So Kṛṣṇa further says in this connection, antavanta ime dehā nityasyoktāḥ śarīriṇaḥ (BG 2.18). This body... Deha means body. Antavat, it is by this material body, that is eternal. So that consciousness, or the rays of the soul, is described here. Na jāyate na mriyate vā kadācit. "This consciousness of the soul is never born, neither it is ever dead." Nāyaṁ bhūtvā bhavitā vā na bhūyaḥ. The soul and the consciousness has no past, present, or future. It is eternal. Aja. Aja means who does not take birth. Ajo nitya, eternal; śāśvata, ever-existing; ayaṁ purāṇa, the oldest. Na hanyate hanyamāne śarīre (BG 2.20). When the body is annihilated, the soul and consciousness is not annihilated. Just like when we sleep, our consciousness works in a different body, subtle body: mind, intelligence and ego. That we have got experience every night. We sleep on our bed, but my consciousness goes to other country or other place, and work in a different way. Again, when at the end of the dream we come back to this body, gross body. So death means when the consciousness does not come back again to this gross body and enters another gross body. This period is called death. So the subtle body, mind, is there. I know you have got mind, you know I have got my mind. But I cannot see your mind, you cannot see my mind. So there is intelligence also. I know you have got intelligence, you know I have got intelligence. But you cannot see my intelligence unless it is acted. I cannot see your intelligence unless it is acted. So the soul is covered by two kinds of dresses. Just like we are covered by the shirt and coat. Similarly, the covering of the shirt, or mind, intelligence and ego, this is one covering.
Bhagavad-gita As It Is Lectures
So this is the argument, that you cannot even kill the body. That is not allowed. That is sinful. Ubhau tau na vijānīto nāyaṁ hanti na hanyate. So nobody kills anybody, neither anybody is killed by others. This is one thing. Again, in a different way, Kṛṣṇa says, na jāyate: the living entity never takes birth. The birth is of the body or the death is of the body. Living entity, the spiritual spark, then that being Kṛṣṇa's part and parcel, as Kṛṣṇa does not take birth, does not die... Ajo 'pi sann avyayātmā. You'll find in the Fourth Chapter. Ajo 'pi. Kṛṣṇa is aja. Aja means who never takes birth. Similarly, we being part and parcel of Kṛṣṇa, we also never take birth. The birth and death is of this body, and we are so absorbed in the bodily concept of life that when there is birth or death of the body we feel the pains and pleasures. There is no pleasure of course. Birth and death, it is very painful. Because... That is already explained. The consciousness of the soul is spread all over the body. Therefore, the pains and pleasures felt on account of this body. So Kṛṣṇa has already advised that such kinds of pains and pleasure, mātrā-sparśās tu kaunteya (BG 2.14), touching the skin only, one should not be very much bothered. Tāṁs titikṣasva bhārata. In this way if we think about our position, self-realization, how we are different from the body... Actually, this is meditation. If we think very seriously about ourselves and about the body, that is self-realization. Self-realization means I am not this body, I am ahaṁ brahmāsmi, I am spirit soul. That is self-realization.
So the soul cannot be killed. Na hanyate hanyamāne śarīre. And the soul has no birth, no death. As Kṛṣṇa is eternal, Kṛṣṇa has no birth and death... Ajo 'pi sann avyayātmā. Kṛṣṇa says in the Fourth Chapter. Aja. Kṛṣṇa's another name is Aja. Or viṣṇu-tattva. Aja. We are also aja. Aja means who does not take birth. So the both Kṛṣṇa, or God, and the living entities, they are eternal. Nityo nityānāṁ cetanaś cetanānām (Kaṭha Upaniṣad 2.2.13). The only difference is because we are a small particle, therefore we are prone to be covered by material energy. This is the difference. We become cyuta, fallen down. But Kṛṣṇa is Acyuta. He never falls down. That is the difference. So just like cloud. Cloud can cover a portion of sunlight. Not that cloud can cover the, all the sunlight. That is not possible. Suppose now this sky is covered with cloud, maybe hundred miles, two hundred miles or five hundred miles. But what is five hundred miles in comparison to the sun, millions and trillions of miles? So the cloud covers our eyes, not the sun. Similarly, māyā can cover the eyes of the living entity. Māyā does not cover the Supreme Person. No. That is not possible.
Bahūni me vyatītāni janmāni tava cārjuna. As individuals, we are taking birth. That Kṛṣṇa's birth will be explained in the next verse. Ajo 'pi sann avyayātmā. Ajaḥ. Ajaḥ means "who does not take birth." We are also aja. Na janma... What is that? Na jāyate na mriyate vā kadācin...na hanyate hanyamāne śarīre (BG 2.20), nityaḥ śāśvato 'yaṁ purāṇaḥ. That is the description of the living entities. A living entity, as we are, we also do not take birth. We are eternal, part and parcel of Kṛṣṇa. Kṛṣṇa is eternal; we are also eternal. Kṛṣṇa is individual; we are also individual. The difference is that He is īśvaraḥ paramaḥ, He's the supreme controller, and we are... We are also controller, but limited, very minute controller. That is the difference. God is great, and we are a small particle. That is the difference.
That is real religion. But we have manufactured so many religions. Different societies, different circumstances, different country. Therefore it is advised herewith that you may execute any kind of religious faith or (break) ...principle, but the result should be (break) ...perfect. You can say, "I am very perfectly executing the ritualistic ceremonies, and the tenets described in my scripture, Bible or Veda or Koran." That's very good. But what is the result? The result is that you must develop or increase your tendency to hear about God. But if your ultimate truth is impersonal Mostly they consider God has no form. Then if God has no form then what he'll hear about Him. Simply formless, formless, formless. How can you, how long you can go thinking like this, "God is formless"? If God is formless, then your idea of hearing about Him is finished, because formless, there is nothing, activities.
But actually God is not formless. Several times I have explained. God has got His form. (aside:) What is that sound? He is person. He has got His activities. Therefore in the Bhagavad-gītā it is said, janma karma, ajo 'pi sann avyayātmā bhūtānām īśvaro 'pi san. Although He is aja, nobody has to die, aja. Aja means birth. Nobody takes birth. Either the living entity or God, na jāyate na mriyate. In the Bhagavad-gītā it is said that the living entities, we are all living entities, na jāyate, they do not take birth, neither they do die. Na jāyate na mriyate vā kadācit, at any time. Then what is this death and birth? The death and birth is simply change of the body. The subtle body and the gross body.
So bhagavān devakī-suta. Bhagavān. People may inquire, "What kind of Bhagavān He is? He has taken birth as the Devakī-suta. Any ordinary man, he takes birth as the son of such and such gentleman or such and such mother. So what kind of Bhagavān He is?" Therefore we have to understand how Kṛṣṇa... Kṛṣṇa is Bhagavān. Kṛṣṇas tu bhagavān svayam (SB 1.3.28). He appears as the son of Devakī or Vasudeva. We have to know this. And if you can know then you become immediately liberated. Our business is liberation. This is our main business. What is the purpose of getting this opportunity of human life? That we must understand. We should not waste our valuable life like the cats and dogs. This is our main business. To understand God. Athāto brahma jijñāsā. This is the life. Brahman, paraṁ brahma. Brahman, paraṁ brahma, or, Brahman's, I mean to say, potencies. Parasya brahmaṇaḥ śaktiḥ. These things are there. We should understand. That is our business. So if we understand why Bhagavān appears as the son of Devakī, then you become liberated. This is the... Bhagavān says janma karma ca me divyaṁ yo jānāti tattvataḥ (BG 4.9). You have to learn it tattvataḥ, in truth. Not superficially. Then you'll understand how the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Bhagavān, appears as the son of Devakī or son of Vasudeva. Ajo 'pi sann avyayātmā bhūtānām īśvaro 'pi san. Although He's aja... Aja means who never takes birth. Still, He takes birth. Contradictory. This is inconceivable.
So Kṛṣṇa is addressed here as Viśvātman, the vital force of the universe. Just like in my body, in your body, that there is a vital force. The vital force is the ātmā, the living being, living entity or soul. So because the vital force, the soul is there, the whole body is working.
So similarly there is the supreme vital force. Supreme vital force is Kṛṣṇa or the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Therefore where is the question of His taking birth, appearance and disappearance? In the Bhagavad-gītā it is said: janma karma ca me divyam (BG 4.9). Divyam means it is spiritual. Ajo 'pi sann avyayātmā. Aja means unborn. Avyayātmā, without any destruction. So Kṛṣṇa is existing as in the beginning of this stotra, Kuntīdevī addressed Kṛṣṇa that: "You are within, You are without, still invisible." Kṛṣṇa is within, without. That we have explained. Īśvaraḥ sarva-bhūtānāṁ hṛd-deśe 'rjuna tiṣṭhati (BG 18.61). Sarvasya cāhaṁ hṛdi sanniviṣṭaḥ (BG 15.15). Kṛṣṇa is situated in everyone's heart. Therefore He is within everything. Aṇḍāntara-stha-paramāṇu-cayāntara-stham (Bs. 5.35). He, He is within the atom even. And without also.
So here Kuntī says, janma karma ca viśvātmann ajasya. Aja means who never takes birth. Ajasya. Aja, the living entities, they are also aja, but sometimes the living entity, being attracted by the material energy, they come to this material world. Then their quality of aja, or not to take birth, becomes vanquished, because in the material world one has to take birth. But actually spirit soul, or the Supreme Spirit, Kṛṣṇa, they are aja. Ajo nityaḥ śāśvato 'yam. In the Bhagavad-gītā it is said clearly that living entity is aja, nitya, śāśvata, ayam. "Then how he is dying?" one may question. That is also replied: na hanyate hanyamāne śarīre (BG 2.20). Don't think... That dying means he's changing body, not dying. Therefore... Because Kṛṣṇa says the living entity is aja, everyone can question that "If he's aja, he does not take birth, then why he's taking birth? Why he's dying?" The answer is immediately there: na hanyate: "Don't think that he's dying." Na hanyate. "No, I see his body's being burned." No, na hanyate hanyamāne śarīre (BG 2.20). That body is being burned.
The case is that you are in trouble on material condition. you get out of this material condition. Then there is real life, eternal life. Because we are part and parcel of Kṛṣṇa. Kṛṣṇa is Aja. Aja means who has no birth and death. So we are also aja. How we can be otherwise? If Kṛṣṇa, I am Kṛṣṇa's part and parcel. The same example we can see. If my, if my father is happy, so I am the son of my father. Why I shall not be, I shall be unhappy? This is natural conclusion. Because I will enjoy my father's property as my father is enjoying.
Similarly God is all-powerful. Kṛṣṇa is all-powerful, all beautiful, all-knowledge, everything complete. So I may not be complete, but because I am part and parcel, so I have, I have got all the qualities of God in part and parcel. It is not that... So God does not die. He's aja. So I also will not die. This is my position. And that is explained in the Bhagavad-gītā that: na jāyate na mriyate vā kadācit. When He's describing about the soul, Kṛṣṇa says that the soul is never born, na jāyate, na mriyate. And if one is not born, how he can die? There is no question of death. Death is for a thing which has got a birth. If one has no birth, there is no question of death. Na jāyate na mriyate vā. So we are part and parcel of Kṛṣṇa. As Kṛṣṇa is Aja, we are also aja. That we do not know. This is ignorance. This is ignorance.
They are making scientific researches, but they do not know that every living entity is spirit soul. He has no birth. He has no death. He's eternal. Nityaḥ śāśvato 'yam, everlasting, purāṇaḥ, although oldest, na hanyate.
Actually, we spiritual soul, we have no death. It is due to this infection. This infection is called dirty things. Actually it is dirt. "Dust thou art, dust thou beist." That's a fact. Because as soon as I, the soul, will leave this body, it will be immediately decomposed, and after a few days it will be earth, dust. So actually it is dirt. So we have to cleanse this dirt from my real identity, spiritual life. This is the process. And this cleansing process is very nicely done simply by hearing the message of Uttama-śloka, or Kṛṣṇa. You haven't got to scratch it with some machine. No. It will be automatically cleansed if you simply give aural reception to the message of the Uttama-śloka, which is, in other word, it is called kṛṣṇa-kathā. Kṛṣṇa-kathā means words of Kṛṣṇa. Kathā means words, and kṛṣṇa, you understand. So kṛṣṇa-kathā, Bhagavad-gītā, Kṛṣṇa personally giving you words of instruction. So if we simply read Bhagavad-gītā, then the sun cannot take away the, my duration of life.
How? What is the proof? The proof is the Bhagavad-gītā. In the Bhagavad-gītā the Lord says, janma karma me divyaṁ yo jānāti tattvataḥ: (BG 4.9) "Anyone who understands about My birth and appearance..." Lord does not take birth. Aja. Aja means who never takes birth. Ever-existing. Ajo 'pi sann avyayātmā bhūtānām īśvaro 'pi san, sambhavāmi yuge yuge. So aja, one who does not take birth, but still we see that Kṛṣṇa is taking birth. We are observing the birth anniversary of Lord Kṛṣṇa. So therefore what is the mystery? He does not take birth. Still, we are observing the birth anniversary of Kṛṣṇa, Janmāṣṭamī. So this is to be understood, tattvataḥ, in truth. Yo jānāti tattvataḥ. Kṛṣṇa says, Veda says that na tasya kāryaṁ karaṇaṁ ca vidyate. "The Supreme Lord God has nothing to do." Why He shall do? So... And again, we see that Kṛṣṇa, since the day of His appearance at His maternal uncle's prison till His going back to His own home, He was always active.
So now the Yamadūtas are describing about Yamarāja, who is as good as Brahmā. He is entrusted with the majestical power To Yamarāja not all the living beings are taken to, neither the animals, only the human being and those who are criminals or sinful, not all of them. First of all there are living entities, 8,400,000 forms, or species. So not all of them sinful and subjected to be brought for justice before Yamarāja. Just like magistrate, criminal magistrate. He is... In every city the district magistrate, not all the people are brought there, only the criminals. So he is so powerful that through his mind he can see the past and the future, tri-kāla-jñā, by mind. And because he is so powerful, he is addressed here as Bhagavān. I have several times explained, Bhagavān means the most powerful, full of opulences. So those who are in charge of departmental affairs within this universal kingdom, they are also sometimes addressed as Bhagavān. And Aja, Aja is Brahmā. Aja means who does not take birth. So Brahmā also did not take birth like ordinary human being. He sprouted like the lotus flower from the abdomen of Mahā Viṣṇu..., Garbhodakaśāyī Viṣṇu. Therefore he is called Aja or Svāyambhu, Svāyambhu: "personally born, not through the womb of the mother." Brahmā was not born through the womb of mother; therefore he is called bhagavān ajaḥ.
Sri Caitanya-caritamrta Lectures
So original creative energy is coming from this Kāraṇodakaśāyī Viṣṇu. This is confirmed in Brahma-saṁhitā. Yasyaika-niśvasita-kālam athāvalambya jīvanti loma-vilajā jagad-aṇḍa-nāthāḥ (Bs. 5.48). The jagad-aṇḍa-nāthāḥ... Here it is also said, ajāṇḍa. Jagad-aṇḍa or ajāṇḍa, the same thing, or Brahmāṇḍa, the same meaning. Aja means Brahmā. So the Brahmā is the head of this aṇḍa. It is egglike. This whole universe is like an egg, aṇḍa. So as from the aṇḍa, from the egg, a bird is coming out; similarly, from this egglike substance, Aja has come. Aja means who does not take birth like others, human beings or animals, but from this aṇḍa. So the Kāraṇodakaśāyī Viṣṇu another name is ajāṇḍa aṅghāśrayanda. His whole body is producing universes. Ajāṇḍa-saṅghāśraya. Saṅghāśraya means aggregate, congregation. Just like we have got holes on the body, pores in the body. So we do not know even how many pores are there in my body, but it is a fact. We cannot, even in a localized head, we cannot count how many pores are there from which the hairs are coming. Is it possible to count? And how many pores are there in our body? This is a little body. And just imagine Mahā-Viṣṇu. Therefore His name is Mahā-Viṣṇu.
As soon as the consciousness is gone, the body is dead. Therefore we should take care of the thing which is consciousness. That is the soul. On account of presence of the soul, there is consciousness. So Kṛṣṇa further says in this connection, antavanta ime dehā nityasyoktāḥ śarīriṇaḥ (BG 2.18). This body—deha means body—antavat, it is perishable. Nityasya uktāḥ śarīriṇaḥ. But the thing which is covered by this material body, that is eternal. So that consciousness of the rays of the soul is described here: na jāyate mriyate vā kadācit. This consciousness, or the soul, is never born, neither it is ever dead. Nāyaṁ bhūtvā bhavitā vā na bhūyaḥ. The soul and the consciousness has no past, present or future. It is eternal. Ajo. Ajaḥ means who does not take birth. Ajo nitya, eternal. Śāśvataḥ, ever-existing. Ayaṁ purāṇa, the oldest. Na hanyate hanyamāne śarīre (BG 2.20). When the body is annihilated, the soul and consciousness is not annihilated. Just like when we sleep our consciousness works in a different body, subtle body: mind, intelligence and ego. That we have got experience every night. We sleep on our bed, but my consciousness goes to other country or other place and work in a different way. Again when at the end of the dream, we come back to this body, gross body. So death means when the consciousness does not come back again to this gross body and enters another gross body. This period is called death.