Sarvaṁ khalv idaṁ brahma means that everything is Lord Kṛṣṇa in the sense that everything is His energy. That is the vision of the mahā-bhāgavatas. They see everything in relation to Kṛṣṇa. The impersonalists argue that Kṛṣṇa Himself has been transformed into many and that therefore everything is Kṛṣṇa and worship of anything is worship of Him. This false argument is answered by Kṛṣṇa in the Bhagavad-gītā: although everything is a transformation of the energy of Kṛṣṇa, He is not present everywhere. He is simultaneously present and not present. By His energy He is present everywhere, but as the energetic He is not present everywhere. This simultaneous presence and nonpresence is inconceivable to our present senses. But a clear explanation is given in the beginning of the Īśopaniṣad, in which it is stated that the Supreme Lord is so complete that although unlimited energies and their transformations emanate from Kṛṣṇa, Kṛṣṇa's personality is not in the least bit transformed. Therefore, since Kṛṣṇa is the cause of all causes, intelligent persons should take shelter of His lotus feet.
- 1 Bhagavad-gita As It Is
- 2 Srimad-Bhagavatam
- 3 Other Books by Srila Prabhupada
- 4 Lectures
- 5 Conversations and Morning Walks
- 6 Correspondence
Bhagavad-gita As It Is
BG Chapters 1 - 6
The materially absorbed conditioned soul can be cured by Kṛṣṇa consciousness as set forth here in the Gītā. This process is generally known as yajña, or activities (sacrifices) simply meant for the satisfaction of Viṣṇu, or Kṛṣṇa. The more the activities of the material world are performed in Kṛṣṇa consciousness, or for Viṣṇu only, the more the atmosphere becomes spiritualized by complete absorption. The word brahma (Brahman) means "spiritual." The Lord is spiritual, and the rays of His transcendental body are called brahma-jyotir, His spiritual effulgence. Everything that exists is situated in that brahma-jyotir, but when the jyoti is covered by illusion (māyā) or sense gratification, it is called material. This material veil can be removed at once by Kṛṣṇa consciousness; thus the offering for the sake of Kṛṣṇa consciousness, the consuming agent of such an offering or contribution, the process of consumption, the contributor, and the result are—all combined together—Brahman, or the Absolute Truth. The Absolute Truth covered by māyā is called matter. Matter dovetailed for the cause of the Absolute Truth regains its spiritual quality. Kṛṣṇa consciousness is the process of converting the illusory consciousness into Brahman, or the Supreme. When the mind is fully absorbed in Kṛṣṇa consciousness, it is said to be in samādhi, or trance. Anything done in such transcendental consciousness is called yajña, or sacrifice for the Absolute. In that condition of spiritual consciousness, the contributor, the contribution, the consumption, the performer or leader of the performance, and the result or ultimate gain—everything—becomes one in the Absolute, the Supreme Brahman. That is the method of Kṛṣṇa consciousness.
SB Canto 4
In this verse we find the words ātma-īśa-brahma-sambhavān. Ātma means the Supersoul, or Viṣṇu, īśa means Lord Śiva, and brahma means the four-headed Lord Brahmā. The three sons born of Anasūyā—Dattātreya, Durvāsā and Soma—were born as partial representations of these three demigods. Ātma is not in the category of the demigods or living entities because He is Viṣṇu; therefore He is described as vibhinnāṁśa-bhūtānām. The Supersoul, Viṣṇu, is the seed-giving father of all living entities, including Brahmā and Lord Śiva. Another meaning of the word ātma may be accepted in this way: the principle who is the Supersoul in every ātma, or, one may say, the soul of everyone, became manifested as Dattātreya, because the word aṁśa, part and parcel, is used here.
Here it is stated, brahma ca brāhmaṇān. Brahma means the Vedas. Ahaṁ brahmāsmi means "I am in full knowledge." The Vedic assertion is that one should think that he is Brahman, for actually he is Brahman. If brahma, or the Vedic spiritual science, is condemned, and the masters of the spiritual science, the brāhmaṇas, are condemned, then where does human civilization stand? Bhṛgu Muni said, "It is not due to my cursing that you shall become atheists; you are already situated in the principle of atheism. Therefore you are condemned."
SB Canto 5
Although Ṛṣabhadeva knew all the Vedic instructions perfectly well, He nonetheless followed the instructions of the brāhmaṇas in order to perfectly maintain the social order. The brāhmaṇas would give advice according to the śāstras, and all the other castes would follow. The word brahma means "perfect knowledge of all activities," and this knowledge is very confidentially described in the Vedic literatures. Men trained perfectly as brāhmaṇas should know all Vedic literature, and the benefit derived from this literature should be distributed to the general populace. The general populace should follow the perfect brāhmaṇa. In this way, one can learn how to control the mind and senses and thus gradually advance to spiritual perfection.
SB Canto 10.1 to 10.13
In Bhagavad-gītā (10.12), Kṛṣṇa is described as the Supreme Brahman (paraṁ brahma paraṁ dhāma). The word brahma means "the greatest." Kṛṣṇa is greater than the greatest, being unlimited and all-pervading. How can it be possible for the all-pervading to be measured or bound? Then again, Kṛṣṇa is the time factor. Therefore, He is all-pervading not only in space but also in time. We have measurements of time, but although we are limited by past, present and future, for Kṛṣṇa these do not exist. Every individual person can be measured, but Kṛṣṇa has already shown that although He also is an individual, the entire cosmic manifestation is within His mouth. All these points considered, Kṛṣṇa cannot be measured. How then did Yaśodā want to measure Him and bind Him? We must conclude that this took place simply on the platform of pure transcendental love.
Other Books by Srila Prabhupada
Krsna, The Supreme Personality of Godhead
Therefore, the spirit soul is not produced from matter; it takes on a particular type of body under superior arrangement. According to our present experience, this material world is a combination of matter and spirit. The spirit is moving the matter. The spirit soul (the living entity) and matter are different energies of the Supreme Lord, and since both the energies are products of the Supreme Eternal, or the Supreme Truth, they are factual, not false. Because the living entity is part and parcel of the Supreme, he exists eternally. Therefore, for him there cannot be any question of birth or death. So-called birth and death occur because of the material body. The Vedic version sarvaṁ khalv idaṁ brahma means that since both the energies have emanated from the Supreme Brahman, everything we experience is nondifferent from Brahman.
Lord Kṛṣṇa said to King Yudhiṣṭhira, "My devotee is not deterred by any adverse conditions of life; he always remains firm and steady. Therefore I give Myself to him, and I favor him so that he can achieve the highest success of life." The mercy bestowed upon the tried devotee by the Supreme Personality is described as brahma, which indicates that the greatness of that mercy can be compared only to the all-pervasive greatness of Brahman. Brahma means unlimitedly great and unlimitedly expanding. That mercy is also described as paramam, for it has no comparison within this material world, and it is also called sūkṣmam, very fine. Not only is the Lord's mercy upon the tried devotee great and unlimitedly expansive, but it is of the finest quality of transcendental love between the devotee and the Lord. Such mercy is further described as cin-mātram, completely spiritual. The use of the word mātram indicates absolute spirituality, with no tinge of material qualities. That mercy is also called sat (eternal) and anantakam (unlimited). Since the devotee of the Lord is awarded such unlimited spiritual benefit, why should he worship the demigods? A devotee of Kṛṣṇa does not worship Lord Śiva or Brahmā or any other, subordinate demigod. He completely devotes himself to the transcendental loving service of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
Bhagavad-gita As It Is Lectures
Several departments is being managed by another director. Several directors is being managed by another secretary. As... The same system. Kṛṣṇa is the supreme proprietor, sarva-loka-maheśvara (BG 5.29), and He has got many secretaries, assistants. They are called Brahmā. So Brahmā means the manager of one brahmāṇḍa, universe. And there are millions of Brahmās, millions, trillions. They are numberless. Ananta-koṭi. Yasya prabhā prabhavato jagad-aṇḍa-koṭiḥ (Bs. 5.40). Koṭi. Koṭi means unlimited. Jagad-aṇḍa. Jagad-aṇḍa means universe. Brahmāṇḍa or jagad-aṇḍa. Aṇḍa. Aṇḍa means it is egg-shaped, round, egg-shaped. Therefore it is called aṇḍa, brahmāṇḍa. Bhū-gola. Gola means round. I have heard that before the science, the people were under the impression that this world is square. Is it not?
So Brahmā is mahājana. You'll find Brahmā's picture with Veda in his hand. So he's the, he gave the first instruction of Veda. But wherefrom he got the Vedic knowledge? Therefore Vedic knowledge is apauruṣeya. It is not man-made. It is God-made. Dharmaṁ tu sākṣād bhagavat-praṇītam (SB 6.3.19). So how God, Kṛṣṇa gave to Brahmā? Tene brahma hṛdā. Brahma, brahma means the Vedic knowledge. Śabda-brahma. Tene. He injected Vedic knowledge from hṛdā. Teṣāṁ satata-yuktānāṁ bhajatāṁ pritī-pūrvakam (BG 10.10). When Brahmā was created, he was perplexed: "What is my duty? Everything is dark." So he meditated, and Kṛṣṇa gave him knowledge that: "Your duty is this. You do like this." Tene brahma hṛdā ya ādi-kavaye. Ādi-kavaye (SB 1.1.1). Brahmā is ādi-kavaye. So actual guru is Kṛṣṇa. And here is... Kṛṣṇa is advising the Bhagavad-gītā. These rascals and fools will not accept Kṛṣṇa as guru. They'll go to some rascal and fool and miscreants, sinful person, and accept guru. How he can be guru?
Therefore Kṛṣṇa says that tapaś cāsmi tapasviṣu. That acceptance of tapasya means that tapasya is itself Kṛṣṇa. You associate with Kṛṣṇa. When you voluntarily give up meat-eating or intoxication, this giving-up, this process, is Kṛṣṇa. Kṛṣṇa says, tapaś cāsmi tapasviṣu. This is tapasya. Tapasya means to accept voluntarily something as enjoined in the śāstras. Śāstra says... Kṛṣṇa says. Whatever Kṛṣṇa says, that is śāstra. What is Veda? Veda means what Kṛṣṇa says; that is Veda. There is no other Veda. Just like in the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam it is said, tene brahma hṛdā. Brahmā hṛdā. Brahma means Veda. Brahma, śabda-brahma. So Kṛṣṇa tene, imparted, injected brahma, Vedic, Vedic śabda, śabda-brahma, Vedas, tene brahma hṛdā, through the heart. Kṛṣṇa is situated in everyone's heart. So Brahmā had no other spiritual master, but Kṛṣṇa is there within the heart. Therefore Kṛṣṇa's name is Caitya-guru.
This is the Vedic version. Sarva-kāraṇa-kāraṇam (Bs. 5.1). Father's father, his father, his father, you go on, go on. you come to Brahmā. Brahmā is considered as the forefather or grandfather, pitāmaha. But Kṛṣṇa is addressed in the Bhagavad-gītā: prapitāmaha, even the father of Brahmā. Prapitāmaha. You'll find in the Eleventh Chapter, prapitāmaha (BG 11.39). He's father of... Tene brahma hṛdā ādi-kavaye (SB 1.1.1). You know, those who are conversant with the śāstras, that Brahmā's another name is Svayambhū. He's not born of any material father and mother. He's born on the lotus flower sprouted from the navel of Mahā-Viṣṇu, Garbhodakaśāyī Viṣṇu. Therefore his name is Svayambhū. Svayambhū is one of the authorities because he was first educated about the Vedic knowledge by Kṛṣṇa, or Viṣṇu. Tene brahma hṛdā. Brahma means Vedic knowledge. Tene means imparted. Ādi-kavaye, the ādi-kavi, the original person. Tene brahma hṛdā ādi-kavaye muhyanti yat sūrayaḥ. Even big, big personalities, they become bewildered to understand Kṛṣṇa.
So Kṛṣṇa is answering one and each gradually. Śrī bhagavān uvāca. Bhagavān uvāca means Lord Kṛṣṇa, He's the Supreme Personality of Godhead, He's replying. Śrī bhagavān uvāca. What is that? Now, akṣaraṁ paramaṁ brahma svabhāvo 'dhyātmam ucyate. Akṣaraṁ paramaṁ brahma. Now, akṣaram means infallible. Infallible. And paramam means supreme. And brahma means indestructible, Brahman. Indestructible or which is eternal, that is called Brahman. Now, akṣaraṁ paramaṁ brahma. Paramaṁ brahma. Now, eternal, we are eternal. This has been explained in the Second Chapter of Bhagavad-gītā. Na hanyate hanyamāne śarīre (BG 2.20). We do not die even after the destruction of this body. So we are Brahman. Brahman means indestructible and eternal. Some, some matter may be indestructible sometimes, but not eternal. Matter is not eternal. Therefore two things are to be understood about Brahman: indestructible and eternal.
So everything is Kṛṣṇa's energy; therefore Kṛṣṇa says, mayā tatam idaṁ sarvam (BG 9.4). Sarvaṁ khalv idaṁ brahma means Kṛṣṇa's energy is spread everywhere, everything. Parasya brahmaṇaḥ śaktiḥ.
In the beginning of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam it is also stated, tene brahma hṛdā ādi-kavaye (SB 1.1.1). Ādi-kavi is Lord Brahmā, and brahma means the Vedic knowledge. So there was nobody to teach Brahmā. Brahmā is called prapitāmaha (BG 11.39), the first-class knower of the Vedic knowledge, ādi-kavi. But wherefrom he got the knowledge? He got the knowledge form Kṛṣṇa. Tene brahma hṛdā ādi-kavaye. And Brahmā distributed it to Nārada. Nārada distributed it to Vyāsadeva. Vyāsadeva distributed it to other ācāryas. In this way, evaṁ paramparā-prāptam imaṁ rājarṣayo viduḥ (BG 4.2). So there is paramparā. The knowledge is the same. There is no alteration. But it is coming through disciplic succession, one after an... So one who receives the knowledge from the disciplic succession...
So Kṛṣṇa says jñeyam. Jñeyam means mat-paraṁ brahma. In a previous verse it has been explained, anādi mat-paraṁ brahma. Brahmā means bṛhatya bṛhanatyād iti brahma.(?) Nothing is great than Brahman. That is being explained, how Brahman, what is the meaning of Brahman. Brahman means sarvataḥ pāṇi-pādaṁ tat: "Brahman has got His hands and legs everywhere." Just like I have got my hands and legs, this is limited. I have got my hands. Why I cannot stretch five feet? Only three feet. That is also with great difficulty. But the Brahman's hand, sarvataḥ, sarvataḥ, everywhere.
Therefore, the Vedānta-sūtra philosophy, that begins with the word athāto brahma jijñāsā. Now, this life, this human form of life, is meant for inquiring about the Absolute Truth. Athāto brahma jijñāsā. Brahma means the Absolute Truth. So, that should be the subject matter for studying in human form of life. So Bhagavad-gītā is the right book to understand about that brahma, or the Supreme Personality of Godhead, or the Absolute Truth, whatever you call. The Absolute Truth is known in three phases: Brahman, Paramātmā and Bhagavān.
So Caitanya Mahāprabhu gives reference of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam with Brahma-saṁhitā. That means Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam also is eternal. They are not man-made, manufactured books. The Vedic literature means, as it is stated in this verse, tene brahma hṛdā. Brahma means Vedic literature, śabda-brahma. So He distributed the... Vāsudeva, original person, Absolute Truth, He, I mean to say, transferred this Vedic knowledge. Tene brahma hṛdā. Brahmā was alone. He could not see Kṛṣṇa eye to eye, but īśvaraḥ sarva-bhūtānāṁ hṛd-deśe arjuna tiṣṭhati (BG 18.61). Kṛṣṇa is everyone's heart, so He taught him from within. Kṛṣṇa's name is Caitya-guru, "guru, spiritual master from within." So Kṛṣṇa is trying to help us from within, and He manifests again externally also as spiritual master, directly teaching. So from within, from without, He is trying to help us. Kṛṣṇa is so kind. From within and without. Tene brahma hṛdā ādi-kavaye (SB 1.1.1).
So here it is said jijñāsitam adhītaṁ ca brahma. Brahma means the Supreme Absolute Truth. "You have inquired sufficiently..." Because he was spiritual master, Nārada, he knows how he was inquisitive. So, "You have inquired about the Supreme Absolute Truth." Jijñāsitam adhītaṁ ca yat tat sanātanam. Absolute Truth, sanātana means eternal. Absolute Truth is not relative. Here in this world everything we see relative. This world, material world, is called relative world. And therefore it is not sanātanam. Sanātanam means eternal. As soon as we are in the relative world, there is no eternal life. Relative world means that one thing has to be understood by another thing. Just like what is the meaning of "son"? The son is the son of a father. So unless there is father, there is no question of son. Unless there is husband, there is no question of wife. Unless there is black, there is no question of white.
So you can say "He is the first creature, there was nobody there. How he took knowledge? Who gave him knowledge?" The answer is there in the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, that Vāsudeva gave him. "Where is Vāsudeva? There was nothing." No. Īśvaraḥ sarva-bhūtānāṁ hṛd-deśe 'rjuna tiṣṭhati (BG 18.61). Vāsudeva means who stays everywhere. Vasati sarvatra. Vāsudevaḥ sarvam iti sa mahātmā su-durlabhaḥ (BG 7.19). So Vāsudeva is there. So Brahmā was, although there was nobody else except Brahmā, he was in the darkness. Still, Vāsudeva was there. Īśvaraḥ sarva-bhūtānāṁ hṛd-deśe 'rjuna (BG 18.61). So He gave the knowledge. Tene brahma. Brahma means Vedic knowledge.
You have to go to the guru. Why? Jijñāsuḥ śreya... If you want to know the real life, then you have to go to guru. Jijñāsuḥ śreya uttamam. Then what is the sign, what is the symptom of such guru where I shall get real information? That is also stated. Jijñāsuḥ śreya uttamam, śābde pare ca niṣṇātam. One who is fully aware of the transcendental science or words, śabda, śabda-brahma. Śabda-brahma means Vedic literature. One is completely in awareness of Vedic knowledge. Śābde pare ca niṣṇātam. Niṣṇātam means one has taken a dip in the ocean of this Vedic literature. Niṣṇātam. And what is the result? Śābde pare ca niṣṇātaṁ brahmaṇy upaśamāśrayam. The Supreme Brahman... Brahman, Paramātmā, Bhagavān. Brahmaṇi, either of them. But Bhagavān is the best. Or, if you cannot approach Bhagavān, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Brahman is also. Because if one is in Brahman, he has a chance to make further progress.
So Brahmā is the original creature. Therefore he has got contact with the original source. He has got the original source. How he receives knowledge? Because we have got understanding that we get knowledge from another person when we are face to face. But Brahmā was alone. How he got the knowledge? That is explained in the Bhāgavatam: tene brahma hṛdā. Hṛdā means through the heart. Because the Supreme Person, Paramātmā, is also within the heart. So although Brahmā was alone, he was getting the knowledge, dictation from the Supreme. Tene brahma. Brahma means knowledge. Brahma means Veda. The Vedic knowledge was given to him first. Tene brahma hṛdā.
Here in this material world everyone is in ignorance—everyone, even Brahmā. Brahmā, he was ignorant, but he was given knowledge by Kṛṣṇa. Tene brahma hṛdā ādi-kavaye (SB 1.1.1). Ādi-kavi means Brahmā. So the Vedic knowledge, tene brahma... Brahma means this Vedic knowledge, śabda-brahman. So there was one creature, Brahmā only, but he was educated. How he was educated? Hṛdā. Īśvaraḥ sarva-bhūtānāṁ hṛd-deśe arjuna tiṣṭhati (BG 18.61). Because, at that time, there was no other way but to transfer the knowledge from within. Buddhi-yogaṁ dadāmi taṁ yena mām upayānti te. That is caitya-guru, Kṛṣṇa, Paramātmā.
Therefore, yesterday we were explaining the ten kinds of offenses. Out of ten kinds of offenses, the serious offense is guror avajñā, disobedience of the order of guru. This is the verdict of the śāstra. Kṛṣṇa is helping us in so many ways. He comes personally to help us, to deliver us from these clutches of māyā, and He advises, sarva-dharmān parityajya mām ekaṁ śaraṇaṁ vraja (BG 18.66). And when He's not physically present, He keeps Bhagavad-gītā left by Him so that others may read and take advantage of this sublime instruction of Kṛṣṇa. So He is helping us from within—buddhi-yogaṁ dadāmi tam—from within. Tene brahma hṛdā. These statements are there in the śāstras. "He expounded the Vedic knowledge," hṛdā, "from the heart,"—brahma means Vedic knowledge, śabda-brahman—"to Brahmā." Because at that time there was nobody to instruct him. So how he got the instruction of Vedas? Because Kṛṣṇa instructed. Kṛṣṇa hoite catur-mukha, hoy kṛṣṇa-sevonmukha. Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura has sung. Catur-mukha means Brahmā. So being instructed by Kṛṣṇa, Brahmā became inclined to serve Kṛṣṇa.
So in Bhagavad-gītā Arjuna says, after understanding Bhagavad-gītā from Kṛṣṇa, he said, "You are Parabrahma." Paraṁ brahma paraṁ dhāma pavitraṁ paramaṁ bhavān (BG 10.12). Bhavān. Bhavān means "Your Lordship." "You are Parabrahma, the Supreme Brahma." He's the Supreme Brahma. Brahma means spirit and brahma means the greatest. So he has explicitly explained that spirit soul, we are all spirit soul, every one of us. But He is the supreme spirit soul, param. Param means the supreme. He's not ordinary. So He comes as ordinary, not ordinary, as human being, but He is the supreme human being. That is the difference. Supreme human being. But one who cannot understand, one who thinks, "Oh, Kṛṣṇa is like us. He has got also two hands, two legs, one head. We have got also. He is like me," he is a mūḍha, rascal. Therefore it is said in the Bhagavad-gītā, avajānanti māṁ mūḍhāḥ: (BG 9.11) "These rascal fools, they deride." Mānuṣīṁ tanum āś... Paraṁ bhāvam ajānantaḥ, "They have no knowledge of the paraṁ bhāvam." So the paraṁ bhāvam, that is understood by the devotees. That is the difference. Budhā bhāva-samanvitāḥ, Kṛṣṇa has said. Budhā bhāva-samanvitāḥ (BG 10.8). Paraṁ bhāvam, this bhāva... Bhāva means assimilation—"Oh, Kṛṣṇa is so great." This is called bhāva. That is real understanding, when you understand really this bhāva stage. Bhāva-bhakti. Bhāva-bhakti. Simply engaged in Kṛṣṇa's service. Paraṁ bhāvam. Person who has not come to this stage of bhāva, he cannot understand Kṛṣṇa. Paraṁ bhāvam ajānantaḥ. The bhāva stage comes.
Deha means body, and apatya means children. Apatya. So those who are family men... Those who are not family men, their question is different. They are not even human beings. Ordinarily, the Vedic process is that first of all you try to remain without family, alone. Be independent, no cares, no anxieties. You can lie down here, or whatever you can eat, that's all. But be spiritually advanced. That is called brahmacārī life. Brahmacārī means... Brahma means Absolute Truth. And cārī means who is, whose business is only with Brahman, ahaṁ brahmāsmi, with spiritual advancement of life. That is called brahmacārī. And he has no interest with anything material. He's, at least, educated in that way, that "Actually, you have no interest with these material things. You are, you should be interested only for your spiritual advancement. This is the opportunity."
Demigod worshipers will go to the demigods. There are different planets, 33 crores of demigods, and there are thirty-three crores of planets also. The moon planet, according to Vedic literature, that is also one of the planets belonging to the demigod Candra. It is one of the higher planets. So this is the list. If you want something particular... if you want to merge into the effulgence, brahmajyoti, then you worship... Yajeta brahmaṇaḥ patim. Brahmaṇaḥ. Brahmaṇaḥ means also Vedas, śabda-brahma. Tene brahma hṛdā, in the Bhāgavata, beginning. Brahma means this sound, transcendental sound of knowledge. That is Veda. So there is Upaniṣad. So Upaniṣad, they generally, those who are scholars in Upaniṣad, they want to become one with the... So that is not a very difficult thing. Anyone can do that. There is a process, but we Vaiṣṇavas, we do not accept that suicidal policy. We want to keep our individuality, not merge. We don't want to finish our identity.
You cannot equalize Nārāyaṇa even with such exalted demigods as like Lord Śiva or Lord Brahmā. Amongst the devas, demigods, Lord Śiva is called Mahādeva. He is the foremost demigod, and similarly Brahmā. Brahmā is less than Lord Śiva, but because in this material world Brahmā appeared to be the father of Rudra, therefore he is given a little more respect. But actually, Lord Śiva is more than Lord Brahmā. But even Lord Śiva and Lord Brahmā—rudrādi-daivataiḥ—Rudra means Śiva and Brahmā means..., not..., they also cannot be equalized with Nārāyaṇa. And we are so foolish that we are making daridra-nārāyaṇa: "Nārāyaṇa has become daridra." Śāstra says, "Don't equalize even with such exalted demigods like Lord Brahmā, Lord Śiva," and these foolish rascals, they are making equal Nārāyaṇa with daridra.
So this knowledge, Kṛṣṇa is canvassing. He comes there occasionally. He comes once in the day of Brahmā, and the Brahmā's days is explained in the Bhagavad-gītā, sahasra-yuga-paryantam ahar yad brahmaṇo viduḥ (BG 8.17). It means four, forty-three lakhs of years, add three zeros, some crores of years after, Kṛṣṇa comes once in Brahmā's days. Yadā yadā hi... That is just like the sun rises early in the morning, say, after twelve years, er, twelve hours. Similarly, Kṛṣṇa's coming here, there is calculation in the śāstra. He comes once in a day of Brahmā. Means some crores of years after He comes. So things deteriorate. And not only He comes as Kṛṣṇa. Kṛṣṇa, He comes at a certain period, and still, the His incarnations also come to educate these foolish people who are thinking that "We are living very happily," to canvass them, to say the same thing. Similarly, Kapiladeva also, He is propounding the Sāṅkhya philosophy.
So our material position and spiritual position—the ultimate point is sound. And this sound is presented in its original spiritual form. That is called Veda, śabda-brahma. Tene brahma hṛdā ādi-kavaye. This brahma means śabda-brahma. The śabda-brahma was imparted or vibrated by Kṛṣṇa in the heart of Brahmā. Tene brahma hṛdā ādi-kavaye. And then he could realize what is his position. Then, after hearing the sound, he compiled this Brahma-saṁhitā. That Brahma-saṁhitā we have recited many times. The Brahmā, Lord Brahmā, by personal realization through the mercy of Kṛṣṇa on account of this sound, transcendental, being injected within heart, he could see the whole spiritual world as it is.
Because if you purify your existence, then you get unlimited pleasure. Your life is, you are finding out where is pleasure. That is ānandamayo 'bhyāsāt (Vedānta-sūtra 1.1.12). Every living entities is fit for enjoying because he's part and parcel of God. Because he part and parcel, he's also enjoyer, although in the minute quantity. But he can enjoy in association with God. So in order to enter into the association of God, he has to purify himself. Yasmād brahma-sau... Brahma, brahma-saukhyam. Brahma means the unlimited or spiritual. Spiritual means unlimited, unending, eternal—the greatest. These are some of the meanings of brahma.
Now calculate, I have already given the duration of one day, twelve hours, of Brahmā means 4,300,000 years multiplied by one thousand. What it comes? 4,300,000 years multiplied by one thousand.
Now they are giving their identification in this way, yamadūtā ūcuḥ veda-praṇihito dharmaḥ, immediately answered. "What is dharma?" That was the question. Immediately answered. They know what is dharma. Veda-praṇihito dharmaḥ: "Dharma means what is explained in the Vedas." You cannot create dharma. Veda, the original knowledge, Veda means knowledge. Veda-śāstra. So from the time of creation, the Veda was given to Brahmā. Veda... Therefore it is called apauruṣeya; it is not manufactured. That is explained in the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, tene brahma hṛdā ādi-kavaye. Brahma, brahma means Veda. Vedas another name is brahma, spiritual knowledge, or all knowledge, brahma. So tene brahma ādi-kavaye hṛdā. So Veda has to be studied from the spiritual master.
Then the most authentic evidence is śruti, out of three evidences, the śruti, hearing from the authority. Just like Kṛṣṇa says, imaṁ vivasvate yogaṁ proktavān aham avyayam (BG 4.1). So Kṛṣṇa says... Kṛṣṇa is the authority, best authority, supreme authority. So we can understand from His speech that in the sun planet there is a king whose name is Vaivasvata. And Kṛṣṇa says that "I spoke to Vivasvān." So Vivasvān... Now, nobody can say when the sun planet was created. But we can calculate, as it is said, vivasvān manave prāhuḥ, that Vivasvān, he explained to Manu. So Manu's age we can calculate. Manu's age, there are seventy-two Manus in one day of Brahmā. And the one day of Brahmā means forty-three hundred thousands of years multiplied by one thousand and divided by seventy-two. Then we can immediately calculate what is Manu's age. So by Manu's age we can calculate that forty millions of years ago Kṛṣṇa spoke to the sun-god about this philosophy. This is called śruti. The exact calculation, by śruti you can make. So śruti-pramāṇa.
So the bhakti-mārga, it is clearly said, it is, that you cannot be purified simply by performing the Vedic ritualistic ceremony. Na niskrtaiḥ. Na niṣkṛtair uditair brahma-vādibhiḥ. Brahma-vādī means... Brahma means śabda-brahma, Vedic injunction. So there are many brahmavādīs. Just like Manu-saṁhitā. Parāśara, he has made viṁśati dharma-śāstras. So they are authorized things. But still, if you follow the ritualistic ceremonies, if you make atonement according to the Vedic direction, you cannot be fully purified, fully purified, because unless you are detestful of this material existence, unless you are determined to go back to home, back to Godhead. If you want to adjust in this material world to be happy, then you have to commit sinful activities.
So brahmādayaḥ, Brahma is ādi, ādi-kavi. He was instructed by Kṛṣṇa, tene brahma ādi-kavaye. Lord Kṛṣṇa, He instructed Brahma to spread knowledge, Vedic knowledge, all over the universe. Tene. Tene means broadcasted, expanded. So tene brahma, brahma means śabda-brahma, Vedas. Hṛda, one may question how Brahma was instructed. So that is also stated, hṛda. Hṛda means from within the heart. So, therefore, Kṛṣṇa is also caitya-guru, a guru, spiritual master, within the heart. Sarvasya cāhaṁ hṛdi sanniviṣṭhaḥ. In the Bhagavad-gītā, Kṛṣṇa says that "I am situated in everyone's heart." Sarvasya ca ahaṁ hṛdi sanniviṣṭaḥ. Sarvasya cāham hṛdi sanniviṣṭo mattaḥ smṛtir jñānam apohanaṁ ca (BG 15.15). "From Me one can remember, one can forget." How is that? Kṛṣṇa helps one to remember and one helps..., He helps one to forget. That is also replied in the Bhagavad-gītā, ye yathā māṁ prapadyante tāṁs tathaiva bhajāmy aham (BG 4.11). If you want to forget Kṛṣṇa, Kṛṣṇa will give you facilities to forget Him forever. And if you want to remember Kṛṣṇa, He will give you facilities to remember Him.
Vedas means from the beginning of creation. Brahma, the first living creature, he was impregnated with Vedic knowledge by Kṛṣṇa. And that is stated in the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam: tene brahma hṛdā ādi-kavaye. Ādi kavi means the first living creature, Brahma. In his heart, hṛdā... Hṛdā means heart. Tene, impregnated. Brahma, brahma means Vedic knowledge. So he was the first living creature. So one may inquire that how he was educated in Vedic knowledge, because there was no other living being. So therefore it is stated, tene brahma hṛdā. Hṛdā means from within. There is education from within and without. From within the Supersoul gives you education. Kṛṣṇa gives you education. Not to everyone. Who is devotee, to him, the Lord speaks from within. And from without, the spiritual master. So both ways we are getting opportunity for learning Vedic knowledge, from without, from within. And if still we don't take advantage of it, then it is our misfortune. The spiritual master is considered to be the outward expression of the Supersoul. God is so kind that He is within, giving you education, provided you are prepared to hear. And from without, He sends His representative. So both ways we are benefited. We have to take advantage of this opportunity. From without, we have got these books, the spiritual master, the saintly persons, so many. Friends, books. And from within, Kṛṣṇa, the Supersoul.
Sri Caitanya-caritamrta Lectures
So the creation means that first of all the universes are created through the breathing period of Kāraṇodakaśāyī Viṣṇu. Then in each and every universe He enters as Garbhodakaśāyī Viṣṇu, and He creates... Half of the universe is filled up with water. The water came from His perspiration, and then He lies down there. Then He creates the lotus flower. And upon the lotus flower, a Brahmā is first-born. This is creation. That Brahmā means not an uncivilized human being; the most intelligent person, first creation. We cannot accept the rubbish theory of Darwin that there was no human being.
Because Brahmā is considered to be the first created being in this universe. So Bhāgavata says, tene brahma hṛdā ādi-kavaye. Ādi-kavaye means the first created being, and brahma means this Vedic knowledge. So He impregnated Brahmā with Vedic knowledge. So these are the explanation of Vedānta-sūtra. But there are so many foolish rascals, they are misusing Vedānta-sūtra in a different way. Therefore Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu very cunningly represented Himself that "I am a fool. I am a rascal. Therefore My Guru Mahārāja, My spiritual master, chastised Me, that 'You rascal, You fool, You cannot understand Vedānta-sūtra. You better take this. That will make You happy.' " Or, in other words, at the present moment, the circumstances are so awkward that it is not possible to understand Vedānta. If you indulge in Vedānta-sūtra, it will be very difficult for you.
Ataeva śruti kahe brahma-saviśeṣa: God, Brahma, the great. Brahma means the great. Bṛhatvād bṛhannatvāt. The Absolute Truth is the great and can expand also unlimitedly. Advaitam acyutam anādim ananta-rūpam (Bs. 5.33). Rūpam: He has got His transcendental forms, ananta, unlimited. But they are all one. Advaitam acyutam anādim ananta-rūpam. Ādyam, the original; Purāṇa, the oldest; puruṣam, person. Advaitam acyutam anādim ananta-rūpam. Although He has got innumerable forms, they are advaita, they are one. Advaitam acyutam anādim ananta-rūpam (Bs. 5.33). Ādyam, original; Purāṇa, the oldest; and puruṣam, the person.
If you accept, then it is all right. And if you speculate, you can do that, but our movement is to accept Kṛṣṇa. Brahmā means, janmādy asya yataḥ (SB 1.1.1), the origin of everything. Here is the person. He says, ahaṁ sarvasya prabhavo mattaḥ sarvaṁ pravartate (BG 10.8). Accept it. Very simple thing. You are searching after who is the origin of everything, and Kṛṣṇa says, "I am the origin of everything." So if you accept, your question is solved. If you don't accept, go on speculating. There is no difficulty. Difficulty is when you do not accept Kṛṣṇa's instruction. Then difficulty is.
Now, this one day, twelve hours, within this twelve hours, there are fourteen Manus. Twelve hours of Brahmā means 4, 3, five zero, eight zero. What is that, 4, 3, eight zeroes? What is the calculation according to your arithmetic, 4, 3, eight zeroes? Huh?
Sri Brahma-samhita Lectures
These descriptions are there. So ādi-kavi, ādi-kavi means Brahmā. Brahmā, Ādi-kavi. So tene brahma. Brahmā means śabda-brahman, Vedic literature. So He instructed or imparted in the heart of Brahmā. Because when the creation was there, Brahmā was the only person, living entity, in the beginning. So the question may be that "How Brahmā learned Vedic knowledge?" That is explained: tene brahma... Brahmā. Brahmā means Vedic literature. Śabda-brahman.
Brahmā is the original creature within this universe. We, we do not know what is beyond this universe, but within this universe, he's the first creature. He's also known as ādi kavi. Ādi-kavaye. In the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam you have read: tene hṛdā ādi-kavaye. Ādi-kavi means the original learned person. Brahmā is a learned person. Darwin's theory is that origin is void. That is nonsense. The origin also, even within this universe, is a learned person. Ādi-kavi. Tene brahma hṛdā ādi-kavaye muhyanti yat sūrayaḥ. Ādi-kavi is person. Ādi means original learned person, learned creature, he's person. And his origin also person. Brahmā's description is there. I forget that verse now. The purport of that verse is that Brahmā, the first creature, he's also receiving knowledge from the ādi person, ādi person, or original person. Tene. That is described in Bhāgavatam. Brahma... Brahma means jñāna, knowledge. Brahma-jñāna. Tene brahma. People may doubt how Brahmā can learn. "He's the original creature. Where is the other person? A spiritual master is also person. So if he was initiated, where is another person?"
So by brahminical culture, by chanting the gāyatrī-mantra or the Hare Kṛṣṇa mantra, gradually we become purified. That is explained by Caitanya Mahāprabhu. Ceto-darpaṇa-mārjanam (CC Antya 20.12). Come to the original consciousness, Kṛṣṇa consciousness, then you'll become happy. Original consciousness, the beginning of original consciousness: to understand one's self as Brahma, not matter. Brahma means spirit. Ahaṁ brahmāsmi: "I'm not matter, I'm spirit soul." This is the beginning of spiritual consciousness or Kṛṣṇa consciousness.
Eda means knowledge, and the ultimate knowledge: Vedānta. So ultimate knowledge, it, what is that? That is the beginning of Vedānta education. What is that ultimate knowledge? Athāto brahma jijñāsā. The Vedānta begins with this word, "Now this human form of life is to acquire the ultimate knowledge." Athāto brahma. Brahma means the ultimate. So, the absolute. Now it is the time to understand. So far understanding of sex, the dog also knows. You don't require to give him any education. So nobody is given education... Now of course they have adopted, but there is a Bengali proverb, "How to cry and how to enjoy sex, it doesn't require any education." When you are aggrieved, you cry automatically. When there is a sex impulse, you enjoy it automatically. It doesn't require any Mr. Freud. Without the help of any educator, everyone knows-cats, dogs, animals, human being—everyone knows how to enjoy sex life. It doesn't require any education.
Purports to Songs
So this mahā-mantra, Hare Kṛṣṇa Hare Kṛṣṇa Kṛṣṇa Kṛṣṇa Hare Hare, is being chanted by Brahmā with his four mouths. Brahmā-jape catur-mukhe. Brahmā means Lord Brahmā, and jape means he is chanting, catur-mukhe, with his four heads. Within this universe, only Brahmā has got four heads. And Lord Śiva sometimes exhibits five heads. So it is explained here that Lord Brahmā is also chanting this Hare Kṛṣṇa Hare Kṛṣṇa Kṛṣṇa Kṛṣṇa Hare Hare, Hare Rāma Hare Rāma Rāma Rāma Hare Hare, with his four mouths. Still he is chanting. He does not think that he is satiated.
Conversations and Morning Walks
1974 Conversations and Morning Walks
Dr. Kapoor: After creation it came from...
Prabhupāda: Tene brahma hṛdā, ādi-kavaye. Tene brahma. Brahma means before the creation. Aham evasam agre. Before creation Kṛṣṇa was there, and it was, the kṛṣṇa-bhakti was injected within the heart of Brahmā. (Hindi—break) ...three to four hours at night and one hour or one and half hour, altogether five hours. Gosvāmīs (Hindi) ...brahma-bhūtaḥ. Sa guṇān samatītyaitān brahma-bhūyāya kalpate (BG 14.26).
Chandobhai: Brahmaṇo hi pratiṣṭhāham...
Prabhupāda: Brahma means Vedas, Brahma means... There are so many things. So many things. So here brahmaṇaḥ, brahmajyoti... People are very much impersonalists. They think realization of brahmajyoti is final. To, just to reply them, this is, this śloka is: brahmaṇo aham pratiṣṭha. Wherefrom this jyoti's coming? This is very common sense. A jyoti does... Just like this jyoti, this clearness, no darkness, wherefrom it is coming? Everyone knows it is coming from the sun. Without this sun, why at night there was no such jyoti? Because the sun is rising, therefore this jyoti has come. Similarly...
1976 Conversations and Morning Walks
So far prayer is concerned, God is great, accepted, either by the Christian or the Muhammadan or the Hindus or the followers of Vedic principles. Now "God is great, glorify Him, and that is the business of human life," that they are not taking. Practically. That is the defect. And that is to be done. Athāto brahma jijñāsā. Brahmā means the great. Brhavad brhanantvad iti brahma.(?) Brahmā means the greatest. Now here we get the information God is great. So naturally one should be inquisitive to know how He is great. That is human life. Athāto brahma jijñāsā. Just like if I introduce, "Here is a gentleman, very rich." So naturally next inquiry will be, "How he is rich? What is the position that he is very rich?" These inquiries are natural. If I simply remain satisfied by hearing that he is rich, that is also good. You have got some respect. But if you know how he is rich, to what extent he is rich, then your respect will be increased.
Brahma means "the Great", so even if you fight, then it will be physically impossible to come out victorious. But one thing I see is that you are coming out victorious in the matter of sales organization of the books. In one of the letters of Brahmananda I understand that the book selling organization there is not very satisfactory. Therefore, I am very much glad to read the circular letter issued to the temple presidents, and I shall be glad to know how you are getting response.