyam means divine, spiritual, transcendental. Our appearance and disappearance is different from the Lord's appearance and disappearance.
So that spiritual nature is described in the Bhagavad-gītā. You will get information. Paras tasmāt tu bhāvo 'nyo 'vyakto 'vyaktāt sanātanaḥ (BG 8.20). That nature is called sanātana. Sanātana means eternal. As we have got this body, your body, my body, or anyone's body, it is temporary, similarly, this material nature is temporary. Temporary means it has a beginning, it stays for some time, then it transforms, then it becomes old, and it vanquishes. The spiritual nature, however, is different from this nature. The spiritual nature has no beginning, neither it has end. That is called sanātana, eternal. We living entities, we belong to that spiritual nature. Therefore, about us, it is described in the Bhagavad-gītā, na jāyate na mriyate vā kadācit: "The spiritual spirit soul is never born, neither dies at any time." Nityaḥ śāśvato 'yaṁ na hanyate hanyamāne śarīre (BG 2.20). It is farther described that "This spiritual spark, which you are, I am, it is..." Na hanyate hanyamāne śarīre: (BG 2.20) "When the body is destroyed, the spiritual spark, that does not destroy. That remains eternal."
Why so? Now, because we are part and parcel of God. Mamaivāṁśo jīva-bhūtaḥ jīva-loke sanātanaḥ (BG 15.7). We are part and parcel of God. The example is: just like this finger is the part and parcel of my body, so the strength of the finger is not as big as the whole body strength. It is very easily understood. The bodily strength is different from the finger's strength. The finger is also part and parcel of this body. If I say... If you ask, "What is this?" if I say, "It is my body," so there is no mistake. It is part of the body. But it is not the whole body. The whole body is different. Therefore God and the living entity, they are the same quality, but quantity different.
So in the Vedas the description is there about God and ourselves. Nityo nityānāṁ cetanaś cetanānām eko yo bahūnāṁ vidadhāti kāmān (Kaṭha Upaniṣad 2.2.13). What is God? God means He is the chief, nitya, chief. Nitya means eternal. Nityānām. There are millions and millions, unlimited. Nityānām, this is plural number. That we are, living entity. We are also nitya. We are also eternal and God is also eternal. But He is the chief eternal. Nityo nityānāṁ cetanaś cetanānām. He is also living entity, we are also living entities, but He is the chief living entity.
And that is not the fact. Real fact is that I am sac-cid-ānanda-vigraha (Bs. 5.1), part and parcel of the Supreme. The Supreme Lord is sac-cid-ānanda-vigraha, and I am qualitatively one with Him. I am also, although I am small... Just like a particle of the sea water, that is also salty. That is also salty. The taste of a small drop of sea water is the same as the taste of the big, vast, big ocean of the, Atlantic Ocean. So the quality is the same. Similarly, I may be small. I may be a spiritual atom. My position is that I am spiritual atom, and the Supreme Spirit is all, the greatest, but that does not mean I am different from the quality. I am of the same quality. So I am not void. Na hanyate hanyamāne śarīre (BG 2.20).
If by frustration one commits suicide, oh, that is not the end of his miseries. He creates another misery. He creates another misery by committing suicide. Just like here, in the state law, if somebody attempts suicide and takes some poison, and if by treatment of the physician he's all right, he's again under the law, to be punished. Perhaps you know it. After curing him from that poisonous effect, he is under criminal code of the state: "Why you have attempted suicide?" Similarly, in the laws of nature, if you commit suicide, that is another criminal act. So suicidal policy, to end this misery of life, is not all. We must have, I mean to say, greater life.
And we get a different type of body. That is going on. In the śāstra it is said, karmaṇā daiva-netreṇa jantur dehopapattaye (SB 3.31.1). Jantuḥ, of the living entity.... We are getting different types of bodies. Just like we are sitting, so many people, ladies and gentlemen. Everyone's bodily feature is different from the other. So why there are different features? We are all human being. Why we have got different types of bodies? Not only in human society. The animal society, the bird society.... It is all karmaṇā, by our personal fruitive action. Karmaṇā daiva-netreṇa. This law we do not know. We work irresponsibly without knowing the result of our work. Therefore we are getting different types of bodies, different types of situation, different type of occupation, so many things. Therefore people should be trained, as Kṛṣṇa said in the beginning, that cātur-varṇyaṁ mayā sṛṣṭaṁ guṇa-karma-vibhāgaśaḥ (BG 4.13).
So this is Vedic civilization. Don't be carried away. Take lesson from Bhagavad-gītā and make your life successful. That is the propaganda of this Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement. Don't become cats and dogs and advertise yourself as paṇḍita. These are the definition of paṇḍita. Either take you from Cāṇakya Paṇḍita's materialistic point of view, moral lessons, or spiritual lessons from Bhagavad-gītā, the definition of paṇḍita is different from the so-called paṇḍitas, having... That is... They are called māyayāpahṛta-jñānāḥ. Although they have got degrees of the universities, but actually, knowledge is taken away by māyā.
- na māṁ duṣkṛtino mūḍhāḥ
- prapadyante narādhamāḥ
- āsuraṁ bhāvam āśritāḥ
- (BG 7.15)
If one becomes atheist, then his knowledge has no value. Because real knowledge is... As Kṛṣṇa says, bahūnāṁ janmanām ante jñānavān māṁ prapadyate (BG 7.19). This is real knowledge.
Just like I am an Indian sannyāsī. I have come to your country, at your country. Oh, there are many rules and regulations in India which is different from your rules and regulations. But if I follow, if I stick to rules and regulations of Indian conception, then it is impossible to remain here. So I have to propagate this mission, Kṛṣṇa consciousness, so I am not so much attached to the rules and regulations, but I am attached to the preaching work. So therefore niyamāgraha. Atyāhāraḥ prayāsaś ca prajalpo niyamāgrahaḥ (NOI 2). This four, this niyamāgraha, is also against Kṛṣṇa consciousness. And niyamāgraha. And when you are in a quite convenient position, if you do not observe the rules and regulations, that is also against Kṛṣṇa consciousness. Atyāhāraḥ prayāsaś ca prajalpo niyamāgrahaḥ.
Harikeśa: Purport. "How activities in Kṛṣṇa consciousness can lead one ultimately to the spiritual goal is described here." (break)
Prabhupāda: So discuss any question.
Yogeśvara: Sometimes we speak of the material energy as being different from the spiritual energy and other times we speak of all energies being ultimately spiritual, so what is the understanding?
Prabhupāda: Just like the electricity energy, is coming from the same source. But it is being utilized for different purposes. Sometimes it is helping to make cooler, and sometimes it is helping to make heater. But cooler and heater are two opposite things. But it is being done by the same energy. How it is being done?
In the Vedānta-sūtra it is said janmādy asya yataḥ (SB 1.1.1). Brahma or absolute truth is that from where everything is emanating. Kṛṣṇa says in the Bhagavad-gītā, ahaṁ sarvasya prabhavaḥ (BG 10.8). "I am the source of everything." Mattaḥ sarvaṁ pravartate. "Everything is coming from Me." So in another place, to make further clear, bhūmir āpo 'nalo vāyuḥ khaṁ mano buddhir eva ca (BG 7.4). Bhinnā me prakṛtir aṣṭadhā. "These eight energies, they are My energies." Aṣṭadhā, eight. Earth, water, air fire, sky, mind, intelligence, ego. Bhinnā separated.
So if I am part and parcel of God, therefore the qualities which I have got, then God has got the same quality. Now you study yourself. Then you can understand what is God. The same qualities are there, but it is unlimited; ours are limited. It is not difficult to understand God. Why they are bewildered to understand God? God is also... And it is confirmed in Bhagavad-gītā and all Vedic literature. God is just like us, a person, an individual person, but very powerful. That is the difference. My power... There are different kinds of power. Your power is different from another man. Another man's is different from another man, another man, go on, go on, go on. When you find the supreme man or Supreme Personality, He is God.
Very nice description in the Brahma-saṁhitā, īśvaraḥ paramaḥ kṛṣṇaḥ (Bs. 5.1). Every individual person is trying to control, to become controller. Just like somebody tries to become president of your state. What is the idea behind? To become controller. They are spending millions of dollars to get that post. So I want to become very rich businessman like Rockefeller or Ford. What is the idea? To become controller. I want to rule over my family members, I want to be controller. If I have nobody to control, I get some dog to control. This is my, I mean to say, intuition. I want to control. So everyone is controller in different degrees. And the Brahma-saṁhitā says that God is supreme controller. That's all. He is also controller. But there is nobody else who can control Him. He controls everything. Īśvaraḥ paramaḥ kṛṣṇaḥ (Bs. 5.1). Īśvara means controller. Parama means the supreme. Very nice, very simple description of God.
Yes. Simply if you understand that "I have got also the, what is called, intuition to control, and God is the supreme controller," simply if you understand this, then immediately you become liberated, simply if you understand He is the supreme controller, He is the Supreme Person, simply this understanding. That is stated in the beginning of this transcendental knowledge. Janma karma (ca) me divyaṁ yo jānāti tattvataḥ (BG 4.9). God also working. He is also creating; I am also creating. I am creating a sputnik, a toy planet, and God is creating innumerable, unlimited planets. That is the difference. I can also create something, but that is not as good creative power as God. But I have got some creative power. I have got the tendency for enjoyment. Similarly, God has got the tendency for enjoyment. So there is nothing different from you, God. Only the difference is that He is unlimited; I am limited. I am very small; He is very great. He is infinite; I am infinitesimal.
Male devotee (2): Was there a Vaiṣṇava calendar which originated in Vedic culture which is different from our calendar that we use today?
Prabhupāda: Is there any calendar study just now, we? Why do you ask about calendar now? We are not discussing about calendar. When we discuss about calendar, you put that question. It is not very important question now. That means you are not attentively hearing. You are thinking of calendar. You should be very
attentive: "What discussions are going on?" Calendar is not very important discussion in this meeting. Yes?
Madhudviṣa: Prabhupāda, in the purport...
Prabhupāda: Our question, inviting question, means we have discussed something—if there is any difficulty, to clear that, not to bring some other question which can be put later on. Otherwise anyone can put any question. Oh, this is not an assembly of answering questions. This is assembly to understand what we are studying. Yes. Go on.
So sāṅkhya-yogau pṛthag bālāḥ pravadanti na paṇḍitāḥ. So any, any type of spiritual realization, they are different forms. "You are, you are Hindu? Oh, I am, I am Christian." "Oh, you are Christian? I am Muhammadan." So these conceptions, that "I am different from you," that is not for the learned. The learned one is hankering after the Supreme Truth. Never mind. Either you go through Bible, or go through Bhagavad-gītā, or go through this Koran, that doesn't matter. What is the aim of your life? If your aim of life is to understand the Absolute Truth, then there is no difference. But if your aim is something else, then you find some difference from Bhagavad-gītā to Bible, Bible to Koran, Koran to something else. So Kṛṣṇa says that sāṅkhya-yoga. Either you take sāṅkhya-yoga or sāṅkhya or this karma-yoga, anything, there is no difference. Because the, everything is trying to give you the ultimate Absolute Truth.
He has no connection. Just like a bank cashier. He is sitting on the cash counter, and millions of dollars are coming to him, but he has no connection with it. Ātma-śuddhaye. Because he is yoga-yukta. He knows that "I am different from this money." He's all right. So by Kṛṣṇa consciousness, one who is a yogi, yogi... Yoginaḥ karma kurvanti saṅgaṁ tyaktvātma-śuddhaye. Ātma-śuddhaye. Karma. They work for ātma-śuddhi.
Just like we are working here. This is also work. We are reading. We are singing. This is also work, a sort of work. The same thing can be done in a club, in musical. But here the music is for ātma-śuddhaye, for purifying the soul. We are also eating, but for purifying the soul. So no work is different from the ordinary man, and the members of the society, they are also doing in the same way. They are also going to the store, purchasing things and preparing foodstuff, offering to Kṛṣṇa and eating. It appears that they are also eating, they are also sleeping, they are also working. But here everything is for ātma-śuddhaye. It is under such a regulation that one is becoming purer and purer and purer and purer. So yoginaḥ karma kurvanti saṅgaṁ tyaktvā. It has no connection with the material conception of life. Everything with Kṛṣṇa concept of our life.
The same example again. Just like the sunshine, the sun disk and the sun-god within the sun disk. They are the same thing, light. But there is difference of degrees. The light and temperature which you feel in the sunshine is different from the light and temperature in the sun disk. And the light or temperature in the sun disk is different from the light and temperature of the sun-god. But they are all light. Similarly, Absolute Truth is one, light, but there are degrees. If you become attached to impersonal Brahman, you simply enjoy the eternity feature of the Absolute Truth. If you simply try to understand the Supersoul by meditation, then you realize the eternity and knowledge aspect of the Absolute Truth. But if you realize the Supreme Personality of Godhead, then you realize eternity, knowledge, and bliss, three things. Because without being connected with Kṛṣṇa or the Supreme Personality of Godhead there is no possibility of enjoying transcendental bliss. In the impersonal Brahman you can remain there eternally. In Paramātmā you can have knowledge but in Bhagavān you have eternity, knowledge and transcendental bliss.
Devotee (2): It says in the Bhagavad-gītā that the om sound, oṁkāra, is a representation of Kṛṣṇa.
Devotee (2): Is it different from the Hare Kṛṣṇa mantra?
Devotee (2): No. Would it have the same meaning?
Prabhupāda: Not same effect. If you chant om, then you go to impersonal Brahman. But if you chant Kṛṣṇa, then you reach Kṛṣṇa, person. Just now I explained Bhagavān..., Brahman, Paramātmā, and Bhagavān. If you chant om, then you reach Brahman or Paramātmā. But if you chant Kṛṣṇa, then you reach Kṛṣṇa, Bhagavān.
That is his constitutional position. Either in the spiritual sky or material sky, he's the same. But as you develop in the material world a material body, similarly in the spiritual world you can develop a spiritual body. You follow? Your position is that small particle, but spirit can expand. This expansion in the material world is being done in contact with matter. And in the spiritual world, that expansion can be done in spirit. Here in the material world I am spirit soul. I am different from this body because this body is matter and I am living. I am living force, but this material body is not living force. And in the spiritual world there is everything living force. There is no dead matter. Therefore the body is also spiritual. Just like water with water, water, that's all. But water and oil—distinction. Similarly, I am spirit soul, I am the oil. So I am in the water, so there is distinction. But if I am put into the oil, then everything's all right. So the impersonalists, they do not develop body. They simply remain as spirit particle. That is their idea. But we Vaiṣṇava, we want to serve Kṛṣṇa, therefore we require hands, legs and mouth and tongue, everything. So we are giving such body. As you are getting this body from the womb of the mother, similarly we get body in the spiritual world. Not from the womb of the mother, but there is process to get, you can get.
Yes. There are two stages. One who is practicing yoga to reach to the perfectional platform and one who has attained the perfectional platform. So, so long one is not on the perfectional platform, just trying to do, at that time there are so many works. That āsana system, yama, niyama. So generally in your country there are so many yoga societies. They display this āsana system. How to sit down, different postures. That helps. But that is the process simply to get onto the real platform. They are simply means. Real yoga system perfection is different from those bodily gymnastic process. There are two stages. One stage is trying to reach the perfectional platform, and another stage is one who has reached the perfectional platform. Go on.
Yes. This is the beginning of transcendental life. This chapter, Lord Kṛṣṇa will try to teach the principles of yoga system. So here he begins. That a transcendentalist should always try to concentrate his mind on the supreme self. Supreme self means Kṛṣṇa or Lord. He is the supreme self, as I just explained, nityo nityānāṁ cetanaś cetanānām (Kaṭha Upaniṣad 2.2.13). He is the supreme eternal. He is the supreme living entity. So the whole yoga system is to concentrate mind on the supreme self. We are not supreme self. That you can understand. Supreme self is God. This is dvaita-vāda. Duality. Duality means God is different from me. He is supreme. I am subordinate. He is great, I am small. He is infinite, I am infinitesimal. This is the relationship. So because we are infinitesimal, we should concentrate our mind to the infinite, supreme self. Then, he should live alone. Alone. This is most important thing. Alone means not to live with persons who are not Kṛṣṇa conscious or God conscious. That is alone. He should live alone in a secluded place. Secluded place, there are, or, in the jungle. In the forest. It is very secluded place. But in this age it is very difficult to go to the jungle and find out a secluded place. The secluded place is that where simply God consciousness is taught. That is secluded place. That is secluded place. Then? And should always carefully control his mind. How to control the mind? Just fix up your mind to the supreme self or Kṛṣṇa. Not anything else.
Devotee: "Arjuna said: 'What is the destination of a man of faith who does not persevere? Who in the beginning takes to the process of self-realization but who later desists due to worldly mindedness and thus does not attain perfection in mysticism?' " Purport: "The path of self-realization of mysticism is described in the Bhagavad-gītā. The basic principle of self-realization is knowledge that the living entity is not this material body but that he is different from it and his happiness is in eternal life, bliss and knowledge."
Prabhupāda: Now, before coming to the point of self-realization, one must take it granted—that is the beginning of Bhagavad-gītā, that he is not this body. That the living entity is not this material body but that he is different from it and his happiness is in eternal life. This life is not eternal. The perfection of yoga system means to get eternal life, blissful life and full of knowledge. That is perfection. So we have to execute any yoga system with that aim. Not that I attend some yoga class to reduce fat or to keep my body very fit for sense gratification. This is not the end of yoga system. But people are taught like that. "Oh, if you practice this yoga system." That you can do if you undergo any exercise process your body will be kept fit.
And actually, if we are not getting some spiritual enlightenment by chanting Kṛṣṇa then do you think that we are simply wasting our time? No. We're not wasting our time. We're actually getting spiritual ecstasy because there is no difference. But you take similarly, the name of water or something else, what you want, that will not be fulfilled. This is the absolute and relative conception. In the absolute stage there is no difference, name, quality, form, pastime, entourage, everything the same. If you chant Kṛṣṇa's name it is as good as Kṛṣṇa. If you see Kṛṣṇa's form it is as good as Kṛṣṇa. If you think of Kṛṣṇa's activities it is as good as Kṛṣṇa. This realization is spiritual realization. Therefore a first-class devotee who is advanced in Kṛṣṇa consciousness, he sees everything Kṛṣṇa. Nothing different from Kṛṣṇa. Any other questions?
That is bhakti-yoga. Because they accept God. Unless you accept God there is no question of bhakti-yoga. So Christian religion is also Vaiṣṇavism because they accept God. Maybe in the, some stage different from this. There are different stages of God realization also. The Christian religion says "God is great." Accept! That is very good. But just how great God is, that you can understand from Bhagavad-gītā and Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam. But there is acceptance that God is great. That is therefore that is beginning of bhakti. You can apply that bhakti. Even the Mohammedan religion. That is also bhakti-yoga. Any religion where God is the target, that is applied in bhakti. But when there is no God or impersonalism, there is no question of bhakti-yoga. Bhakti-yoga means bhaja jayukti bhaja-sevayā(?). Service. Service means three things: the servitor, the served, and service. One must be present who will accept service. And one must be present to render service. And in the via media, the process of service. So bhakti-yoga means service. If there is nobody to accept the service, then where is the bhakti-yoga? So any philosophy or religious principle where there is no acceptance of God, the Supreme, there is no application of bhakti. Yes.
Just like you have a gold mine and you are preparing so many golden utensils, ornaments and many other things, but they are all gold because the origin is gold. Similarly, you may name it as "earring," but you have to add "gold" earring. You may name it as "necklace," but "gold." Because originally it is coming from the gold mine. Similarly, originally, everything is coming from Kṛṣṇa. Janmādy asya yataḥ (SB 1.1.1). Because if He is Supreme, He is Absolute Truth, then nothing is different from Him. Just like either you say earrings or necklace or bangle or wristwatch, if they are all made of gold, they are gold. But you cannot say at the same time, "This is gold, this is gold." This is gold necklace. If you say that "Why necklace? It is gold..." The Māyāvādī philosophers say, "Everything is gold. Everything is Brahman." No. "Everything is Brahman" is all right, but it is this...
That is the mistake of civilization. We think everything in our own standard. Ātmavat manyate jagat. That is the nature, that ātmavat, what he is thinking of himself, therefore, others must be like that. No. Others may be different from you. So, similarly, you will find so many differences in so many planets. Their habits, their mode of living, civilization, standard of living is completely different. Even in this planet, if we find, the standard of living in America is different from the standard of living in South America or Africa or India, so why not in other planets?
What you have to learn? What is knowledge? Five things you have to learn. What is your experience within this world? You have experience, this material nature. You are seeing this. That's a fact. And you are seeing also... (aside:) Thank you. Come on. You are experiencing also the living entities, so many living entities. That's a fact. So material nature is a fact, the living entities, they are also fact, and there is some controller of this material nature and the living entities. That is also fact. You cannot say that you are the controller or material nature is controller. There is a supreme controller. That is God. That is also another fact. And time. The... Everything is done within time. Time is also a different, relative measure according to the... Your time is different from the time of another animal or another living entity. Just like Brahmā's time. You cannot calculate one day of Brahmā because your time and his time is different. Similarly, a small microbic animal, his time and your time is different. So he cannot calculate your time. So time is relative.
That I have already explained. Time is relative. (break) Time is eternal. Eternal. But it is... Just like Brahmā's duration of time. That is... According to our calculation, that is eternal, many, many millions of years. But Brahmā is also subjected to birth and death. Although time is eternal, but within this material world we are not eternal on account of material contamination. But time is eternal. Time is eternal; God is eternal; you are also eternal, living entity. Simply our work is not eternal. That can be changed. That we are... Changing our work... Suppose in this life you are American. Your work is different from the China. But next time, when you change your body to something else, your work changes. In this body you are human being. Next time, if you become a dog or a demigod, then your work changes. So we are changing our work according to the change of the body. Therefore work is not eternal. So our whole material existence is due to different kinds of work. So if we make the work also eternal, that is Kṛṣṇa consciousness activities. Then we come to the eternal. But in the material existence our work is not eternal. We have understood that "I am not this body." Theoretically. If not practically, theoretically because we have heard from Bhagavad-gītā that dehino 'smin yathā dehe kaumāraṁ yauvanaṁ jarā: (BG 2.13) "As the soul is changing the body every moment..." And I am not this body. The body is changing.
There... Here is another point. We have to learn by listening from somebody. Tad-vijñānārthaṁ sa gurum eva abhigacchet (MU 1.2.12). We approach guru for hearing from him the truth. Just like child listens from the parents and he learns to speak, he learns to know what is what. The father says, "This is dish"; the child also says, "This is dish." The father says, "This is spoon"; the child also says, "This is spoon." So he learns by hearing. "Mother language" means if the child is handed over to some other person whose mother, whose language is different from the mother, he'll learn, from the very beginning he'll learn that language.
So our recommendation is... Not our; it is the recommendation of Sri Caitanya Mahāprabhu, who inaugurated or revitalized this Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement five hundred years ago in Bengal as Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu. He says, nāmnām akāri bahudhā nija sarva śaktis, tatrārpitā niyamitaḥ smaraṇe na kālaḥ. Nāmnām akāri: the name and person whose name. Because God is absolute, there is no difference between His name and He Himself. Just like in this material calculation, if you want water, simply by chanting "water, water," you won't get water. The water substance is different from the name "water." But God being absolute, His name, His form, His quality, His entourage, they are all the same, as good as God. So if you associate with any one of them, either God personally or with His name or with His form or with His quality or with His paraphernalia, immediately you become in contact with God. This is the science.
So this is commonsense understanding. People do not understand it, very nice common sense, that the body is changing but the soul is there. Exactly the same example: the mother knows that "My boy, my child, although he has changed body, now he has grown-up, say, fifty years old, but my child he is. He is my child." Where is the difficulty to understand? Anyone can understand. But people do not believe in the transmigration of the soul. Yasyātma-buddhiḥ kuṇape tri-dhātuke (SB 10.84.13). This kind of education, what is the value? The real knowledge begins when we understand that we are not this body, material body. I am different from body.
- dehino 'smin yathā dehe
- kaumāraṁ yauvanaṁ jarā
- tathā dehāntara-prāptir
- dhīras tatra na muhyati
- (BG 2.13)
This is our position. Then, when we understand that "I am not this body, I am spirit soul," ahaṁ brahmāsmi, then real knowledge begins. Otherwise, so long we are in the bodily concept of life, we are animals. Because animal cannot think that the animal is not the body.
What is that sac-cid-ānanda-vigraha? Sat means eternal, cit means full of knowledge, and ānanda means blissfulness. But so far my body is concerned, your body is concerned, they are not sac-cid-ānanda-vigraha. My body, your body, will not exist. Therefore it is asat. It is not sat. My body, your body is full of ignorance. Therefore, it is not cit. It is acit. And my body, your body is not at all pleasing. There are so many troubles. Therefore it is not ānanda. Therefore Kṛṣṇa's body is different from us. Therefore He is controller. We think, "If Kṛṣṇa has got a body, then He must have a body like us." Avajānanti māṁ mūḍhā mānuṣīṁ tanum āśritam (BG 9.11). "These mūḍhas, rascals, because I appear before them to give them the lesson about God, what is God, these rascals think of Me as one of them." This is rascaldom. Avajānanti māṁ mūḍhā mānuṣīṁ tanum āśritam, paraṁ bhāvam ajānantaḥ (BG 9.11). That sac-cid-ānanda-vigraha (Bs. 5.1) can control the whole material nature—that they do not know. Paraṁ bhāvam ajānantaḥ.
The spiritual form is there. That is realization of Brahman, ahaṁ brahmāsmi. The Vedic injunction is just to understand that I am not this body. If anyone is under the concept of this body—"I am this body," "I am Hindu," "I am Muslim," "I am Christian," "I am American," "I am Indian"—in this way, with the bodily concept of life, we are thinking we are different from one another. At the same time, we desire that there may be unity of the human society, of the human being, and we can live peacefully. That is very desirable thing. That is the thing we require to understand. But so long we are on the bodily concept of life, this goal cannot be achieved.
Go means cow, and kharaḥ means asses. So yasya ātma-buddhiḥ: "A person who thinks himself ātma-buddhiḥ, as 'I am this body...' " Yasyātma-buddhiḥ kuṇape tri-dhātuke. This body is made of tri-dhātu, three dhātus: kapha, pitta, vāyu. "So this kapha, pitta, vāyu, this body, I am not this body." This is self-realization. "I am different from this bag of flesh and bone." When we realize completely, that is the first point of self-realization.
In the Second Chapter of the Bhagavad-gītā Kṛṣṇa has begun the philosophy of Bhagavad-gītā from this point, that "I am not this body." This is the beginning of spiritual knowledge. So long we are entrapped with the bodily concept of life, there is no question of spiritual life. That is the beginning. What is that? Dehino 'smin yathā dehe kaumāraṁ yauvanaṁ jarā, tathā dehāntara-prāptiḥ (BG 2.13). The soul, the spirit soul, dehī, one who possesses the deha, body... Just like gṛhī. Gṛhī means one who remains in a home. He is called gṛhī, gṛhastha. Gṛhastha. Gṛha, the room or the apartment, and stha, who is staying there with husband, wife, children—he is called gṛhastha. But the gṛhī is not the person who is staying within the gṛha. He is different from the gṛha. Similarly, dehī and deha. Deha means this body, and dehī means who lives within the body. That is first of all explained. Dehinaḥ asmin dehe: "In this body there is the resident of the body." That is soul. That is the beginning of spiritual knowledge. Dehino 'smin yathā dehe kaumāraṁ yauvanaṁ jarā, tathā dehāntara-prāptiḥ (BG 2.13).
Just like Kṛṣṇa. Kṛṣṇa says that bhoktāraṁ yajña-tapasāṁ sarva-loka-maheśvaram (BG 5.29). He is the proprietor of all the lokas. Lokas means where the people or living entities live. So there are so many planets. Everywhere there are living entities. Oṁ bhūr bhuvaḥ svaḥ tat savitur vareṇyam. There are Bhūrloka, Bhuvarloka, Svarloka, Janaloka, Maharloka, Tapoloka, Satyaloka, Brahmaloka. Seven, fourteen planetary system. Then down: Tala, Atala, Vitala, Talātala, Pātāla, Rasātala. There are so many. This is only one universe. There are millions of universes. Yasya prabhā prabhavato jagad-aṇḍa-koṭi (Bs. 5.40). Koṭi, we Indians understand, millions. There are millions of universes. Yasya prabhā prabhavato jagad-aṇḍa-koṭi-koṭiṣv aśeṣa-vasudhādi-vibhūti-bhinnam (Bs. 5.40). And each and every universe there are millions of planets, and each planet is different from the other.
So Kṛṣṇa spoke. These are natural, as it is, conclusion. You cannot interpret. So therefore conclusion is: Kṛṣṇa's body is different from us. One who does not know, rascal, he thinks that Kṛṣṇa is like ourself. Kṛṣṇa, how He can be like ourself? If He entered the sun planet and spoke to the president of the sun planet, then His body is different. Therefore Kṛṣṇa says, avajānanti māṁ mūḍhā mānuṣīṁ tanum āśritam: (BG 9.11) "Because I look just like a human being, the rascal think of Me, I am an ordinary man." Therefore the conclusion is: one who thinks of Kṛṣṇa as one of us, he is a fool, he is a rascal. Kṛṣṇa's body is explained in the śāstra, Vedic. What is that body? Sac-cid-ānanda-vigrahaḥ. Īśvaraḥ paramaḥ kṛṣṇaḥ sac-cid-ānanda-vigrahaḥ (Bs. 5.1).
Īśvaraḥ paramaḥ kṛṣṇaḥ sac-cid-ānanda-vigrahaḥ (Bs. 5.1). He is not nirākāra; vigraha. Vigraha means form, but His form is different from our form. Therefore He is described as sac-cid-ānanda. Sat means eternal, cit means full of knowledge, and ānanda means full of transcendental bliss, eternal bliss. The beginning is eternal, so eternal life, eternal complete full knowledge and eternal bliss; this is the composition of Kṛṣṇa's body. But mūḍhas, rascals, they think of Kṛṣṇa as ordinary human being. Avajānanti māṁ mūḍhā mānuṣīṁ tanum āśritam (BG 9.11). Fools and rascals, mūḍhāḥ—mūḍhāḥ means fools and rascals—because they see that Kṛṣṇa is incarnation just like ordinary human being: cousin of Arjuna or nephew of Kuntī, like that. Paraṁ bhāvam ajānantaḥ, Kṛṣṇa comes just like ordinary human being, but that does not mean He is ordinary human being. Therefore Vyāsadeva says bhagavān uvāca. If you consider Kṛṣṇa as ordinary human being, then you are missing the point. And I have already given the definition of Bhagavān.
There is no duality. There is one, Kṛṣṇa. But you have created duality. That is māyā. When you forget Kṛṣṇa, that is duality. When you think that there is something else other than Kṛṣṇa, that is duality. So people are not coming to Kṛṣṇa consciousness, that is duality. They are thinking that "We can be happy without Kṛṣṇa." That is duality. If they know it perfectly well that "Kṛṣṇa is one, and therefore my interest is with Kṛṣṇa. My interest should not be different from Kṛṣṇa's interest," that is oneness. Just like in a family the head is the father. So if anyone acts according to the head of the family, there is no duality. If some of the members says, "No. I'll act like this," there is duality. So if every one acts according to the desire of Kṛṣṇa, there is no duality. There is oneness. But we don't act; therefore there is duality. Therefore duality is māyā. So you have question? All right.
He is now entrapped by māyā, and he is trying to enjoy this material world, but he cannot enjoy the material world without the permission of the Supersoul. Anumantā upadraṣṭā. So they are not one. They are different. And Kṛṣṇa has described in the Second Chapter that "All these soldiers or kings who are assembled there and you and Me, all of us..." Now see. He describes all of them differently: "You, me and they." First person, second person and the third person. So Kṛṣṇa said, "It is not that they did not exist in the past, and it is not that, that they will not exist in the future." So always, in the past, in the present and in future, the living entities, individual soul, is always different from the Supreme. They are never homogeneous or mixed up. That is not possible. Mamaivāṁśo jīva-bhūtaḥ sanātanaḥ (BG 15.7). It is not that now we have become separated. Means sanātana, eternally we are different. And besides that, how we can be separated?
So there are many evidences in the Vedic literature that the spiritual energy is different from the material energy. And if you understand spiritual energy, then you can understand what is God, because spiritual energy is the sample of God. Sample of God. Kṛṣṇa says in the Bhagavad-gītā that mamaivāṁśaḥ. Here it is said, jīva-bhūta. What is the jīva-bhūta? He is jīva-bhūta, the living entity. Mama eva aṁśa: "They are My part and parcel, minute particle of Me." Just like father and the son. Son is part of the father bodily, not spiritually. Spiritually he is part of Kṛṣṇa, and materially he is part of the body of the father. So we are not talking of the material. That is going on, of course, but this understanding, Bhagavad-gītā, is completely spiritual understanding.
We can hear by the ear. We can smell by the nose. We can touch by the hand. So we have got all senses. And by senses we get experience. So if you try to experience Kṛṣṇa by this process, that whenever you drink something liquid and taste it very nicely, you consider "This taste is Kṛṣṇa," is it very difficult for Kṛṣṇa realization? And because you'll remember Kṛṣṇa... Actually that taste is Kṛṣṇa. Because that water is also Kṛṣṇa. Water is Kṛṣṇa in this sense: the energy of Kṛṣṇa. Just like fire and the heat. Heat is the energy of Kṛṣṇa. So heat and fire is not distinct. They are the same. Still, the heat is not fire. This is called acintya-bhedābheda philosophy, simultaneously one and different. Simultaneously. Everything. Idaṁ hi viśvaṁ bhagavān ivetaraḥ. It requires only realization that "Whole universe is Kṛṣṇa." Idaṁ hi viśvaṁ bhagavān. But it appears different from Bhagavān. Actually, it is not different. You have to understand by purified senses. That is required. Unless you have got purified senses, you cannot understand. But this is the beginning: raso 'ham apsu kaunteya (BG 7.8). You just try to understand. This rasa... It is said by Kṛṣṇa. It is not our manufacture. When... If I say that "The taste of water is Kṛṣṇa," that may be different. But Kṛṣṇa says raso 'ham apsu kaunteya. So why not think of Kṛṣṇa?
While drinking water, while seeing the sunshine, while seeing the moonshine, while chanting Vedic mantras, or even hearing some sound in the khe. Sound is produced by the ether. So many sounds we are hearing. If you simply remember this śloka of Bhāgavata, that śabda, any sound... Hare Kṛṣṇa sound is transcendental. That's all right. But if you don't like Hare Kṛṣṇa sound, you take any sound, any sound is also... That is coming from the original sound. Simply it is covered by māyā. What is the difference between spiritual and material? Everything is spiritual. Sarvaṁ khalv idaṁ brahma. But when it is covered by māyā, it is material. That's all. And what is māyā? Forgetful of Kṛṣṇa. The same water, the same water, it is spiritual. Because it is Kṛṣṇa's energy. Kṛṣṇa has already said, bhūmir āpaḥ. Āpaḥ. Here also, apsu. So āpaḥ, jala, or water, is Kṛṣṇa's energy. How it can be different from Kṛṣṇa? So we have to deal with water in so many ways. How we can forget Kṛṣṇa?
You are so great man." Lābha, pūjā, and pratiṣṭhā, and fame: "People may know me that 'I am Carnegie,' 'I am Rockefeller,' 'I am Birla.' " But he does not know that Birla or Rockefeller is this body. As soon as this body is finished, all Birla or Rockefeller is finished. Then I do not know whether I am entering into cat or dog. Because after finishing this body, you are neither Birla, neither Rockefeller—you are spirit soul. And according to your own karma, according to your own work, your own work, you have to enter another body, which is different from Birla and Carnegie. A jñānī knows, "So why shall I bother myself for these temporary designations?" That is jñānī. He is jñānī. He is man in knowledge. "I am pure soul. My eternal connection—with Kṛṣṇa, the Supreme Lord. Let me establish that connection very firmly so that Kṛṣṇa may take me back into His kingdom. That is my business." So this is the preference to the jñānī that although...
Bahūnāṁ janmanām ante (BG 7.19). There are different kinds of transcendentalists. They are called tattva-vit. Tattva-vit means one who knows the Absolute Truth. In the Śrīmad-Bhāgavata it is said, vadanti tat tattva-vidas tattvaṁ yaj jñānam advayam (SB 1.2.11). Tattva-vit, the transcendentalists, call it Absolute Truth which is yaj jñānam advayam, where there is no duality. In the transcendental knowledge there is no duality. There is no..., nothing different from nothing. Everything is on the same level. That is called... One who knows that knowledge, he is called tattva-vit. Now, the tattva-vit says that the Supreme Absolute Truth is recognized in three aspects: brahmeti paramātmeti bhagavān iti śabdyate-brahmeti, impersonal Brahman; and Paramātmā, the localized Supersoul; and Bhagavān. Bhagavān means the Personality of Godhead.
So tarko 'pratiṣṭhaḥ śrutayo vibhinnāḥ. Śrutayaḥ means scriptures. If you take scriptures, different scriptures there are, and one scripture may differ from another scripture. So that is also very difficult, to find out the real truth, transcendence, from the scriptures. So tarko 'pratiṣṭhaḥ śrutayo vibhinnā nāsāv ṛṣir yasya mataṁ na bhinnam. And so far philosophy is concerned, each and every philosopher is different from the other philosophers. One philosopher is putting some theory, another philosophy is putting another doctrine or theory. So we are puzzled, which of them has to be accepted. Śrutayo vibhinnā nāsāv ṛṣir ya... Because in the mundane philosophers, mundane scholars, they want to give his own interpretation of everything. That is their habit. They don't accept the interpretation of the higher authority. They want..., each and every one of them want to become the higher authorities. So our this principle, this devotional principle, is not like that. We don't pose ourselves as the higher authority. We just try to follow the higher authority. We don't pose ourself. We never... We'll never say that "In my opinion, it should be like this." Oh, what opinion I have got? What value I have got of my opinion? What is my value? I am a blunt man. I cannot acquire any knowledge perfectly. And what is the use of my opinion?
Similarly, God is also being like us, but He is Supreme Being. That is the difference between God and me. I am also being, you are also being, but we are not Supreme Being. We are under some control. But God is not under control. He is the controller, but He is never controlled. (aside:) Make it louder. That is explained in the Vedic literature, the definition of God. The definition of God is given there, īśvaraḥ paramaḥ. The Supreme Being is Kṛṣṇa. Īśvaraḥ paramaḥ kṛṣṇaḥ sac-cid-ānanda-vigrahaḥ (Bs. 5.1). And He is... Vigraha means He has form. He is person, sac-cid-ānanda-vigraha. But His person, His form, is different from our form, our present form. Our present form, as we have got the material tabernacle, that is temporary. Your form, my form, this is changing. We are not existing in the same form.
Prabhupāda: So that is to be understood. You can say, "My blood," but you don't say, "I blood." That is foolishness.
Guest (3): Yeah, I didn't say, "I blood."
Prabhupāda: Then you say, "My blood." Therefore the blood is different from you. As soon as say, "My blood," then "my house," then house is different from you.
Guest (3): The point is that it makes it one. It makes body and soul one if one says, "This is my body and this is my blood."
Guest (3): And in this society I've heard people saying that "This is not my body," so, okay...
Prabhupāda: It requires little intelligence. Just like you are breathing. So when the breathing is stopped, you say, "The man is dead." But what is this breathing? This breathing is nothing but a little portion of air passing. So you can artificially make that arrangement, air passing, but does it mean that it will bring life? So therefore breathing is not life. Life is different from breathing. You have to study scientifically. Because breathing can be produced. This respiration of... Even in the, what is called, bellow there is breathing, "Hans, phans, hans, phans..." (laughter) Does it mean life? No. Therefore you have to study every part of your body. You'll find there is no life.
Prabhupāda: So therefore life is different from this combination of matter. This is intelligence.
Guest (3): Then... I do understand it. (break)
Prabhupāda: ...that you are different from your body. Analyze your body part by part. Then you come to understand. Don't jump over. Your question was: "The body's not different from the life." That was his question.
Puṣṭa Kṛṣṇa: Yes.
Prabhupāda: So it is different. You analyze this body. You'll find in every part of body. Take this and you study it. You'll find no living force there. So how the living force is equal or identical with the body?
Guest (3): All right, I agree. I...
Prabhupāda: Then you agree. Then you accept that the soul is different from the body.
Prabhupāda: "God is God," you say. Man is man. But who is that man you do not know.
Guest (4) (man): I think what he's getting is that there's a basic division of three, spirit, soul and body, and the spirit is...
Prabhupāda: Different from the body.
Guest (4): ...what is the part that's not you.
Puṣṭa Kṛṣṇa: I think he also has a misunderstanding. Prabhupāda is not saying that each individual soul is God.
Guest (4): Yeah, that's why I wanted to say that.
Puṣṭa Kṛṣṇa: He had a misunderstanding himself.
Guest (5) (Indian woman): If God is a word, it is part of the language. So you call it God; I call it Kṛṣṇa. There is no difference at all.
Prabhupāda: Hm? What she...? (laughter) First of all try to understand. This is the beginning of knowledge, that "I am not this body."
So if you are actually interested to get out of this entanglement of transmigration from one body to another, ei rūpe brahmāṇḍa brahmite kono bhāgyavān jīva, Lord Caitanya says. We are wandering throughout the whole universe. That we do not know. We think that after finishing this body, everything is finished. But that is not the fact. Otherwise, why there are so many varieties of life? The varieties of life are because there are varieties of sinful activities. Because there are varieties of sinful activity, therefore we have got varieties of karma. Otherwise, if there would have been one class of activity, why there are different varieties of body? This is common sense. Who is giving us these different...? My body is different from your body, your body, so now we are sitting here, say fifty or hundred men—everyone's body is different from another body, you'll find. Then you go to other species of life, that is also different from other and other. So why this difference? Because we are differently situated according to our karma. Karmaṇā daiva-netreṇa jantur deha upapattaye (SB 3.31.1). Karmaṇā daiva-netreṇa. We do, we act according to our whims, but that whims is judged by daiva-netreṇa, by a higher, superior authority, just like Yamarāja. Then we get another body. This is the process.
Similarly, there is real sunshine, which is called brahma-jyotir, that is coming out of the body of Kṛṣṇa. Yasya prabhā prabhavato jagad-aṇḍa-koṭi (Bs. 5.40). So this impersonal brahma, sarvaṁ khalv idaṁ brahma, that is Kṛṣṇa's personal rays. Therefore Kṛṣṇa says here, mayā tatam idaṁ sarvam. Sarvam. Idaṁ sarvam. Sarvaṁ khalv idaṁ brahma. Because it is Kṛṣṇa's bodily rays, therefore in that sense you can take anything as brahma, sarva khalv idam, because nothing is different from Kṛṣṇa. Idaṁ hi viśvaṁ bhagavān ivetaro. The whole creation is also bhagavān, but it is as appears as different. It appears as different. So this is explained here, mayā tatam idaṁ sarvaṁ jagad avyakta-mūrtinā-mat-sthāni sarva-bhūtāni (BG 9.4). "Everything is resting on Me." Just like in the sunshine. On the sunshine all these material planets are resting. Similarly, everything, these universes are resting on Kṛṣṇa's bodily shine, brahma-jyotir. Yasya prabhā prabhavato jagad-aṇḍa-koṭi (Bs. 5.40). Mat-sthāni sarva-bhūtāni na cāhaṁ teṣv avasthitaḥ. These māyāvādī philosophers say, "Because everything is Kṛṣṇa, then why shall I go to temple? Why shall I say 'Worship Kṛṣṇa'?" But everything is Kṛṣṇa, why not this Kṛṣṇa? This is also Kṛṣṇa.
So more you become advanced in spiritual consciousness, the material necessities become minimum. Nidrāhāra-vihārakādi-vijitau **. That is possible. That is not story. There are many instances, and the more you become advanced in Kṛṣṇa consciousness, spiritual life, these necessities of life, necessities of body... Because body is different from the spirit soul. The necessities of the body is material, and the necessities of the soul is spiritual. But unfortunately, although the spirit is there, we are so much absorbed in material consciousness, we do not understand what is spirit soul. We are simply busy in taking care of the body. So this is not very good condition. This is material condition. And it is very risky if we simply... Simply to take care of the body means creating different desires. "I shall be happy in this way. I shall be happy in this way." So nature's mercy is that as soon as you think that you will enjoy life like this, she will give you good opportunity. That means changing a body wherein you can enjoy the material facilities very easily.
If from this material conception of life, somehow or other you come to the understanding that you are not this body, lump of matter—you are spirit soul; you are different from this body—that is called brahma-bhūtaḥ state. And as soon as you become on the brahma-bhūtaḥ status, then symptom will be na śocati, prasannātmā—you become happy immediately. Everyone is unhappy in this material world. That's a fact. And because... Why we are unhappy? Because we have accepted, misaccepted, wrongly accepted, this body, "myself." This is the defect of modern civilization. So long you do not understand that you are not this body, you are different from this body, you are Brahman, you are part and parcel of God, then your activities become different. Because at the present moment we are acting on the bodily concept of life. "I am American," "I am Indian," "I am Australian," "I am white," "I am black," "I am brāhmaṇa," "I am śūdra," "I am this, that"—only this bodily concept of life. And the Kṛṣṇa consciousness begins when you are free from this bodily conception of life. That is called brahma-bhūtaḥ.
We have got difference of body between yourself and myself, and in the body also there are differences. My eyes are different from my hands, my hands are different from my legs. But Kṛṣṇa, being Absolute, He has no such distinction. That they do not understand. Therefore they can not imagine how God, Kṛṣṇa, can have a form. "If He has a form, then the form is like this, our," the Māyāvādīs they say. They believe that when Brahman comes, He accepts a material body. That is defied by Kṛṣṇa: avajānanti māṁ mūḍhā mānuṣīṁ tanum āśritam (BG 9.11), "Because I come as a human being, these rascals take Me as one of the human being." This is the beginning. Mūḍhā, this word is used, very word. Mūḍhā means rascal. Because Kṛṣṇa comes as this child of Yaśodā-mātā, or as the son of Vāsudeva, therefore these Māyāvādīs, they mistake that Kṛṣṇa or Brahman has taken the form, accepting the body from māyā. But that's not the fact. Kṛṣṇa is not under māyā. Kṛṣṇa says, sambhavāmy ātma-māyayā: not accepting this material energy. He's ordering, sambhavāmi yuge yuge, sambhavāmy ātma-māyayā (BG 4.6).
So the so-called rascal scholars, they think Kṛṣṇa and Kṛṣṇa's body are different. As we, we spirit soul, we are different from this body, similarly these Māyāvādīs, they also think that Kṛṣṇa is different from His body. We have several times discussed, a big scholar, when Kṛṣṇa says in this Ninth Chapter, man-manā bhava mad-bhakto mad-yājī māṁ namaskuru (BG 18.65), he translates nice but comments that "It is not to Kṛṣṇa, the person. It is unto the Supreme Brahman who is within Kṛṣṇa."
So last verse we have discussed. Kṛṣṇa said... When we speak, "Kṛṣṇa," you should understand "Kṛṣṇa" means God, the Supreme Being. "Kṛṣṇa," the etymological meaning is "the all-attractive." Without being all-attractive there is no meaning of God. It is not that God is attractive only to certain class of men. No. God is attractive for all classes of men, unless he is animal. Animal does not know what is God and what is the attraction of God. He does not know. But human being, in the human society, at least in the civilized human society there is a certain idea of God. Either you follow Christianity or Vedic principle of Mohammedan religion or even Buddha religion, there is conception of God. There is an attempt to understand God. That is human society. Therefore, according to the capability or country and the people, the conception of God may be a little different from one another. But the attraction for God is there.
Just like the sunshine is for everyone. The same sun in India and same sun in your America. You cannot say that "This is American sun." Can you? Or we cannot say, "Oh..." I see sometimes... Because I am now foreigner, I see sometimes, "Oh, the same moon is here, and same sun is here? The same cloud is here? Oh, why I am foreigner?" Nobody is foreigner. Everyone is under the sunshine. It is our misunderstanding. It is our misunderstanding. In God's kingdom nobody is foreigner. Everyone is brother. The ultimate father is the Supreme Lord. That is Kṛṣṇa consciousness. Even the animals. Why should we think animals different from us and we shall kill them? No. You have no right. He is also your brother. So this is universal brotherhood. When you come to the open sunshine, we can see, oh, everyone is eligible to take advantage of the sunshine. And so long we are in the darkness, we say, "Oh, this is my room; this is your room." So for such persons who are completely in Kṛṣṇa consciousness, for them there is no scarcity. This is very encouraging. No Kṛṣṇa conscious person will think that "I will be in scarcity. I will be in want." No. Be rest assured. You will never be in want. You will never be in want. If you keep your full faith in Kṛṣṇa, you will always happily live and will be given a chance of chanting Hare Kṛṣṇa Hare Kṛṣṇa Kṛṣṇa Kṛṣṇa Hare Hare, Hare Rāma Hare Rāma Rāma Rāma... Here it is guaranteed.
So here it is stated that when, by good association, when we associate with persons who are in the knowledge of Kṛṣṇa, in knowledge of God, in the science, if we associate, then this dormant intuition will be revived and we shall be engaged in Kṛṣṇa consciousness.
Atrājam ity anena pradhāna-pradhānāt cid-vargāt saṁsāra-vivargāc ca veda, veda.(?) Now, here this ajam, that God is unborn, this indicates that He is different from this material world because in the material world we have no experience that anyone is unborn. Everyone is born. Not only everyone, everything is born. This your New York City is born. You will find some date in the history that the New York City was started four hundred years or five hundred years. So we have got, we are very much fond of history. That means finding out the date of birth of everything. So this is the nature. So "He is unborn" means that spiritual nature is not like this material nature. At once we can understand. Spiritual nature is born and... Material nature is born, and spiritual nature is not born. This is the distinction. Therefore Kṛṣṇa is not material, He is spiritual. Because He says unborn, therefore He is not material. Immediately you have to understand.
So how can I deride on Kṛṣṇa as ordinary man? Therefore in the Bhagavad-gītā I will find it is said that avajānanti māṁ mūḍhāḥ: (BG 9.11) "Those who are fools, rascals, they think of Me as ordinary man." Yes. But He is not ordinary man. Exactly this word is used, you will find in the Bhagavad-gītā, mūḍha. Mūḍha means the fools, rascals. They think of Kṛṣṇa just like ordinary man. But He is different. He is different from everything of this world because everything of this world is born. You will trace out the history, the birthdate. But you cannot.
Just like in the fire there is always the sparks of fire. The sparks of fire are not born. It appears... When it is manifested, it appears just like born from the fire. But actually it is not born; it is there. It is there. You have seen fireplace, "phut!" and you see thousands of sparks at once, and again comes down. Similarly, we are not born. We are also not born. But there is difference because the sparks come out of the original fire. So we are all sparks, spiritual sparks. We come out from Kṛṣṇa. So even though we are not born, but the cause is Kṛṣṇa. Therefore Kṛṣṇa is different from us. Is not that logic right?
Just like father and son. The same example: father and son, different and nondifferent at the same time. Because son is born, is the expansion of the body of the father. Therefore he is nondifferent. But still, the son is not father. If the son claims in all respects that "I am as good as father," oh, that is nonsense. So this is philosophy. Adyasya sa-pariṇāmena deha... Anādim loka-maheśvaram iti muktyādi-vargāt prakṛti-kalaṁ ca veda.(?) And because he is declaring Himself loka-maheśvaram, loka-maheśvaram—that means He is the supreme proprietor of everything—therefore He is different from everything. He is different from everything.
Suppose I am proprietor of New York State, but still, I am different from New York State. These things are to be carefully analyzed. Those who are monists, they say, "everything one." How you can say one? How you can say one? In every step different. In every step different. This is dvaita-vāda, duality. So this philosophy of Lord Caitanya, that simultaneously one and different, that is the perfect philosophy. Nobody can say that we are completely different from God, and nobody can say we are completely one with God. We are both, one and different. These things are to be understood analytically like this, as it is explained here. This is understanding of Kṛṣṇa. If you try to understand Kṛṣṇa and your position in such nice analytical way from authoritative sources, then at once you become free from all sinful activities. This process.
Etad yo vetti, and one who knows it, he's kṣetra-jñaḥ. Jñaḥ means in knowledge. So we should know this, that I am not this body. It is my body. If we analyze the body, I say it is my hand, it is my leg, it is my head. Nobody says: "I head," or "I hand." "I" is different from this body. I am living in this apartment, but I am not this apartment. But the modern civilization is going on on the basic idea that "I am this body." "I am American." "I am Indian." "I am brāhmaṇa." "I am kṣatriya." "I am man." "I am woman." This is condemned. This is condemned.
This is... This is the consideration of the animals. The animals, they do not know that the dog, the body-dog, and the soul who has obtained the body of a dog... The soul is different from the body. This is the Vedic information: asaṅgo 'yaṁ puruṣaḥ. (static) The living entity, soul, is not this material body. Asaṅga. He has no, I mean to say, association. He's put into that condition, but he's different from the body. (Child crying in background; aside:) What is that? She has gone out and cannot come.
Just like our conception of eating, that we can eat through the mouth. Whatever eatables are offered to us, we pick them and put into the mouth. We know this is the process of eating. But Kṛṣṇa, because He is acintya-guṇa-svarūpam, His eating process is different from ours. That is also stated in the Brahma-saṁhitā. Aṅgāni yasya sakalendriya-vṛttimanti. He has the limbs of the body, different limbs of the body, they can work also for other limbs of the body. Just like with our eyes we can see. If I close our eyes, we do not see. But Kṛṣṇa, even He closes His eyes, He can see everything with His hand. Now, this is inconceivable. Acintya-guṇa-svarūpam. Therefore it is called acintya. Aṅgāni yasya sakalendriya-vṛttimanti. So the foodstuff is offered there to Kṛṣṇa. He is eating by seeing. He can eat through His eyes. Just like we can eat through our mouth, not with our eyes, but Kṛṣṇa can eat through His eyes simply by seeing. Then you may argue that "The foodstuff is offered. If He has eaten, why it is lying as it is, as it was offered in the beginning?" That is answered in the Upaniṣad. Pūrṇasya pūrṇam ādāya pūrṇam evāvaśiṣyate (Īśo Invocation). Pūrṇasya. Kṛṣṇa can take the whole plate, but still the whole plate remains. It is not finished. That is spirituality. Pūrṇasya pūrṇam ādāya pūrṇam evāvaśiṣyate.
So this is clear conception of kṣetra and kṣetra-jña. The body is called kṣetra, and the knower of the body... If we simply study our body, if we simply take this question, little seriously, "Whether I am this body or I am different from my body?" You study each and every part of your body. You study your finger. You will know or I will know "It is my finger." I do not say it is, "I finger." It is "my finger." Therefore I am different from my body. Just like I say, "This is my shoe." So I am not the shoe. So similarly, you study every part of your body. You know that it is your body. You are not this body.
This is study. This is meditation. First of all study your body, whether you are body or you are different body. That is actually.
The other day I was speaking that a man's father has died and he is crying, "My father has gone away. So my father..." Your father is lying on the bed. The father which you have seen so long, life long, the body, that is on the bed. Why you are crying your father is gone? That means he has never seen his father, neither the father has seen the son. Everyone sees this body, but not the owner of the body. That is the defect of modern education, that everyone by contemplation can understand that "This finger is my finger, not 'I' finger." Still, he cannot understand that he is different from this body. That is to be understood. That is real knowledge.
Kṣetra-kṣetra-jñayor jñānam. One should have very clear knowledge that "I am not this body. This is my body." You are not this body; it is your body. You are spirit; I am spirit. We are different from this body. This is the first instruction given in the Bhagavad-gītā in the beginning.
So Kṛṣṇa says, etad yo vetti taṁ prāhuḥ kṣetra-jñaḥ iti tad-vidaḥ. If one understands that he is not this body, he is different from this body... From practical example and practical experience one can understand it. Especially human being can understand it. And if the human being neglect this understanding, then he remains animal—sa eva go-kharaḥ (SB 10.84.13). That is the injunction of the śāstra.
- yasyātma-buddhiḥ kuṇape tri-dhātuke
- sva-dhīḥ kalatrādiṣu bhauma ijya-dhīḥ
- yat-tīrtha-buddhiḥ salile na karhicij
- janeṣv abhijñeṣu sa eva go-kharaḥ
- (SB 10.84.13)
Yasyātma-buddhiḥ kuṇape tri-dhātuke. This body, according to Ayurvedic system of medicine, this body is made of three elements—kapha, pitta, vāyu: mucus, bile, and cough. So anyway, so tri-dhātuke... This body, is made of material elements. I am spirit soul; I am not material element. Ahaṁ brahmāsmi: "I am spirit soul." This is knowledge. But if one does not take this knowledge, he remains with the bodily concept of life, "I finger," not "my finger," then he is in ignorance. "I head," not "my head." Nobody says, "I head." Everyone says "My head." But find out who is "I." This is knowledge.
Of course, when there is something, talks about God, it is taken as religious. So religious, the meaning of religion in the English dictionary is different from what we mean by religion, that in the dictionary it is said, "Religion is a kind of faith." Faith may be wrong or right, but religion cannot be wrong or right. Religion must be correct. That is the meaning of religion. the example is that the sugar is sweet. It is not the question of wrong or right. Sugar must be always sweet. You cannot change it. That is religion. Chili is hot. That is correct. Chili cannot be sweet, and sugar cannot be hot. So religion means that. Religion described in the Vedic śāstras is said, dharmaṁ tu sākṣād bhagavat-praṇītam: (SB 6.3.19) "Dharma means..." The plain description of religion is "the code, or the laws, given by God." Dharmaṁ tu sākṣād bhagavat-praṇītam (SB 6.3.19).
Therefore Kṛṣṇa says, tat kṣetraṁ yac ca yādṛk. Yādṛk means "as it is." We have got different kṣetram. I have got this body; you have got another body. No two bodies you'll find equal in every respect. You'll find two bodies... We have got two hands, two legs, two eyes. These are all right, but your eyes are different from my eyes, your arms are different from my arms. This is human society. Then there are other bodies, animal society, bird society, beast society, aquatic society, insect society. There are so many, eight million four hundred thousand species forms of life. They're all living entities. But why they have got different types of bodies? That is explained here. Tat kṣetraṁ yac ca yādṛk ca.
Why we have got different bodies? And yādṛk ca, how it is working? Yādṛk ca. Tat kṣetraṁ yac ca yādṛk ca yad vikārī. How it has transformed in different forms? Yad vikārī yataś ca yat (BG 13.4), and wherefrom it has come to be so? Sa ca yo yat prabhāvaḥ. How, under certain influence, we get this body? There are three kinds of influences, you must always know, material influences.
This is understand... People should be little intelligent that "If I am eternal," na hanyate hanyamāne śarīre (BG 2.20), "I do not die even after the destruction of this body..." Just like if this shirt and coat is torn out, we throw it away, that does not mean I am also torn and finished, similarly, this body... This body means I am spirit soul. I am covered with this gross body and the subtle body. This gross body is made of earth, water, air, fire, sky, and the subtle body is made of mind, intelligence and ego. So I am covered by these two shirts and coat. So I am different from this. That is knowledge. That is knowledge.
That knowledge is being explained. And when you come to that real knowledge then you become brahma-bhūtaḥ prasannātmā (BG 18.54). When you actually understand that "I am Brahman," ahaṁ brahmāsmi, "I am spirit soul. This is my shirt and coat. Oh, so long I was busy with this shirt and coat only? I have no business with it." Yes, you have got business, but that is not your main business. Your main business is to take care of yourself as soul. That is your main business. This is called knowledge. Brahma-bhūtaḥ prasannātmā (BG 18.54).
So we have to take it from authoritative scriptures like Bhagavad-gītā, the Vedic literatures, that soul is different from this body, and... Of course, according to the mentality of the soul, we develop different kinds of body. And that is being described by Lord Kṛṣṇa to Arjuna. Pradhānam indriyāṇi śrotrādīni pañca vagadini ca pañceti daśa bāhyāni rajasahaṅkārakarya(?). Now, we have got ten different kinds of senses: five senses, working senses, and five senses acquiring knowledge. But these senses are also products of the ahaṅkāra, false ego. Sukṣmaḥ śabdādi-tanmātraḥ khadi-viśeṣa-guṇatayā vyaktaḥ santaḥ sthulaḥ śrotrādi-pañcaka-grāhya-viṣaya.(?) So from the five senses which are acquiring knowledge, the sense organs acting, they are produced. In this way, this body is composition of twenty-four elements. That is the analytical study of Bhagavad-gītā. And the sāṅkhya philosophy, Kapila's sāṅkhya philosophy, their analytical... The same thing. Revealed scriptures teach the same thing. There is no difference. But above these twenty-four elements, there is time, kāla, time element. That is also representation of the Supreme Lord. And above this time, there is God.
Good chemists, they can understand how by combining different elements they can produce something. So these chemical products of this body is described by Kṛṣṇa very nicely, gross chemical and subtle chemical. But I am different from this. That is knowledge. I am different from this combination. But that we do not know. That is ignorance. I am thinking that "I am this combination," and I am thinking, "Wherefrom this combination has come into being, that is my place." That is described in the śāstras, yasyātmā-buddhiḥ kuṇape tri-dhātuke sva-dhīḥ kalatrādiṣu bhauma ijya-dhīḥ (SB 10.84.13). The chemicals comes from the earth. So everything in my body, they have come from these material elements and I'm identifying, "This place is mine because this body is born out of these elements." That is going on as nationalism. Bhauma iḍya-dhīḥ. Bhauma iḍya-dhīḥ. They'll not prefer worshiping Kṛṣṇa. They'll prefer worshiping that land from which this body has emanated. Bhauma idya-dhiḥ.
Another meaning of this verse is that if He has got, sarvataḥ pāṇi-pādam, He has got His legs and hands, eyes, head, then how He becomes impersonal, void? Where is this conception comes from Bhagavad-gītā? The rascals say that "God is impersonal, no form." How it is possible, if He has got hands and legs, head and ears, how He has become formless? Tell me. Who is there? How He becomes formless? He is not formless. But the difference is His form is different from our form. Our hands and legs are limited, but He has got His hands and legs... That is not limited, that is unlimited. That is difference. When we say, when there is such thing as formless, formless means He hasn't got a form like us which is limited.
Just like in that story, the old brāhmaṇa and the young brāhmaṇa, Sākṣi-gopāla. Sākṣi-gopāla. So the young man came to Kṛṣṇa in Vṛndāvana, "Sir, You have to go to give witness because the old man is not keeping his promise." So Kṛṣṇa said to the young devotee that "How you are proposing that I shall go? Can a stone Deity, He can walk? Do you think?" He said, "Yes, if the stone Deity can speak, He can walk also." (laughter) So devotee is so strong. So Kṛṣṇa had to... "Yes, I'll go." First of all, He wanted to avoid. Then when He saw that "He's not ordinary devotee," He said, "All right, I'll go." So He came from Vṛndāvana to Kataka.
So don't think that He's stone Deity. Sākṣād vrajendra-nandana: "Directly Kṛṣṇa." But He is available to my capacity of understanding Him. Not that He is different from the original Kṛṣṇa. (break) Kṛṣṇa's name, Kṛṣṇa's form, Kṛṣṇa's quality, Kṛṣṇa's pastimes, everything absolute. You're chanting Hare Kṛṣṇa mantra. It does not mean that it is a sound only. It is Kṛṣṇa personally. You are in direct touch with Kṛṣṇa when you chant Hare Kṛṣṇa. This is realization. This is Kṛṣṇa consciousness.
So they're talking about what is knowledge. Yes. This is very good question, what is knowledge. So Arjuna wanted to know this knowledge from Kṛṣṇa. Knowledge means to understand this body and the soul. Kṣetra-kṣetra-jña. Kṣetra means this body, and kṣetra-jña means the owner of the body. Just like if you study your body... "What is this?" Just like we ask any child. Sometimes we play with the child. We ask, "What is this?" He'll say, "My hand," or "My head." So even the child can say that the hand is different from him. We also say, "This is my hand," "This is my leg," "This is my head." We never say, "I head," or "I hand." No. "My hand." It is very simple thing.
So therefore it is said, abhayaṁ sattva-saṁśuddhiḥ, sattva-saṁśuddhiḥ. And jñāna, this sattva-saṁśuddhiḥ, this purification of my existence, is possible. It is simply jñāna. Jñāna means knowledge. Because I am in ignorance, therefore I am thinking, "I am this body." So it requires a little jñāna, knowledge. Then we will understand that "I am not this body; I am different from this body." And because I am in ignorance, therefore I am thinking, "I am this body," "I am this white body," "I am this black body," "I am this American body," "I am this Indian body," "I am this cat's body" and "dog's body," so many different consciousness on account of this... Basic principle is this ignorance. Ignorance. So that we have to cure.
So it requires very firm knowledge. Na hanyate hanyamāne śarīre (BG 2.20). That is possible. That is possible by jñāna. Just like Prahlāda Mahārāja. His father, demon father Hiraṇyakaśipu, was chastising him in so many ways. But he was not afraid at all, fearless, because he was convinced that "I am not this body. I am different from body." Na hanyate hanyamāne śarīre (BG 2.20). "I will not die." It is simply knowledge, firm knowledge. And as soon as you come to that position, that "I am not this body," then automatically you, become abhayam, no fear. Everyone is afraid of being killed. That is the most fearful position. But if you are convinced that "I am not killed; I exist..."
So yasya prabhā prabhavato jagad-aṇḍa-koṭi-koṭiṣu (Bs. 5.40). And each universe... Koṭiṣu aśeṣa-vasudhādi. Vasudhā means planet. Just like this is one planet. Aśeṣa. Aśeṣa means you cannot count, so many. That's a fact. You are seeing every day. Aśeṣa-vasudhādi-vibhūti. And each planet has got different climate, different varieties, not that every planet is of the same. Now they are studying that the moon planet is also planet, but it is differently situated. Differently situated, as they are studying, that is different from the śāstras, but there is difference from this planet to that planet. These modern scientists, they say that there is no life, and there cannot be any living entity, considering the atmosphere. But from the śāstra we know in the moon planet... That is one of the heavenly planets, and there are living entities. They are living for ten thousand years, and it is very cold there. Therefore they drink soma-rasa. And some of the scientists, they say that the temperature in the moon planet is 200 degrees below zero. So similarly, you will find every planet is different from the atmospheric condition of the other planet. Just like sun planet. It is so fiery. It is full of fire, agni. The temperature is so high that ninety thousand or twenty millions miles?
Therefore it is said... Now, tri-vidhā bhavati śraddhā: "This śraddhā, this faith," Kṛṣṇa says, "there are three kinds." Tri-vidhā bhavati śraddhā. Tri-vidhā bhavati śraddhā dehināṁ sā svabhāva-jā. Dehinām. Always remember, dehinām means the possessor, the owner of this body. Therefore the owner is different from the body. Those who are under the conception that there is no owner, and the body is everything, they are less than tamo-guṇa. Actually animals. They have been described as being animal. Those who are thinking like the dog that "I am this body..." The dog is also thinking, "I am this body," and a man is also thinking, "I am this body." Then where is the difference between the dog and the man? When man comes to the understanding that "I am not this body; I am soul," then knowledge begins. Before that, he is ignorant like animal. Yasyātma-buddhiḥ kuṇape tri-dhātuke (SB 10.84.13).
Just like you are sitting here, so many boys and girls in different dress. Some is dressed in black coat or some in white coat or red coat. If I ask you what you are, if you say "I am black coat," or somebody says, "I am white coat," that is not your identification. Similarly, we living entities, we are neither American or Indian nor African nor Englishman. We are all spirit soul. That is our position. Ahaṁ brahmāsmi. This is perfect knowledge. Ahaṁ brahmāsmi, I am spirit soul. When you come to this understanding, ahaṁ brahmāsmi, sarvopādhi-vinirmuktam (CC Madhya 19.170), then your position will be different from this material understanding. Brahma-bhūtaḥ prasannātmā (BG 18.54). Prasannātmā means jubilant. You'll find all our boys and girls, they're always jubilant. Unless they are jubilant, they cannot dance in this way. It is not dancing dogs. They are not dancing dogs. They're feeling jubilant, and therefore they are dancing. This is the position of brahma-bhūtaḥ prasannātmā (BG 18.54). Prasannātmā, unless one is very satisfied he cannot be jubilant. He should be morose, he cannot dance, he cannot chant. That's a fact. So this is sign of brahma-bhūtaḥ. Without any material designation. Brahma-bhūtaḥ. Everything is there in the Bhagavad-gītā. If you study carefully you'll understand everything. Brahma-bhūtaḥ prasannātmā na śocati na kāṅkṣati (BG 18.54). How one is jubilant? When one is freed from all anxieties. What are these anxieties? Anxieties mean if I lose something, then I will lament, and if I haven't got anything, something, then I hanker after it.