BG 10.21 adityanam aham visnur... cited

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Bhagavad-gita As It Is

BG Chapters 7 - 12

BG 10.21, Translation and Purport:

Of the Ādityas I am Viṣṇu, of lights I am the radiant sun, of the Maruts I am Marīci, and among the stars I am the moon.

There are twelve Ādityas, of which Kṛṣṇa is the principal. Among all the luminaries shining in the sky, the sun is the chief, and in the Brahma-saṁhitā the sun is accepted as the glowing eye of the Supreme Lord. There are fifty varieties of wind blowing in space, and of these winds the controlling deity, Marīci, represents Kṛṣṇa.

Among the stars, the moon is the most prominent at night, and thus the moon represents Kṛṣṇa. It appears from this verse that the moon is one of the stars; therefore the stars that twinkle in the sky also reflect the light of the sun. The theory that there are many suns within the universe is not accepted by Vedic literature. The sun is one, and as by the reflection of the sun the moon illuminates, so also do the stars. Since Bhagavad-gītā indicates herein that the moon is one of the stars, the twinkling stars are not suns but are similar to the moon.

BG Chapters 13 - 18

BG 15.12, Purport:

From this verse we can understand that the sun is illuminating the whole solar system. There are different universes and solar systems, and there are different suns, moons and planets also, but in each universe there is only one sun. As stated in Bhagavad-gītā (10.21), the moon is one of the stars (nakṣatrāṇām ahaṁ śaśī). Sunlight is due to the spiritual effulgence in the spiritual sky of the Supreme Lord. With the rise of the sun, the activities of human beings are set up. They set fire to prepare their foodstuff, they set fire to start the factories, etc. So many things are done with the help of fire. Therefore sunrise, fire and moonlight are so pleasing to the living entities. Without their help no living entity can live. So if one can understand that the light and splendor of the sun, moon and fire are emanating from the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Kṛṣṇa, then one's Kṛṣṇa consciousness will begin. By the moonshine, all the vegetables are nourished. The moonshine is so pleasing that people can easily understand that they are living by the mercy of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Kṛṣṇa. Without His mercy there cannot be sun, without His mercy there cannot be moon, and without His mercy there cannot be fire, and without the help of sun, moon and fire, no one can live. These are some thoughts to provoke Kṛṣṇa consciousness in the conditioned soul.


SB Canto 5

SB 5.16.1, Translation and Purport:

King Parīkṣit said to Śukadeva Gosvāmī: O brāhmaṇa, you have already informed me that the radius of Bhū-maṇḍala extends as far as the sun spreads its light and heat and as far as the moon and all the stars can be seen.

In this verse it is stated that the planetary system known as Bhū-maṇḍala extends to the limits of the sunshine. According to modern science, the sunshine reaches earth from a distance of 93,000,000 miles. If we calculate according to this modern information, 93,000,000 miles can be considered the radius of Bhū-maṇḍala. In the Gāyatrī mantra, we chant oṁ bhūr bhuvaḥ svaḥ. The word bhūr refers to Bhū-maṇḍala. Tat savitur vareṇyam: the sunshine spreads throughout Bhū-maṇḍala. Therefore the sun is worshipable. The stars, which are known as nakṣatra, are not different suns, as modern astronomers suppose. From Bhagavad-gītā (10.21) we understand that the stars are similar to the moon (nakṣatrāṇām ahaṁ śaśī). Like the moon, the stars reflect the sunshine. Apart from our modern distinguished estimations of where the planetary systems are located, we can understand that the sky and its various planets were studied long, long before Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam was compiled. Śukadeva Gosvāmī explained the location of the planets, and this indicates that the information was known long, long before Śukadeva Gosvāmī related it to Mahārāja Parīkṣit. The location of the various planetary systems was not unknown to the sages who flourished in the Vedic age.

SB 5.21.11, Translation and Purport:

From the residence of Yamarāja the sun travels to Nimlocanī, the residence of Varuṇa, from there to Vibhāvarī, the residence of the moon-god, and from there again to the residence of Indra. In a similar way, the moon, along with the other stars and planets, becomes visible in the celestial sphere and then sets and again becomes invisible.

In Bhagavad-gītā (10.21) Kṛṣṇa says, nakṣatrāṇām ahaṁ śaśī: "Of stars I am the moon." This indicates that the moon is similar to the other stars. The Vedic literature informs us that within this universe there is one sun, which is moving. The Western theory that all the luminaries in the sky are different suns is not confirmed in the Vedic literature. Nor can we assume that these luminaries are the suns of other universes, for each universe is covered by various layers of material elements, and therefore although the universes are clustered together, we cannot see from one universe to another. In other words, whatever we see is within this one universe. In each universe there is one Lord Brahmā, and there are other demigods on other planets, but there is only one sun.

Sri Caitanya-caritamrta

CC Adi-lila

CC Adi 13.5, Translation and Purport:

All glories to the moons who are devotees of the principal moon, Lord Caitanyacandra! Their bright moonshine illuminates the entire universe.

In this verse we find the moon described as candra-gaṇa, which is plural in number. This indicates that there are many moons. In the Bhagavad-gītā (10.21) the Lord says, nakṣatrāṇām ahaṁ śaśī: "Among the stars, I am the moon." All the stars are like the moon. Western astronomers consider the stars to be suns, but Vedic astronomers, following the Vedic scriptures, consider them moons. The sun has the ability to shine powerfully, and the moons reflect the sunshine and therefore look brilliant. In the Caitanya-caritāmṛta Kṛṣṇa is described to be like the sun. The supreme powerful is the Supreme Personality of Godhead Śrī Kṛṣṇa, or Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, and His devotees are also bright and illuminating because they reflect the supreme sun.


Bhagavad-gita As It Is Lectures

Lecture on BG 4.5 -- Montreal, June 10, 1968:

Now there are so many attempts to go to the moon planet. They are trying to go there by so many ascending processes, sputnik, airplanes, and so many things. Still, we do not know what is this planet.

But you read Bhagavad-gītā or Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, you understand immediately what is this moon planet. It is said in the Bhagavad-gītā nakṣatrāṇām ahaṁ śaśī. Śaśī means this moon planet. You immediately understand that this moon planet is one of the stars. Just like the constitutional position of other stars, you understand the moon is like that. And they are searching after whether in the moon planet there is life or not, there is living condition or not. But you open Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, you'll find the description of the moon planet, how they are living, what is the constitution of the living creatures there. The soma-rasa, you have heard this word. The soma-rasa is beverage in the moon planet. So everything is there. And who can go there, and how one can go there. So this is perfect knowledge, to hear from the authorities.

Lecture on BG 13.18 -- Bombay, October 12, 1973:

Vibhūti-bhinnam. Each planet has got different atmosphere. Therefore these people, they cannot understand what is the atmosphere. They understand. Some scientists, they say the atmosphere in the moon planet is two hundred degrees below zero. So there are difference of scientists' opinion, but according to Vedic literature we understand that there are innumerable planets, and one of the planets is the moon planet. Nakṣatrāṇām ahaṁ śaśī. Nakṣatrāṇām: "Among the stars and planets," Kṛṣṇa says, "I am the moon."

So jyotiṣām api jyotis tamasaḥ param. So this jyoti, this illumination, is beyond this material world. And because there is illumination, that illumination is reflected in the material world. You will find the reflection, bluish reflection, in the sky. It means that brahma-jyotir is bluish because it is coming out from the blue body of Kṛṣṇa. Therefore it is bluish. We see the sky bluish, and in darkness we see, although it is darkness, there is some brightness in the sky. Always the sky is... The sky is everywhere, but the covering is seven times covered by different types of material elements, and that brahma-jyotir is penetrating through the covers, and little reflection we can see in the sky.

Srimad-Bhagavatam Lectures

Lecture on SB 1.8.31 -- Los Angeles, April 23, 1973:

The scientists, they say the stars are all suns, but according to our information, in the Bhagavad-gītā: nakṣatrāṇām ahaṁ śaśī. Śaśī means the moon is just like so many stars. So what is the position of the moon? Moon is bright being reflection of the sun. So according to our calculation the sun is one. But the modern scientists say that there are so many suns, the stars. We don't agree. This is only one universe. There are many suns, innumerable, but in each and every sun, every universe, there is one sun, not many. So this universe, what we are experiencing, experiencing by seeing imperfectly... We do not know. We cannot count how many stars are there, how many planets are there. It is impossible. So the material things which is before us, still we are unable to count, to understand, and what to speak of the Supreme Lord who created this universe? That is not possible.

Lecture on SB 3.25.8 -- Bombay, November 8, 1974:

There is another world, but what the scientists have got information? They have no information, sufficient information of this material world. But there is another world, another nature. This nature, we can, although we cannot reach, there are millions and trillions of stars glittering in the evening. We can see simply. Simply we can see. We cannot go even to the moon star. Moon is also a star, nearest star. That's all. Similarly, all these stars, they are like moon. Nakṣatrāṇām ahaṁ śaśī. Kṛṣṇa says, nakṣatrāṇām. They are nakṣatra. The nakṣatra, the modern science, they say they are all suns. No. They are like moon, glittering. If we have to believe our śāstra. Nakṣatrāṇām ahaṁ śaśī. So we cannot even go to the nearest planet, nearest star, and what to speak of going beyond? Paras tasmāt tu bhāvaḥ anyaḥ (BG 8.20). The spiritual, there is spiritual sky, paravyoma. That is called paravyoma. This is called material vyoma, and... The vyoma means ākāśa.

Lecture on SB 7.9.10-11 -- Montreal, July 14, 1968:

So Brahman is so great, and Brahman can expand. Bṛhatvāt. That which is greater than the greatest, and that which can expand unlimited, that is called Brahman. But in the Bhagavad-gītā you'll find Kṛṣṇa says, brahmaṇo 'haṁ pratiṣṭha, that "I am the resort of Brahman. Brahman is resting upon Me." So who is greater? Kṛṣṇa or Brahman? You'll find in the Bhagavad-gītā, brahmaṇo 'haṁ pratiṣṭha. Just like the sunshine. The sunshine is distributed all over the universe. According to Vedic knowledge, the sunshine is distributing its shining all over the universe, and the stars or the moons, they're glittering, being reflected by the sun. Just like in the Bhagavad-gītā you'll find, nakṣatrāṇām aham śaśi. Kṛṣṇa says that "Out of the many stars, I am the moon." That means moons and the stars are on the same category. As the moon is a reflection of the sun, similarly the stars are also a reflection of the sun. So this shining you can see, it is expanded all over the universe. And whoever is coming in front of that shining, sunshine, it is glittering. Just like you can see sometimes an airplane running very high on the sky.

Conversations and Morning Walks

1974 Conversations and Morning Walks

Morning Walk -- March 18, 1974, Vrndavana:

Devotee: That stars?

Prabhupāda: Stars? They are planets like this planet. Like moon planet, the moon planet. Nakṣatrāṇām ahaṁ śaśī. The stars, they are so many moons, not suns. They say "sun." And we say, "No, it is moon." Sun is only one. In each universe there is one sun, but there are many planets like moons.

Tamāla Kṛṣṇa: Reflections.

Prabhupāda: Reflection. We get it from Bhagavad-gītā. Nakṣatrāṇām ahaṁ śaśī. (heavy wind noise) (break) ...due to the sun, reflect.

Guru dāsa: Why does the moon reflect? They say the moon is sandy, but this sand here is not reflecting.

Prabhupāda: That... They are not going to the moon planet. They are going to some other planet, Rahu planet.

Guru dāsa: Rahu?

Prabhupāda: Yes. There are many planets invisible. So there is a Rahu planet which comes in front of the moon planet, and that is called eclipse. So there is a planet rotating. I think they are going to that Rahu planet, not to the moon planet.

Morning Walk -- April 3, 1974, Bombay:

Prabhupāda: Yes. The body develops so long the ātmā is there. So similarly, because Kṛṣṇa is there, therefore whatever manifestation you see, that is due to Kṛṣṇa. Now here the latest theory of the rascals, that life has come from matter, is refuted.

Dr. Patel: That is Carvaka's theory, this Karl Marx, the communists.

Prabhupāda: Yes. Now He says aham. Aham is living entity. So living entity is the origin of everything.

Dr. Patel:

ādityānām ahaṁ viṣṇur
jyotiṣāṁ ravir aṁśumān
marīcir marutām asmi
nakṣatrāṇām ahaṁ śaśī

Prabhupāda: Yes. Now, this is also another nice thing, that the modern astronomers, they say that all these stars are sun, sun. Do they not?

Dr. Patel: Yes.

Prabhupāda: But just like Kṛṣṇa says, "They are just like moon." Just see. Nakṣatrāṇām ahaṁ śaśi. So śaśi means the moon. Moon is like one of the stars. So if you say the stars are sūrya, then there is contradiction. How the moon and the sun can be equal? But actually, that is not. According to our Vedic astronomy, there is one sun only in one universe, although there are millions of universes, we cannot count. So there are millions of suns. That is another thing. But within the universe there is only one sun, and by the brilliance of sunshine, all these stars and moons are glittering. Just like moon shining, being reflected by the sun, similarly, all the stars they are glittering, being reflected by the sun, not that all of them are different suns. This theory is refuted.

1975 Conversations and Morning Walks

Morning Walk -- May 11, 1975, Perth:

Prabhupāda: ...only sun.

Amogha: What are the stars exactly, they're other planets or...?

Prabhupāda: They're planets, (indistinct) planets.

Amogha: Are they self-luminating like the moon?

Prabhupāda: Yes. Like that. That is stated in Bhagavad-gītā, nakṣatrāṇām ahaṁ śaśi.

Amogha: Ah, "Of luminaries, I am the moon."

Prabhupāda: Yes.

Amogha: Very soon the United States is sending up one rocket and Russia is sending up another rocket and they are joining in space and they think this is progress. They'll join together up there. They hope someday they'll be able to stay in a station like that and then go out to some planet.

Prabhupāda: They could not mix in this planet, they are going to mix in another planet.

Srutakirti: They'll probably have some argument in outer space. The astronauts will get into a fight.

Prabhupāda: The rascal could not compromise here, they're going in the sky. All mental concoction.

1976 Conversations and Morning Walks

Room Conversation -- July 6, 1976, Washington, D.C.:

Prabhupāda: Nearest star.

Svarūpa Dāmodara: Yes.

Prabhupāda: So that means near star, nearest, which relationship, with the earth?

Svarūpa Dāmodara: With the other stars.

Prabhupāda: Ah?

Svarūpa Dāmodara: With the other stars.

Prabhupāda: Other stars? Nearest means?

Svarūpa Dāmodara: To the earth.

Prabhupāda: To the earth. So they are... We are speaking the same thing. The sun is the nearest, then moon.

Hari-śauri: But they don't care if the moon is a star.

Prabhupāda: No, moon star is described in the Bhagavad-gītā. Nakṣatrāṇām ahaṁ śaśī. It is confirmed in the Bhagavad-gītā. Moon is one of the stars, but brilliant star.

Yadubara: How many brilliant stars are there in this Universe?

Prabhupāda: Many. Yasya prabhā prabhavato jagad-aṇḍa-koṭi-koṭiṣv aśeṣa-vasudhādi-vibhūti-bhinnam (Bs. 5.40). Aśeṣa. We cannot count.

1977 Conversations and Morning Walks

Room Conversation with Devotees -- July 1, 1977, Vrndavana:

Prabhupāda: So he went to purchase something from a grocer. The grocer asked him, "Why you are shaven-headed?" "Oh, such person has..., is now dead."

Trivikrama: Sargal Singh?

Prabhupāda: No, I'll come to that. So the grocer also thought, "Now I also should shave." Something saying like that. Then another man met him. He also said. He also said. Then at last, one intelligent man, he asked, "Who is this man?" Then again the news come back through the paramparā, (laughter) yes, who is this man. Then he called the man, first, who said. He was a dhobi, and his ass was dead. The ass was dead, so hearing, it has gone so far. The other men... The unintelligent persons are like that. They do not know, inquire what is the real thing. Just like twenty years ago I said, "This is all nonsense, moon-going." And now they are coming: "Oh, it is hoax." So that is the difference. Twenty years before and "This is all childish waste of money. This rascal will never be able to go to the moon." And now they are coming. That is the difference. I said from common sense. Nakṣatrāṇām ahaṁ śaśī. And we read in the Bhāgavatam that to go to the moon planet, one has to execute such yajñas, karma-kāṇḍa. We understand from śāstra. And how this rascal with a machine will go there? That is a common sense. But they do not believe in the words of the śāstra. Rascals, they were bluffed and they believe. Śāstra-cakṣus. Your eyes should be through the śāstra.

Compiled byVisnu Murti +
Completed sectionsALL +
Date of first entryApril 6, 0011 JL +
Date of last entryApril 6, 0011 JL +
Total quotes15 +
Total quotes by sectionBG: 2 +, SB: 2 +, CC: 1 +, OB: 0 +, Lec: 5 +, Conv: 5 + and Let: 0 +