Radharani (CC Madhya-lila)

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Expressions researched:
"Radha" |"Radha's" |"Radharani" |"Radharani's" |"Radhe" |"Radhika" |"Radhika's"

Sri Caitanya-caritamrta

CC Madhya-lila

CC Madhya 1.3, Translation:

Glory to the all-merciful Rādhā and Madana-mohana! I am lame and ill advised, yet They are my directors, and Their lotus feet are everything to me.

CC Madhya 1.4, Translation:

In a temple of jewels in Vṛndāvana, underneath a desire tree, Śrī Śrī Rādhā-Govinda, served by Their most confidential associates, sit upon an effulgent throne. I offer my humble obeisances unto Them.

CC Madhya 1.33, Translation and Purport:

Both Rūpa Gosvāmī and Sanātana Gosvāmī brought various scriptures to Vṛndāvana and collected the essence of these by compiling many scriptures on devotional service. In this way they delivered all rascals and fallen souls.

Śrīla Śrīnivāsa Ācārya has sung:

nānā-śāstra-vicāraṇaika-nipuṇau sad-dharma-saṁsthāpakau
lokānāṁ hita-kāriṇau tri-bhuvane mānyau śaraṇyākarau
rādhā-kṛṣṇa-padāravinda-bhajanānandena mattālikau
vande rūpa-sanātanau raghu-yugau śrī-jīva-gopālakau

The six Gosvāmīs, under the direction of Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī and Śrīla Sanātana Gosvāmī, studied various Vedic literatures and picked up the essence of them, the devotional service of the Lord. This means that all the Gosvāmīs wrote many scriptures on devotional service with the support of the Vedic literature. Devotional service is not a sentimental activity. The essence of Vedic knowledge is devotional service, as confirmed in the Bhagavad-gītā (15.15): vedaiś ca sarvair aham eva vedyaḥ. All the Vedic literature aims at understanding Kṛṣṇa, and how to understand Kṛṣṇa through devotional service has been explained by Śrīla Rūpa and Sanātana Gosvāmīs, with evidence from all Vedic literatures. They have put it so nicely that even a rascal or first-class fool can be delivered by devotional service under the guidance of the Gosvāmīs.

CC Madhya 1.35, Purport:

According to Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura, the regulative principles of devotional service compiled by Gopāla Bhaṭṭa Gosvāmī do not strictly follow our Vaiṣṇava principles. Actually, Gopāla Bhaṭṭa Gosvāmī collected only a summary of the elaborate descriptions of Vaiṣṇava regulative principles from the Hari-bhakti-vilāsa. It is Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Gosvāmī’s opinion, however, that to follow the Hari-bhakti-vilāsa strictly is to actually follow the Vaiṣṇava rituals in perfect order. He claims that the smārta-samāja, which is strictly followed by caste brāhmaṇas, has influenced portions that Gopāla Bhaṭṭa Gosvāmī collected from the original Hari-bhakti-vilāsa. It is therefore very difficult to find out Vaiṣṇava directions from the book of Gopāla Bhaṭṭa Gosvāmī. It is better to consult the commentary made by Sanātana Gosvāmī himself for the Hari-bhakti-vilāsa under the name of Dig-darśinī-ṭīkā. Some say that the same commentary was compiled by Gopīnātha-pūjā Adhikārī, who was engaged in the service of Śrī Rādhā-ramaṇajī and who happened to be one of the disciples of Gopāla Bhaṭṭa Gosvāmī.

CC Madhya 1.41, Purport:

The Vidagdha-mādhava is a drama of Lord Kṛṣṇa's pastimes in Vṛndāvana. Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī finished this book in the year 1454 Śakābda (A.D. 1532). The first part of this drama is called veṇu-nāda-vilāsa, the second part manmatha-lekha, the third part rādhā-saṅga, the fourth part veṇu-haraṇa, the fifth part rādhā-prasādana, the sixth part śarad-vihāra, and the seventh and last part gaurī-vihāra.

There is also a book called Ujjvala-nīlamaṇi, a transcendental account of loving affairs that includes metaphor, analogy and higher bhakti sentiments. Devotional service in conjugal love is described briefly in the Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu, but it is very elaborately discussed in the Ujjvala-nīlamaṇi. This book describes different types of lovers, their assistants, and those who are very dear to Kṛṣṇa. There is also a description of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī and other female lovers, as well as various group leaders. Messengers and the constant associates, as well as others who are very dear to Kṛṣṇa, are all described.

CC Madhya 1.41, Purport:

Similarly, the Lalita-mādhava is a description of Kṛṣṇa's pastimes in Dvārakā. These pastimes were made into a drama, and the work was finished in the year 1459 Śakābda. The first part deals with festivities in the evening, the second with the killing of the Śaṅkhacūḍa, the third with maddened Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī, the fourth with Rādhārāṇī’s proceeding toward Kṛṣṇa, the fifth with the achievement of Candrāvalī, the sixth with the achievement of Lalitā, the seventh with the meeting in Nava-vṛndāvana, the eighth with the enjoyment in Nava-vṛndāvana, the ninth with looking over pictures, and the tenth with complete satisfaction of the mind. Thus the entire drama is divided into ten parts.

CC Madhya 1.43, Purport:

The fourth Sandarbha is called Kṛṣṇa-sandarbha, and in this book Kṛṣṇa is proved to be the Supreme Personality of Godhead. There are discussions of Kṛṣṇa's pastimes and qualities, His superintendence of the puruṣa-avatāras, and so forth. The opinions of Śrīdhara Svāmī are corroborated. In each and every scripture, the supremacy of Kṛṣṇa is stressed. Baladeva, Saṅkarṣaṇa and other expansions of Kṛṣṇa are emanations of Mahā-Saṅkarṣaṇa. All the incarnations and expansions exist simultaneously in the body of Kṛṣṇa, who is described as two-handed. There are also descriptions of the Goloka planet, Vṛndāvana (the eternal place of Kṛṣṇa), the identity of Goloka and Vṛndāvana, the Yādavas and the cowherd boys (both eternal associates of Kṛṣṇa), the equality of the manifest and unmanifest pastimes, Śrī Kṛṣṇa's manifestation in Gokula, the queens of Dvārakā as expansions of the internal potency, and, superior to them, the superexcellent gopīs. There is also a list of the gopīs' names and a discussion of the topmost position of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī.

CC Madhya 1.43, Purport:

Devotional service is considered to be liberation with greater facilities, and there is a discussion of how to obtain it. There are also discussions of the transcendental state one achieves after attaining the devotional platform, which is the exact position of love of Godhead; the marginal symptoms of transcendental love, and how it is awakened; the distinction between so-called love and transcendental love on the platform of love of Godhead; and different types of humors and mellows enjoyed in relishing the lusty affairs of the gopīs, which are different from mundane affairs, which in turn are symbolical representations of pure love for Kṛṣṇa. There are also discussions of bhakti mixed with philosophical speculation, the superexcellence of the love of the gopīs, the difference between opulent devotional service and loving devotional service, the exalted position of the residents of Gokula, the progressively exalted position of the friends of Kṛṣṇa, the gopas and the gopīs in parental love with Kṛṣṇa, and finally the superexcellence of the love of the gopīs and that of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī. There is also a discussion of how spiritual feelings can be present when one simply imitates them and of how such mellows are far superior to the ordinary mellows of mundane love, and there are descriptions of different ecstasies, the awakening of ecstasy, transcendental qualities, the distinction of dhīrodātta, the utmost attractiveness of conjugal love, the ecstatic features, the permanent ecstatic features, the mellows divided in five transcendental features of direct loving service, and indirect loving service, considered in seven divisions. Finally there is a discussion of overlapping of different rasas, and there are discussions of śānta (neutrality), servitorship, taking shelter, parental love, conjugal love, direct transcendental enjoyment and enjoyment in separation, previous attraction and the glories of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī.

CC Madhya 1.44, Purport:

In his Anubhāṣya, Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura gives the following information about the Gopāla-campū. The Gopāla-campū is divided into two parts. The first part is called the eastern wave, and the second part is called the northern wave. In the first part there are thirty-three supplications and in the second part thirty-seven supplications. In the first part, completed in 1510 Śakābda (A.D. 1588), the following subject matters are discussed: (1) Vṛndāvana and Goloka; (2) the killing of the Pūtanā demon, the gopīs' returning home under the instructions of mother Yaśodā, the bathing of Lord Kṛṣṇa and Balarāma, snigdha-kaṇṭha and madhu-kaṇṭha; (3) the dream of mother Yaśodā; (4) the Janmāṣṭamī ceremony; (5) the meeting between Nanda Mahārāja and Vasudeva, and the killing of the Pūtanā demon; (6) the pastimes of awakening from bed, the deliverance of the demon Śakaṭa, and the name-giving ceremony; (7) the killing of the Tṛṇāvarta demon, Lord Kṛṣṇa's eating dirt, Lord Kṛṣṇa's childish naughtiness, and Lord Kṛṣṇa as a thief; (8) churning of the yogurt, Kṛṣṇa's drinking from the breast of mother Yaśodā, the breaking of the yogurt pot, Kṛṣṇa bound with ropes, the deliverance of the two brothers (Yamalārjuna) and the lamentation of mother Yaśodā; (9) entering Śrī Vṛndāvana; (10) the killing of Vatsāsura, Bakāsura and Vyomāsura; (11) the killing of Aghāsura and the bewilderment of Lord Brahmā; (12) the tending of the cows in the forest; (13) taking care of the cows and chastising the Kāliya serpent; (14) the killing of Gardabhāsura (the ass demon), and the praise of Kṛṣṇa; (15) the previous attraction of the gopīs; (16) the killing of Pralambāsura and the eating of the forest fire; (17) the gopīs' attempt to approach Kṛṣṇa; (18) the lifting of Govardhana Hill; (19) bathing Kṛṣṇa with milk; (20) the return of Nanda Mahārāja from the custody of Varuṇa and the vision of Goloka Vṛndāvana by the gopas; (21) the performance of the rituals in Kātyāyanī-vrata and the worship of the goddess Durgā; (22) the begging of food from the wives of the brāhmaṇas performing sacrifices; (23) the meeting of Kṛṣṇa and the gopīs; (24) Kṛṣṇa's enjoying the company of the gopīs, the disappearance of Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa from the scene, and the search for Them by the gopīs; (25) the reappearance of Kṛṣṇa; (26) the determination of the gopīs; (27) pastimes in the waters of the Yamunā; (28) the deliverance of Nanda Mahārāja from the clutches of the serpent; (29) various pastimes in solitary places; (30) the killing of Śaṅkhacūḍa and the Hori; (31) the killing of Ariṣṭāsura; (32) the killing of the Keśī demon; (33) the appearance of Śrī Nārada Muni and a description of the year in which the book was completed.

In the second part, known as Uttara-campū, the following subject matters are discussed: (1) attraction for Vrajabhūmi; (2) the cruel activities of Akrūra; (3) Kṛṣṇa's departure for Mathurā; (4) a description of the city of Mathurā; (5) the killing of Kaṁsa; (6) Nanda Mahārāja's separation from Kṛṣṇa and Balarāma; (7) Nanda Mahārāja's entrance into Vṛndāvana without Kṛṣṇa and Balarāma; (8) the studies of Kṛṣṇa and Balarāma; (9) how the son of the teacher of Kṛṣṇa and Balarāma was returned; (10) Uddhava's visit to Vṛndāvana; (11) Rādhārāṇī’s talking with the messenger bumblebee; (12) the return of Uddhava from Vṛndāvana; (13) the binding of Jarāsandha; (14) the killing of the yavana Jarāsandha; (15) the marriage of Balarāma; (16) the marriage of Rukmiṇī; (17) seven marriages; (18) the killing of Narakāsura, the taking of the pārijāta flower from heaven and Kṛṣṇa's marriage to 16,000 princesses; (19) victory over Bāṇāsura; (20) a description of Balarāma's return to Vraja; (21) the killing of Pauṇḍraka (the imitation Viṣṇu); (22) the killing of Dvivida and thoughts of Hastināpura; (23) departure for Kurukṣetra; (24) how the residents of Vṛndāvana and Dvārakā met at Kurukṣetra; (25) Kṛṣṇa's consultation with Uddhava; (26) the deliverance of the king; (27) the performance of the Rājasūya sacrifice; (28) the killing of Śālva; (29) Kṛṣṇa's considering returning to Vṛndāvana; (30) Kṛṣṇa's revisiting Vṛndāvana; (31) the adjustment of obstructions by Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī and others; (32) everything completed; (33) the residence of Rādhā and Mādhava; (34) decorating Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī and Kṛṣṇa; (35) the marriage ceremony of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī and Kṛṣṇa; (36) the meeting of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī and Kṛṣṇa; and (37) entering Goloka.

CC Madhya 1.56, Purport:

Being always absorbed in the ecstasy of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu felt the same separation from Kṛṣṇa that Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī felt when Kṛṣṇa left Vṛndāvana and went to Mathurā.

CC Madhya 1.76, Translation:

(This is a verse spoken by Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī.) "My dear friend, now I have met My very old and dear friend Kṛṣṇa on this field of Kurukṣetra. I am the same Rādhārāṇī, and now We are meeting together. It is very pleasant, but still I would like to go to the bank of the Yamunā beneath the trees of the forest there. I wish to hear the vibration of His sweet flute playing the fifth note within that forest of Vṛndāvana."

CC Madhya 1.78, Translation:

The subject of His thoughts was Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī, who met Kṛṣṇa on the field of Kurukṣetra. Although She met Kṛṣṇa there, She was nonetheless thinking of Him in the following way.

CC Madhya 1.80, Translation:

Thus meeting with Kṛṣṇa and thinking of the Vṛndāvana atmosphere, Rādhārāṇī longed for Kṛṣṇa to take Her to Vṛndāvana again to fulfill Her desire in that calm atmosphere.

CC Madhya 1.87, Translation and Purport:

Just as Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī talked inconsistently with a bumblebee in the presence of Uddhava, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu in His ecstasy talked crazily and inconsistently day and night.

This unmāda (madness) is not ordinary madness. When Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu talked inconsistently, almost like a crazy fellow, He was in the transcendental ecstasy of love. In the highest transcendental ecstasy there is a feeling of being enchanted in the presence of the enchanter. When the enchanter and the enchanted become separated, mohana, or bewilderment, occurs. When so bewildered due to separation, one becomes stunned, and at that time all the bodily symptoms of transcendental ecstasy are manifested. When they are manifest, one appears inconceivably crazy. This is called transcendental madness. In this state, there is imaginative discourse, and one experiences emotions like those of a madman. The madness of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī was explained to Kṛṣṇa by Uddhava, who said, "My dear Kṛṣṇa, because of extreme feelings of separation from You, Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī is sometimes making Her bed in the groves of the forest, sometimes rebuking a bluish cloud, and sometimes wandering about in the dense darkness of the forest. Thus She has become like a crazy woman."

CC Madhya 1.92, Translation:

When proceeding toward Vṛndāvana, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu was overwhelmed with ecstatic love for Kṛṣṇa, and He lost all remembrance of the external world. In this way He traveled continuously for three days in Rāḍha-deśa, the country where the Ganges River does not flow.

CC Madhya 2.4, Translation:

Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu's state of mind, day and night, was practically identical to Rādhārāṇī’s state of mind when Uddhava came to Vṛndāvana to see the gopīs.

CC Madhya 2.9, Purport:

Because of the winds of the sea, sometimes the sand would form dunes. Such sand dunes are called caṭaka parvata. Instead of seeing these sand dunes simply as hills of sand, the Lord would take them to be Govardhana Hill. Sometimes He would run toward these dunes at high speed, crying very loudly, expressing the state of mind exhibited by Rādhārāṇī. Thus Caitanya Mahāprabhu was absorbed in thoughts of Kṛṣṇa and His pastimes. His state of mind brought Him the atmosphere of Vṛndāvana and Govardhana Hill, and thus He enjoyed the transcendental bliss of separation and meeting.

CC Madhya 2.18, Translation:

(Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī used to lament:) “"Our Kṛṣṇa does not realize what We have suffered from injuries inflicted in the course of loving affairs. We are actually misused by love because love does not know where to strike and where not to strike. Even Cupid does not know of Our very much weakened condition. What should I tell anyone? No one can understand another"s difficulties. Our life is actually not under Our control, for youth will remain for two or three days and soon be finished. In this condition, O creator, what will be Our destination?’”

CC Madhya 2.19, Translation:

(Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī spoke thus, in distress due to separation from Kṛṣṇa:) “Oh, what shall I say of My distress? After I met Kṛṣṇa My loving propensities sprouted, but upon separating from Him I sustained a great shock, which is now continuing like the sufferings of a disease. The only physician for this disease is Kṛṣṇa Himself, but He is not taking care of this sprouting plant of devotional service. What can I say about the behavior of Kṛṣṇa? Outwardly He is a very attractive young lover, but at heart He is a great cheat, very expert in killing others' wives.”

CC Madhya 2.20, Translation:

(Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī continued lamenting about the consequences of loving Kṛṣṇa:) “My dear friend, I do not understand the regulative principles given by the creator. I loved Kṛṣṇa for happiness, but the result was just the opposite. I am now in an ocean of distress. It must be that now I am going to die, for My vital force no longer remains. This is My state of mind.

CC Madhya 2.36, Translation and Purport:

“"If by chance the transcendental form of Kṛṣṇa comes before My path of vision, My heart, injured from being beaten, will be stolen away by Cupid, happiness personified. Because I could not see the beautiful form of Kṛṣṇa to My heart"s content, when I again see His form I shall decorate the phases of time with many jewels.’

This verse is spoken by Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī in the Jagannātha-vallabha-nāṭaka (3.11) of Rāmānanda Rāya.

CC Madhya 2.39, Translation and Purport:

In an instant, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu regained external consciousness and saw two persons before Him. Questioning them, He asked, "Am I conscious? What dreams have I been seeing? What craziness have I spoken? Have you heard some expressions of humility?"

When Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu thus spoke in ecstasy, He saw two persons before Him. One was His secretary, Svarūpa Dāmodara, and the other was Rāya Rāmānanda. Coming to His external consciousness, He saw them both present, and although He was still talking in the ecstasy of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī, He immediately began to question whether He was the same Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu.

CC Madhya 2.67, Translation:

(In the attitude of Rādhārāṇī, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu addressed Kṛṣṇa:) “My dear Lord, You are engaged in Your pastimes, and You utilize all the women in the universe according to Your desire. You are so kind to Me. Please divert Your attention to Me, for by fortune You have appeared before Me.

CC Madhya 2.74, Translation:

In the attitude of Rādhārāṇī, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu addressed the gopīs: ""My dear friends, where is that Kṛṣṇa, Cupid personified, who has the effulgence of a kadamba flower, who is sweetness itself, the nectar of My eyes and mind, He who loosens the hair of the gopīs, who is the supreme source of transcendental bliss and My life and soul? Has He come before My eyes again?""

CC Madhya 2.78, Purport:

Unalloyed personal service was enjoyed by Govinda and others. In the presence of His most confidential devotees like Gadādhara Paṇḍita, Jagadānanda and Svarūpa Dāmodara, Caitanya Mahāprabhu enjoyed the ecstatic conditions of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī in Her conjugal relationship with Kṛṣṇa. Absorbed in these four transcendental mellows, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu resided in Jagannātha Purī, feeling very much obliged to His devotees.

CC Madhya 2.80, Translation:

During His previous pastimes in Vṛndāvana, Lord Kṛṣṇa desired to enjoy the three different types of ecstasy, but despite great endeavor, He could not taste them. Such ecstasies are the monopoly of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī. Therefore, in order to taste them, Śrī Kṛṣṇa accepted the position of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī in the form of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu.

CC Madhya 2.83, Purport:

An ordinary person cannot understand the transcendental ecstasies in the mode of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī. Unfit persons who try to understand them are perverted into the sahajiyā, bāula and other sampradāyas. Thus the teachings are perverted. Even learned scholars in the academic field cannot understand the transcendental bliss and ecstasy exhibited by Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu and His pure devotees. One must be fit to understand the purport of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu's activities.

CC Madhya 3.97, Translation and Purport:

Advaita Ācārya jokingly said, “My dear Nityānanda, I invited You, and indeed I have received the results. You have no fixed caste or dynasty. By nature You are a madman.

The words sahaje pāgala ("by nature a madman") indicate that Nityānanda Prabhu was transcendentally situated on the paramahaṁsa stage. Because He always remembered Rādhā-Kṛṣṇa and Their service, this was transcendental madness. Śrī Advaita Ācārya was pointing out this fact.

CC Madhya 3.114, Translation and Purport:

Advaita Ācārya said, ""My dear friends, what shall I say? Today I have received the highest transcendental pleasure. After many, many days, Lord Kṛṣṇa is in My house.""

This is a song composed by Vidyāpati. Sometimes the word mādhava is misunderstood to refer to Mādhavendra Purī. Advaita Ācārya was a disciple of Mādhavendra Purī, and consequently some people think that He was referring to Mādhavendra Purī by using the word mādhava. But actually this is not the fact. This song was composed to commemorate the separation of Kṛṣṇa from Rādhārāṇī during Kṛṣṇa's absence in Mathurā. It is thought that this song was sung by Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī when Kṛṣṇa returned. It is technically called Mathurā-viraha.

CC Madhya 3.124, Purport:

When Mukunda saw that Caitanya Mahāprabhu was feeling ecstatic pain and manifesting ecstatic bodily symptoms, all due to feelings of separation from Kṛṣṇa, he sang songs about Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī’s meeting with Kṛṣṇa. Advaita Ācārya also stopped dancing.

CC Madhya 3.190, Purport:

The cult of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, the Hare Kṛṣṇa movement, is very nicely explained by Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu authoritatively. It is not that everyone has to take sannyāsa like Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu. Everyone can execute the cult of Kṛṣṇa consciousness at home, as ordered by the Lord. Everyone can congregationally chant the holy name of Kṛṣṇa, the Hare Kṛṣṇa mahā-mantra. One can also discuss the subject matter of the Bhagavad-gītā and Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam and install Deities of Rādhā-Kṛṣṇa or Gaura-Nitāi or both and worship them very carefully in one's own home. It is not that we have to open different centers all over the world.

CC Madhya 4.104, Purport:

The six Gosvāmīs and their followers started many temples, including the temples of Govinda, Gopīnātha, Madana-mohana, Rādhā-Dāmodara, Śyāmasundara, Rādhā-ramaṇa and Gokulānanda.

CC Madhya 4.194, Translation:

Actually this verse was spoken by Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī Herself, and by Her mercy only was it manifest in the words of Mādhavendra Purī.

CC Madhya 4.195, Translation and Purport:

Only Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu has tasted the poetry of this verse. No fourth man is capable of understanding it.

This indicates that only Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī, Mādhavendra Purī and Caitanya Mahāprabhu are capable of understanding the purport of this verse.

CC Madhya 4.197, Purport:

When Śrī Kṛṣṇa left Vṛndāvana and accepted the kingdom of Mathurā, Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī, out of ecstatic feelings of separation, expressed how Kṛṣṇa can be loved in separation. Thus devotional service in separation is central to this verse. Worship in separation is considered by the Gauḍīya-Mādhva-sampradāya to be the topmost level of devotional service. According to this conception, the devotee thinks of himself as very poor and neglected by the Lord. Thus he addresses the Lord as dīna-dayārdra nātha, as did Mādhavendra Purī. Such an ecstatic feeling is the highest form of devotional service. Because Kṛṣṇa had gone to Mathurā, Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī was very much affected, and She expressed Herself thus: "My dear Lord, because of Your separation My mind has become overly agitated. Now tell Me, what can I do? I am very poor and You are very merciful, so kindly have compassion upon Me and let Me know when I shall see You." Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu was always expressing the ecstatic emotions of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī that She exhibited when She saw Uddhava at Vṛndāvana.

CC Madhya 5.142-143, Purport:

Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu is Śrī Kṛṣṇa, the Supreme Personality of Godhead. It is therefore said, śrī-kṛṣṇa-caitanya, rādhā-kṛṣṇa nahe anya: "Two personalities—Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī and Śrī Kṛṣṇa—are combined in the incarnation of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu."

After hearing Śrīla Rāmānanda Rāya recite some verses, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu accepted the principle of pure devotional service devoid of all kinds of speculation. After this, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu asked Rāmānanda Rāya to explain the higher platform of devotional service. Then Śrīla Rāmānanda Rāya explained unalloyed devotional service, love of Godhead, and serving the Lord in the moods of pure servitude, fraternity and parental love. Finally he spoke of serving the Lord in conjugal love. He then spoke of how conjugal love can be developed in various ways. This conjugal love attains its highest perfection in Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī’s love for Kṛṣṇa. He next described the position of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī and the transcendental mellows of love of God.

>>> Ref. VedaBase => Madhya 8: Talks Between Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu and Rāmānanda Rāya

CC Madhya 8 Summary:

After hearing Śrīla Rāmānanda Rāya recite some verses, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu accepted the principle of pure devotional service devoid of all kinds of speculation. After this, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu asked Rāmānanda Rāya to explain the higher platform of devotional service. Then Śrīla Rāmānanda Rāya explained unalloyed devotional service, love of Godhead, and serving the Lord in the moods of pure servitude, fraternity and parental love. Finally he spoke of serving the Lord in conjugal love. He then spoke of how conjugal love can be developed in various ways. This conjugal love attains its highest perfection in Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī’s love for Kṛṣṇa. He next described the position of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī and the transcendental mellows of love of God.

CC Madhya 8.23, Purport:

Śrīla Rāmānanda Rāya was an incarnation of the gopī Viśākhā. Since Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu was Lord Kṛṣṇa Himself, there was naturally an awakening of love between Viśākhā and Kṛṣṇa. Śrī Kṛṣṇa Caitanya Mahāprabhu is the combination of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī and Kṛṣṇa, and the gopī Viśākhā is a principal gopī assisting Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī. Thus the natural love between Rāmānanda Rāya and Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu awakened and they embraced.

CC Madhya 8.63, Translation and Purport:

“As stated in scripture (BG 18.66), "After giving up all kinds of religious and occupational duties, if you come to Me, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, and take shelter, I will give you protection from all of life"s sinful reactions. Do not worry.’”

In this connection, Śrīla Raghunātha dāsa Gosvāmī instructs in his book Manaḥ-śikṣā (2):

na dharmaṁ nādharmaṁ śruti-gaṇa-niruktaṁ kila kuru
vraje rādhā-kṛṣṇa-pracura-paricaryām iha tanu

He has thus enjoined that we should not perform religious or irreligious activities as prescribed in the Vedas. The best course is to engage always in the service of Lord Kṛṣṇa and Rādhārāṇī.

CC Madhya 8.88, Purport:

Conjugal love (mādhurya-rasa) is also known as śṛṅgāra-rasa. It is the conclusion of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam that in the complete combination of loving service to the Lord—namely in conjugal love—the Supreme Lord fully agrees to be under the control of the devotee. The highest form of conjugal love is represented by Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī; therefore in the pastimes of Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa we can see that Kṛṣṇa is always subjugated by Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī’s influence.

CC Madhya 8.98, Translation:

"Among the loving affairs of the gopīs," Rāmānanda Rāya continued, “Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī’s love for Śrī Kṛṣṇa is topmost. Indeed, the glories of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī are highly esteemed in all revealed scriptures.

CC Madhya 8.99, Translation:

“"Just as Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī is most dear to Śrī Kṛṣṇa, Her bathing place (Rādhā-kuṇḍa) is also dear to Him. Among all the gopīs, Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī is supermost and very dear to Lord Kṛṣṇa."

CC Madhya 8.100, Translation and Purport:

"(When the gopīs began to talk among themselves, they said:) "Dear friends, the gopī who has been taken away by Kṛṣṇa to a secluded place must have worshiped the Lord more than anyone else.""

The name Rādhā is derived from this verse (SB 10.30.28), from the words anayārādhitaḥ, meaning "by Her the Lord is worshiped." Sometimes the critics of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam find it difficult to find Rādhārāṇī’s holy name in that book, but the secret is disclosed here in the word ārādhita, from which the name Rādhā has come. Of course, the name of Rādhārāṇī is directly mentioned in other Purāṇas. This gopī’s worship of Kṛṣṇa is topmost, and therefore Her name is Rādhā, or "the topmost worshiper."

CC Madhya 8.102, Translation and Purport:

“During the rāsa dance Śrī Kṛṣṇa did not exchange loving affairs with Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī due to the presence of the other gopīs. Because of the dependence of the others, the intensity of love between Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa was not manifest. Therefore He stole Her away.

Out of fear of the other gopīs, Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa took Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī to a secluded place. In this regard, the verse kaṁsārir api (verse 106 in this chapter) will be quoted from the Gīta-govinda of Jayadeva Gosvāmī.

CC Madhya 8.103, Translation:

"If Lord Kṛṣṇa rejected the company of the other gopīs for Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī, we can understand that Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa has intense affection for Her."

CC Madhya 8.104, Translation:

Rāmānanda Rāya continued, “Please therefore hear from me about the glories of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī’s loving affairs. They are beyond compare within these three worlds.

CC Madhya 8.105, Translation:

“Finding Herself treated equally with all the other gopīs, Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī displayed Her tricky behavior and left the circle of the rāsa dance. Missing Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī’s presence, Kṛṣṇa became very unhappy and began to lament and wander throughout the forest to search Her out.

CC Madhya 8.106, Translation:

“‘Lord Kṛṣṇa, the enemy of Kaṁsa, took Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī within His heart, for He desired to dance with Her. Thus He left the arena of the rāsa dance and the company of all the other beautiful damsels of Vraja.

CC Madhya 8.107, Translation:

“"Being afflicted by the arrow of Cupid and unhappily regretting His mistreating Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī, Mādhava, Lord Kṛṣṇa, began to search for Her along the banks of the Yamunā River. When He failed to find Her, He entered the bushes of Vṛndāvana and began to lament."

CC Madhya 8.109, Translation:

“Although Kṛṣṇa was in the midst of hundreds of thousands of gopīs during the rāsa dance, He still kept Himself in one of His transcendental forms by the side of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī.

CC Madhya 8.110, Translation:

“Lord Kṛṣṇa is equal to everyone in His general dealings, but due to the conflicting ecstatic love of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī, there were opposing elements.

CC Madhya 8.111, Purport:

During the rāsa dance, one form of Kṛṣṇa was between every two gopīs. But by the side of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī there was only one Kṛṣṇa. Although this was the case, Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī still manifested disagreement with Kṛṣṇa. This verse is from the Ujjvala-nīlamaṇi (Śṛṅgāra-bheda-kathana 102), written by Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī.

CC Madhya 8.112, Translation:

“When Rādhārāṇī left the rāsa dance out of anger and resentment, Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa became very anxious because He could not see Her.

CC Madhya 8.113, Translation:

“Lord Kṛṣṇa's desire in the rāsa-līlā circle is perfectly complete, but Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī is the binding link in that desire.

CC Madhya 8.114, Translation:

“The rāsa dance does not shine in the heart of Kṛṣṇa without Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī. Therefore, He also gave up the circle of the rāsa dance and went out to search for Her.

CC Madhya 8.115, Translation:

“When Kṛṣṇa went out to search for Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī, He wandered here and there. Not finding Her, He became afflicted by the arrow of Cupid and began to lament.

CC Madhya 8.116, Translation:

“Since Kṛṣṇa's lusty desires were not satisfied even in the midst of hundreds of thousands of gopīs and He was thus searching after Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī, we can easily imagine how transcendentally qualified She is.”

CC Madhya 8.119, Translation:

“Kindly explain the transcendental features of Kṛṣṇa and Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī. Also explain the truth of transcendental mellows and the transcendental form of love of Godhead.

CC Madhya 8.129, Translation:

Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu continued, "Please do not try to cheat Me, thinking of Me as a learned sannyāsī. Please satisfy My mind by just describing the truth of Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa."

CC Madhya 8.138, Purport:

Within this material universe, the devotees worship that transcendental abode as Goloka Vṛndāvana. Lord Brahmā himself said, "Let me worship that spiritual land where Kṛṣṇa is present." This transcendental Vṛndāvana is not appreciated by those who are not devotees or self-realized souls because this Vṛndāvana-dhāma is all spiritual. The pastimes of the Lord there are also spiritual. None are material. According to a prayer by Śrīla Narottama dāsa Ṭhākura (Prārthanā 1):

āra kabe nitāi-cāṅdera karuṇā karibe
saṁsāra-vāsanā mora kabe tuccha ha’be

"When will Lord Nityānanda have mercy upon me so that I can realize the uselessness of material pleasure?"

viṣaya chāḍiyā kabe śuddha ha’be mana
kabe hāma heraba śrī-vṛndāvana

"When will my mind be cleansed of all material dirt so that I will be able to feel the presence of spiritual Vṛndāvana?"

rūpa-raghunātha-pade haibe ākuti
kabe hāma bujhaba se yugala-pirīti

"When will I be attracted to the instructions of the Gosvāmīs so that I will be able to understand what is Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa and what is Vṛndāvana?"

These verses indicate that one first has to be purified of all material desires and all attraction for fruitive activity and speculative knowledge if one wishes to understand Vṛndāvana.

CC Madhya 8.139, Purport:

Just as Kṛṣṇa is completely spiritual, the gopīs are also spiritual, and this is confirmed in the Brahma-saṁhitā (5.37):

ānanda-cin-maya-rasa-pratibhāvitābhis
tābhir ya eva nija-rūpatayā kalābhiḥ
goloka eva nivasaty akhilātma-bhūto
govindam ādi-puruṣaṁ tam ahaṁ bhajāmi

"I worship Govinda, the primeval Lord. He resides in His own realm, Goloka, with Rādhā, who resembles His own spiritual figure and who embodies the ecstatic potency (hlādinī). Their companions are Her confidantes, who embody extensions of Her bodily form and who are imbued and permeated with ever-blissful spiritual rasa."

CC Madhya 8.142, Translation:

“"Let Kṛṣṇa, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, be glorified! By virtue of His expanding attractive features, He subjugated the gopīs named Tārakā and Pāli and absorbed the minds of Śyāmā and Lalitā. He is the most attractive lover of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī and is the reservoir of pleasure for devotees in all transcendental mellows."

CC Madhya 8.149, Translation:

“‘Upon seeing His own reflection in a bejeweled pillar of His Dvārakā palace, Kṛṣṇa desired to embrace it, saying, "Alas, I have never seen such a person before. Who is He? Just by seeing Him I have become eager to embrace Him, exactly like Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī."’”

CC Madhya 8.150, Translation:

Śrī Rāmānanda Rāya then said, “I have thus briefly explained the original form of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Now let me describe the position of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī.

CC Madhya 8.160, Translation:

“The essential part of love of Godhead is called mahābhāva, transcendental ecstasy, and that ecstasy is represented by Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī.

CC Madhya 8.161, Translation and Purport:

“"Among the gopīs of Vṛndāvana, Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī and another gopī are considered chief. But when we compare the gopīs, it appears that Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī is most important because Her real feature expresses the highest ecstasy of love. The ecstasy of love experienced by the other gopīs cannot be compared to that of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī."

This is a quotation from Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī’s Ujjvala-nīlamaṇi (Rādhā-prakaraṇa 3).

CC Madhya 8.162, Translation:

“The body of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī is a veritable transformation of love of Godhead; She is the dearmost friend of Kṛṣṇa, and this is known throughout the world.

CC Madhya 8.163, Translation:

“"I worship Govinda, the primeval Lord, who resides in His own realm, Goloka, with Rādhā, who resembles His own spiritual figure and who embodies the ecstatic potency (hlādinī). Their companions are Her confidantes, who embody extensions of Her bodily form and who are imbued and permeated with ever-blissful spiritual rasa."

CC Madhya 8.164, Translation:

“That supreme ecstasy of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī is the essence of spiritual life. Her only business is to fulfill all the desires of Kṛṣṇa.

CC Madhya 8.165, Translation:

“Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī is the topmost spiritual gem, and the other gopīs—Lalitā, Viśākhā and so on-are expansions of Her spiritual body.

CC Madhya 8.166, Translation and Purport:

“Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī’s transcendental body is brilliant in luster and full of all transcendental fragrances. Lord Kṛṣṇa's affection for Her is like a perfumed massage.

Sugandhi udvartana refers to a paste made of several perfumes and fragrant oils. This paste is massaged all over the body, and in this way the body's dirt and perspiration are removed. Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī’s body is automatically perfumed, but when Her body is massaged with the scented paste of Lord Kṛṣṇa's affection, Her entire body is doubly perfumed and made brilliant and lustrous. This is the beginning of Kṛṣṇadāsa Kavirāja Gosvāmī’s description of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī’s transcendental body. This description (found in verses 165–181) is based on a book by Śrīla Raghunātha dāsa Gosvāmī known as Premāmbhoja-maranda. Śrīla Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura's translation of the original Sanskrit reads as follows:

“The love of the gopīs for Kṛṣṇa is full of transcendental ecstasy. It appears to be a brilliant jewel, and enlightened by such a transcendental jewel, Rādhārāṇī’s body is further perfumed and decorated with kuṅkuma. In the morning Her body is bathed in the nectar of compassion, in the afternoon in the nectar of youth, and in the evening in the nectar of luster itself. In this way the bathing is performed, and Her body becomes as brilliant as the cintāmaṇi jewel. She is dressed in various kinds of silken garments, one of which is Her natural shyness.

CC Madhya 8.166, Purport:

“Her beauty is more and more enhanced, being decorated with the red kuṅkuma of beauty itself and the blackish musk of conjugal love. Thus Her body is decorated with different colors. Her ornaments embody the natural symptoms of ecstasy—trembling, tears, jubilation, stunning, perspiration, faltering of the voice, bodily redness, madness and dullness. In this way Her entire body is bedecked with these nine different jewels. Over and above this, the beauty of Her body is enhanced by Her transcendental qualities, which constitute the flower garland hanging on Her body. The ecstasy of love for Kṛṣṇa is known as dhīrā and adhīrā, sober and restless. Such ecstasy constitutes the covering of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī’s body, and it is adorned by camphor. Her transcendental anger toward Kṛṣṇa is embodied as the arrangement of the hair on Her head, and the tilaka of Her great fortune shines on Her beautiful forehead. Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī’s earrings are the holy names of Kṛṣṇa, as well as the hearing of His name and fame.

CC Madhya 8.167, Translation and Purport:

“Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī takes Her first bath in the shower of the nectar of compassion, and She takes Her second bath in the nectar of youth.

Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī first smears Her body with the paste of Kṛṣṇa's affection for Her. She then takes Her bath in the water of mercy. After passing the paugaṇḍa age (from five to ten years), Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī first appears as mercy. The second bath is taken at noon in the water of tāruṇyāmṛta, or the nectar of youth. This is the actual expression of Her new youthfulness.

CC Madhya 8.168, Translation and Purport:

“After Her midday bath, Rādhārāṇī takes another bath in the nectar of bodily luster, and She puts on the garment of shyness, which is Her black silk sari.

Over and above the other baths, the bath taken in the afternoon is taken in the nectar of full beauty. This nectar represents the personal qualities of beauty and luster. Thus there are three baths in different kinds of water. Rādhārāṇī then puts on two garments—a lower and an upper garment. The upper garment is pinkish and is Her affection and attraction for Kṛṣṇa, and the lower garment, a blackish silk sari, is Her shyness.

CC Madhya 8.169, Translation:

“Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī’s affection for Kṛṣṇa is Her upper garment, which is pinkish in color. She then covers Her breasts with another garment, composed of affection and anger toward Kṛṣṇa.

CC Madhya 8.170, Translation:

“Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī’s personal beauty is the reddish powder known as kuṅkuma, Her affection for Her associates is sandalwood pulp, and the sweetness of Her smile is camphor. All these, combined together, are smeared over Her body.

CC Madhya 8.175, Purport:

Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī’s flower garland consists of Her qualities and is divided into mental, verbal and bodily parts. Her attitude of forgiveness and mercy is all mental. Her talks, which are very pleasing to the ear, are verbal. The bodily qualities are age, beauty, luster and grace.

CC Madhya 8.177, Translation and Purport:

“Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī’s gopī friends are Her mental activities, which are concentrated on the pastimes of Śrī Kṛṣṇa. She keeps Her hand on the shoulder of a friend, who represents youth.

Rādhārāṇī’s eight companions (aṣṭa-sakhī) are different varieties of pleasure connected with the pastimes of Kṛṣṇa. Following those pastimes of Śrī Kṛṣṇa are other activities, which are represented by the assistants of the gopīs.

CC Madhya 8.178, Translation:

“Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī’s bedstead is pride itself, and it is situated in the abode of Her bodily aroma. She is always seated there thinking of Kṛṣṇa's association.

CC Madhya 8.179, Translation:

“Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī’s earrings are the name, fame and qualities of Lord Kṛṣṇa. The glories of Lord Kṛṣṇa's name, fame and qualities are always inundating Her speech.

CC Madhya 8.180, Translation:

“Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī induces Kṛṣṇa to drink the honey of the conjugal relationship. She is therefore engaged in satisfying all the lusty desires of Kṛṣṇa.

CC Madhya 8.181, Translation:

“Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī is a mine filled with valuable jewels of love for Kṛṣṇa. Her transcendental body is complete with unparalleled spiritual qualities.

CC Madhya 8.182, Translation and Purport:

“"If one asks about the origin of love of Kṛṣṇa, the answer is that the origin is in Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī alone. Who is the most dear friend of Kṛṣṇa? The answer again is Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī alone. No one else. Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī"s hair is very curly, Her two eyes are always moving to and fro, and Her breasts are firm. Since all transcendental qualities are manifested in Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī, She alone is able to fulfill all the desires of Kṛṣṇa. No one else.’

This is a quotation from Śrī Govinda-līlāmṛta (11.122) by Kṛṣṇadāsa Kavirāja Gosvāmī. It is a verse in the form of questions and answers describing the glories of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī.

CC Madhya 8.183-184, Translation:

“Even Satyabhāmā, one of the queens of Śrī Kṛṣṇa, desires the fortunate position and excellent qualities of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī. All the gopīs learn the art of dressing from Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī, and even the goddess of fortune, Lakṣmī, and the wife of Lord Śiva, Pārvatī, desire Her beauty and qualities. Indeed, Arundhatī, the celebrated chaste wife of Vasiṣṭha, also wants to imitate the chastity and religious principles of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī.

CC Madhya 8.185, Translation:

"Even Lord Kṛṣṇa Himself cannot reach the limit of the transcendental qualities of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī. How, then, can an insignificant living entity count them?"

CC Madhya 8.186, Translation:

Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu replied, "Now I have come to understand the truth of the loving affairs between Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa. Nonetheless, I still want to hear how both of Them gloriously enjoy such love."

CC Madhya 8.189, Translation:

“Day and night Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa enjoys the company of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī in the bushes of Vṛndāvana. Thus His pre-youthful age is fulfilled through His affairs with Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī.

CC Madhya 8.190, Translation:

""Thus Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa spoke of the sexual activities of the previous night. In this way He made Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī close Her eyes out of shyness. Taking this opportunity, Śrī Kṛṣṇa painted various types of dolphins on Her breasts. Thus He became a very expert artist for all the gopīs. During such pastimes, the Lord enjoyed the fulfillment of His youth.""

CC Madhya 8.192, Translation and Purport:

Rāya Rāmānanda then informed Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu that there was another topic, known as prema-vilāsa-vivarta. "You may hear of this from me," Rāmānanda Rāya said, "but I do not know whether You will be happy with it or not."

These statements are set forth for our understanding, according to Śrīla Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura in his Amṛta-pravāha-bhāṣya. In essence, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu told Rāmānanda Rāya, "My dear Rāmānanda, the explanation you have given about the goal of life and the pastimes of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī and Kṛṣṇa is certainly the truth. Although this is factual, you can continue telling Me more if there is anything more to say." In reply, Rāmānanda Rāya said, "I do not think I have anything to say beyond this, but there is a topic known as prema-vilāsa-vivarta, which I may explain to You. I do not know whether it will bring You happiness or not."

CC Madhya 8.193, Purport:

Our identification with the gross body and subtle mind is different from spiritual understanding. Since the intelligence and mind are material, the loving affairs of Śrī Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa are beyond their perception.

CC Madhya 8.193, Purport:

Śrīla Rāmānanda Rāya was expert in realizing the spiritual activities of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī and Kṛṣṇa, and Rāmānanda's spiritual experience was placed before Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu as he inquired whether the Lord approved his realization of spiritual truth.

CC Madhya 8.193, Purport:

Materialistic philosophers and sahajiyās cannot understand the talks between Rāmānanda Rāya and Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu concerning the pastimes of Śrī Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa. The only tendency of the impersonalists or the prākṛta-sahajiyās is to face the platform of impersonalism. They cannot understand spiritual variegatedness. Consequently, when Rāmānanda Rāya attempted to sing his own verses, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu stopped him by covering his mouth with His own hand.

CC Madhya 8.194, Translation and Purport:

“"Alas, before We met there was an initial attachment between Us brought about by an exchange of glances. In this way attachment evolved. That attachment has gradually grown, and there is no limit to it. Now that attachment has become a natural sequence between Ourselves. It is not that it is due to Kṛṣṇa, the enjoyer, nor is it due to Me, for I am the enjoyed. It is not like that. This attachment was made possible by mutual meeting. This mutual exchange of attraction is known as manobhava, or Cupid. Kṛṣṇa"s mind and My mind have merged together. Now, during this time of separation, it is very difficult to explain these loving affairs. My dear friend, though Kṛṣṇa might have forgotten all these things, you can understand and bring this message to Him. But during Our first meeting there was no messenger between Us, nor did I request anyone to see Him. Indeed, Cupid's five arrows were Our via media. Now, during this separation, that attraction has increased to another ecstatic state. My dear friend, please act as a messenger on My behalf, because if one is in love with a beautiful person, this is the consequence.’

These verses were originally composed and sung by Rāmānanda Rāya himself. Śrīla Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura suggests that during the time of conjugal enjoyment, the attachment might be compared to Cupid himself. However, during the period of separation, Cupid becomes a messenger of highly elevated love. This is called prema-vilāsa-vivarta. When there is separation, conjugal enjoyment itself acts like a messenger, and that messenger was addressed by Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī as a friend. The essence of this transaction is that transcendental loving affairs are as relishable during separation as during conjugal enjoyment. When Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī was fully absorbed in love of Kṛṣṇa, She mistook a black tamāla tree for Kṛṣṇa and embraced it. Such a mistake is called prema-vilāsa-vivarta.

CC Madhya 8.195, Translation:

“"O my Lord, You live in the forest of Govardhana Hill, and, like the king of elephants, You are expert in the art of conjugal love. O master of the universe, Your heart and Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī"s heart are just like shellac and are now melted in Your spiritual perspiration. Therefore one can no longer distinguish between You and Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī. Now You have mixed Your newly invoked affection, which is like vermilion, with Your melted hearts, and for the benefit of the whole world You have painted both Your hearts red within this great palace of the universe.’”

CC Madhya 8.201, Translation:

“The pastimes of Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa are very confidential. They cannot be understood through the mellows of servitude, fraternity or parental affection.

CC Madhya 8.203, Translation:

“Without the gopīs, these pastimes between Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa cannot be nourished. Only by their cooperation are such pastimes broadcast. It is their business to taste the mellows.

CC Madhya 8.204-205, Translation:

“Without the help of the gopīs, one cannot enter into these pastimes. Only one who worships the Lord in the ecstasy of the gopīs, following in their footsteps, can engage in the service of Śrī Śrī Rādhā-Kṛṣṇa in the bushes of Vṛndāvana. Only then can one understand the conjugal love between Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa. There is no other procedure for understanding.

CC Madhya 8.204-205, Purport:

In the conjugal pastimes of Kṛṣṇa, Kṛṣṇa is the hero (nāyaka), and Rādhikā is the heroine (nāyikā). The first business of the gopīs is to chant the glories of both the hero and the heroine. Their second business is to gradually create a situation in which the hero may be attracted to the heroine and vice versa. Their third business is to induce both of Them to approach each other. Their fourth business is to surrender unto Kṛṣṇa, the fifth is to create a jovial atmosphere, the sixth to give Them assurance to enjoy Their pastimes, the seventh to dress and decorate both hero and heroine, the eighth to show expertise in expressing Their desires, the ninth to conceal the faults of the heroine, the tenth to cheat their respective husbands and relatives, the eleventh to educate, the twelfth to enable the hero and heroine to meet at the proper time, the thirteenth to fan the hero and heroine, the fourteenth to sometimes reproach the hero and heroine, the fifteenth to set conversations in motion, and the sixteenth to protect the heroine by various means.

CC Madhya 8.204-205, Purport:

Some materialistic sahajiyās who cannot actually understand the pastimes of Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa manufacture their own life-styles without referring to authority. Such sahajiyās are called sakhī-bhekī, and sometimes they are called gaura-nāgarī. They believe that the material body, which is fit to be eaten by jackals and dogs, is enjoyable for Kṛṣṇa. Consequently they artificially decorate the material body to attract Kṛṣṇa, thinking themselves sakhīs. But Kṛṣṇa is never attracted by the artificial grooming of the material body. As far as Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī and Her gopīs are concerned, their bodies, homes, dresses, ornaments, endeavors and activities are all spiritual. All of these are meant to satisfy the spiritual senses of Kṛṣṇa. Indeed, they are so pleasing and endearing to Kṛṣṇa that He is subjugated by the influence of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī and Her friends. They have nothing to do with anything mundane within the fourteen planetary systems of the universe. Although Kṛṣṇa is attractive to everyone, He is nonetheless attracted by the gopīs and Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī.

CC Madhya 8.206, Translation:

“"The pastimes of Śrī Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa are self-effulgent. They are happiness personified, unlimited and all-powerful. Even so, the spiritual humors of such pastimes are never complete without the gopīs, the Lord"s personal friends. The Supreme Personality of Godhead is never complete without His spiritual potencies; therefore unless one takes shelter of the gopīs, one cannot enter into the company of Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa. Who can be interested in Their spiritual pastimes without taking their shelter?’

CC Madhya 8.208, Translation:

“The happiness of the gopīs increases ten million times when they serve to engage Śrī Śrī Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa in Their transcendental pastimes.

CC Madhya 8.209, Translation:

“By nature, Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī is just like a creeper of love of Godhead, and the gopīs are the twigs, flowers and leaves of that creeper.

CC Madhya 8.210, Translation and Purport:

“When the nectar of Kṛṣṇa's pastimes is sprinkled on that creeper, the happiness derived by the twigs, flowers and leaves is ten million times greater than that derived by the creeper itself.

In his Amṛta-pravāha-bhāṣya, Śrīla Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura states, “Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī is the creeper of love of Godhead, and the gopīs are exactly like twigs, flowers and leaves. When water is sprinkled on the creeper, the twigs, flowers and leaves indirectly receive all the benefits of the creeper itself. But water sprinkled directly on the twigs, leaves and flowers is not as effective as water sprinkled on the creeper's root. The gopīs are not as pleased when they directly mix with Kṛṣṇa as when they serve to unite Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī with Kṛṣṇa. Their transcendental pleasure lies in uniting Them.”

CC Madhya 8.211, Translation:

“"All the gopīs, the personal friends of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī, are equal to Her. Kṛṣṇa is pleasing to the inhabitants of Vrajabhūmi, just as the moon is pleasing to the lotus flower. His pleasure-giving potency is known as āhlādinī, of which the active principle is Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī. She is compared to a creeper with newly grown flowers and leaves. When the nectar of Kṛṣṇa"s pastimes is sprinkled on Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī, all Her friends, the gopīs, immediately appreciate the pleasure a hundred times more than if they were sprinkled themselves. Actually this is not at all wonderful.’

CC Madhya 8.212, Translation:

“Although the gopīs, Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī’s friends, do not desire to enjoy themselves directly with Kṛṣṇa, Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī makes a great endeavor to induce Kṛṣṇa to enjoy Himself with the gopīs.

CC Madhya 8.213, Translation:

“Presenting various pleas for the gopīs, Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī sometimes sends the gopīs to Kṛṣṇa just to enable them to associate with Him directly. At such times, She enjoys a happiness ten million times greater than that enjoyed through direct association.

CC Madhya 8.214, Purport:

Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī and the gopīs are not interested in their personal happiness derived from association with Kṛṣṇa. Rather, they become happy by seeing one another associate with Kṛṣṇa. In this way their dealings are further nourished by love of Godhead, and seeing this, Kṛṣṇa is very pleased.

CC Madhya 8.228, Translation:

“Therefore one should accept the mood of the gopīs in their service. In such a transcendental mood, one should always think of the pastimes of Śrī Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa.

CC Madhya 8.229, Translation and Purport:

“After thinking of Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa and Their pastimes for a long time and after getting completely free from material contamination, one is transferred to the spiritual world. There the devotee attains an opportunity to serve Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa as one of the gopīs.

Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura comments that the word siddha-deha, "perfected spiritual body," refers to a body beyond the material gross body composed of five elements and the subtle astral body composed of mind, intelligence and false ego. In other words, one attains a completely spiritual body fit to render service to the transcendental couple Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa: sarvopādhi-vinirmuktaṁ tat-paratvena nirmalam (CC Madhya 19.170).

When one is situated in his spiritual body, which is beyond this gross and subtle material body, he is fit to serve Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa.

CC Madhya 8.229, Purport:

One is elevated to the spiritual world by the spiritual body and is situated either in Goloka Vṛndāvana or in another Vaikuṇṭha planet. In the spiritual body there are no longer material desires, and one is fully satisfied by rendering service to the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa. This is the platform of bhakti (hṛṣīkeṇa hṛṣīkeśa-sevanaṁ bhaktir ucyate (CC Madhya 19.170)). When the spiritual body, mind and senses are completely purified, one can render service to the Supreme Personality of Godhead and His consort. In Vaikuṇṭha the consort is Lakṣmī, and in Goloka Vṛndāvana the consort is Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī. In the spiritual body, free from material contamination, one can serve Rādhā-Kṛṣṇa and Lakṣmī-Nārāyaṇa. When one is thus spiritually situated, he no longer thinks of his own personal sense gratification. This spiritual body is called siddha-deha, the body by which one can render transcendental service unto Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa. The process is that of engaging the transcendental senses in loving devotional service. This verse specifically mentions, sakhī-bhāve pāya rādhā-kṛṣṇera caraṇa: only transcendentally elevated persons in the mood of the gopīs can engage in the service of the lotus feet of Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa.

CC Madhya 8.230, Purport:

One can worship Lakṣmī-Nārāyaṇa by the process of vidhi-mārga, worshiping the Lord with regulative principles according to the instructions of the śāstra and the spiritual master. But the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Rādhā-Kṛṣṇa, cannot be directly worshiped by this process. The dealings between Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa and the gopīs are devoid of the opulences of Lakṣmī-Nārāyaṇa. The process of vidhi-mārga, following the regulative principles, is utilized in the worship of Lakṣmī-Nārāyaṇa, whereas the process of spontaneous service—following in the footsteps of the gopīs, who are the denizens of Vṛndāvana—is transcendentally more advanced and is the process whereby Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa are worshiped. One cannot attain this elevated position while worshiping the Lord in His opulence. Those attracted by the conjugal love between Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa must follow in the footsteps of the gopīs. Only then is it possible to enter into the Lord's service in Goloka Vṛndāvana and directly associate with Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa.

CC Madhya 8.239, Translation and Purport:

"Now that I have actually seen your glories, what I heard about you is confirmed. As far as the pastimes of Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa in a loving mood are concerned, you are the limit of knowledge."

Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu found Rāmānanda Rāya to be the best authority in transcendental knowledge of the loving affairs between Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa. In this verse the Lord actually states that Rāmānanda Rāya was the limit of this knowledge.

CC Madhya 8.246, Purport:

"Lord Brahmā, Lord Śiva, the goddess of fortune and even My own self are not as dear to Me as the gopīs." Of all the gopīs, Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī is the topmost. Rūpa Gosvāmī and Sanātana Gosvāmī are the most exalted servitors of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī and Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu. Those who adhere to their service are known as rūpānuga devotees.

CC Madhya 8.247, Translation and Purport:

Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu asked, "Of the many capitalists who possess great riches, who is the topmost?"

Rāmānanda Rāya replied, "He who is richest in love for Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa is the greatest capitalist."

Everyone in this material world is attempting to acquire riches to satisfy the senses. Actually no one cares for anything other than acquiring material possessions and maintaining them. The wealthy are generally accepted as the most important personalities in this material world, but when we compare a material man of wealth to one wealthy in devotional service to Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa, the latter is found to be the greatest capitalist.

CC Madhya 8.250, Translation and Purport:

Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu next asked Rāmānanda Rāya, "Among many songs, which song is to be considered the actual religion of the living entity?"

Rāmānanda Rāya replied, "That song describing the loving affairs of Śrī Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa is superior to all other songs."

As stated in Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (10.33.36):

anugrahāya bhaktānāṁ mānuṣaṁ deham āsthitaḥ
bhajate tādṛśīḥ krīḍā yāḥ śrutvā tat-paro bhavet

"Lord Kṛṣṇa descends apparently as a human being, and He exhibits His transcendental pastimes in Vṛndāvana so that the conditioned soul may be attracted to hearing His transcendental activities." Nondevotees are strictly prohibited from participating in songs celebrating the loving affairs of Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa. Unless one is a devotee, it is very dangerous to hear the songs about the pastimes of Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa that were written by Jayadeva Gosvāmī, Caṇḍīdāsa and other exalted devotees.

CC Madhya 8.253, Translation:

Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu further inquired, "Out of many types of meditation, which is required for all living entities?"

Śrīla Rāmānanda Rāya replied, "The chief duty of every living entity is to meditate upon the lotus feet of Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa."

CC Madhya 8.255, Translation:

Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu asked, "Out of all topics people listen to, which is best for all living entities?"

Rāmānanda Rāya replied, "Hearing about the loving affairs between Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa is most pleasing to the ear."

CC Madhya 8.255, Purport:

A liberated person who hears about the loving affairs of Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa is not inclined to have lusty desires. One mundane rogue once said that when the Vaiṣṇavas chant the name "Rādhā, Rādhā," he simply remembers a barber's wife named Rādhā. This is a practical example. Unless one is liberated, he should not try to hear about the loving affairs between Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa. If one is not liberated and listens to a relation of the rāsa dance, he may remember his own mundane activities and illicit connections with some woman whose name may also be Rādhā. In the conditioned stage one should not even try to remember such things. By practicing the regulative principles, one should rise to the platform of spontaneous attraction for Kṛṣṇa. Then and only then should one hear about rādhā-kṛṣṇa-līlā. Although these affairs may be very pleasing both to conditioned and to liberated souls, the conditioned soul should not try to hear them. The talks between Rāmānanda Rāya and Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu are conducted on the platform of liberation.

CC Madhya 8.256, Translation:

Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu asked, "Among all worshipable objects, which is the chief?"

Rāmānanda Rāya replied, "The chief worshipable object is the holy name of Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa, the Hare Kṛṣṇa mantra."

CC Madhya 8.263, Translation:

“There is a variety of transcendental truths—the truth about Kṛṣṇa, the truth about Rādhārāṇī, the truth about Their loving affairs, the truth about transcendental humors, and the truth about the Lord's pastimes.

CC Madhya 8.269, Translation and Purport:

“I now see You appearing like a golden doll, and Your entire body appears covered by a golden luster.

Śyāmasundara is blackish, but here Rāmānanda Rāya says that he saw Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu appear golden. The lustrous body of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu was covered by the bodily complexion of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī.

CC Madhya 8.277, Translation:

Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu continued, "My dear Rāya, you are an advanced devotee and are always filled with ecstatic love for Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa. Therefore whatever you see—anywhere and everywhere—simply awakens your Kṛṣṇa consciousness."

CC Madhya 8.279, Translation:

Rāmānanda Rāya continued, “My dear Lord, I can understand that You have assumed the ecstasy and bodily complexion of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī. By accepting this, You are tasting Your own personal transcendental humor and have therefore appeared as Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu.

CC Madhya 8.282, Translation and Purport:

Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa is the reservoir of all pleasure, and Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī is the personification of ecstatic love of Godhead. These two forms had combined as one in Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu. This being the case, Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu revealed His real form to Rāmānanda Rāya.

This is described as rādhā-bhāva-dyuti-suvalitaṁ naumi kṛṣṇa-svarūpam. Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa was absorbed in the features of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī. This was disclosed to Rāmānanda Rāya when he saw Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu. An advanced devotee can understand śrī-kṛṣṇa-caitanya, rādhā-kṛṣṇa nahe anya. Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, being a combination of Kṛṣṇa and Rādhā, is nondifferent from Rādhā-Kṛṣṇa combined. This is explained by Svarūpa Dāmodara Gosvāmī:

rādhā kṛṣṇa-praṇaya-vikṛtir hlādinī śaktir asmād
ekātmānāv api bhuvi purā deha-bhedaṁ gatau tau
caitanyākhyaṁ prakaṭam adhunā tad-dvayaṁ caikyam āptaṁ
rādhā-bhāva-dyuti-suvalitaṁ naumi kṛṣṇa-svarūpam
(CC Adi 1.5)

Rādhā-Kṛṣṇa is one. Rādhā-Kṛṣṇa is Kṛṣṇa and Kṛṣṇa's pleasure potency combined. When Kṛṣṇa exhibits His pleasure potency, He appears to be two—Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa. Otherwise, Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa are one. This oneness may be perceived by advanced devotees through the grace of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu. This was the case with Rāmānanda Rāya. One may aspire to attain such a position, but one should not try to imitate the mahā-bhāgavata.

CC Madhya 8.287, Translation:

“Actually My body does not have a fair complexion. It only appears so because it has touched the body of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī. However, She does not touch anyone but the son of Nanda Mahārāja.

CC Madhya 8.288, Translation and Purport:

"I have now converted My body and mind into the ecstasy of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī; thus I am tasting My own personal sweetness in that form."

Gaurasundara here informed Śrī Rāmānanda Rāya, “My dear Rāmānanda Rāya, you were actually seeing a separate person with a fair-complexioned body. Actually I am not fair. Being Śrī Kṛṣṇa, the son of Nanda Mahārāja, I am blackish, but when I come in touch with Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī I become fair-complexioned externally. Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī does not touch the body of anyone but Kṛṣṇa. I taste My own transcendental features by accepting the complexion of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī. Without Rādhārāṇī, one cannot taste the transcendental pleasure of Kṛṣṇa's conjugal love.” In this regard, Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura comments on the prākṛta-sahajiyā-sampradāya, which considers Kṛṣṇa and Lord Caitanya to possess different bodies. They misinterpret the words gaura aṅga nahe mora in text 287. From that verse and the present verse we can understand that Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu is nondifferent from Kṛṣṇa. Both are the same Supreme Personality of Godhead. In the form of Kṛṣṇa, the Lord enjoys spiritual bliss and remains the shelter of all devotees, viṣaya-vigraha. And in His Gaurāṅga feature Kṛṣṇa tastes separation from Kṛṣṇa in the ecstasy of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī. This ecstatic form is Śrī Kṛṣṇa Caitanya. Śrī Kṛṣṇa is always the transcendental reservoir of all pleasure, and He is technically called dhīra-lalita. Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī is the embodiment of spiritual energy, personified as ecstatic love for Kṛṣṇa; therefore only Kṛṣṇa can touch Her. The dhīra-lalita aspect is not seen in any other form of the Lord, including Viṣṇu and Nārāyaṇa. Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī is therefore known as Govinda-nandinī and Govinda-mohinī, for She is the only source of transcendental pleasure for Śrī Kṛṣṇa and the only person who can enchant His mind.

CC Madhya 8.293, Translation:

The conversations between Rāmānanda Rāya and Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu contain the most confidential subject matters, touching the conjugal love between Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa in Vṛndāvana (Vrajabhūmi). Although they talked at great length about these pastimes, they could not reach the limit of discussion.

CC Madhya 8.294, Purport:

Nanda Mahārāja and mother Yaśodā are the embodiments of parental love. Above all of these are Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī and Her assistants, the gopīs Lalitā, Viśākhā and others, who embody conjugal love. In this way all five mellows—śānta, dāsya, sakhya, vātsalya and mādhurya—exist eternally in Vrajabhūmi. They are also compared, respectively, to copper, bell metal, silver, gold and touchstone, the basis of all metals. Śrīla Kavirāja Gosvāmī therefore refers to a mine eternally existing in Vṛndāvana, Vrajabhūmi.

CC Madhya 8.305, Translation:

Their meeting is exactly like a mixture of condensed milk and sugar candy. When they talk of the pastimes of Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa, camphor is added. One who tastes this combined preparation is most fortunate.

CC Madhya 8.307, Translation:

By hearing the talks between Rāmānanda Rāya and Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, one becomes enlightened with the transcendental knowledge of the mellows of Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa's pastimes. Thus one can develop unalloyed love for the lotus feet of Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa.

CC Madhya 8.310, Purport:

One cannot understand the Lord's holy name, pastimes, form, qualities or entourage with one's blunt material senses. However, when the senses are purified by the constant rendering of service, the spiritual truth of the pastimes of Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa is revealed. As confirmed in the Muṇḍaka Upaniṣad, yam evaiṣa vṛṇute tena labhyas. Only one who is favored by the Supreme Personality of Godhead can understand the transcendental features of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu.

CC Madhya 9.11, Purport:

The Rāmānuja-sampradāya Vaiṣṇavas prefer the worship of Lord Rāmacandra to that of Rādhā-Kṛṣṇa.

CC Madhya 9.289, Translation and Purport:

"Your Holiness is certainly related to Śrī Mādhavendra Purī, without whom there is no fragrance of ecstatic love."

Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura remarks that up to the advent of His Holiness Śrīpāda Lakṣmīpati Tīrtha, it was the system in the disciplic succession of Madhvācārya to worship Lord Kṛṣṇa alone. After Śrīla Mādhavendra Purī, worship of both Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa was established. For this reason Śrī Mādhavendra Purī is accepted as the root of worship in ecstatic love.

CC Madhya 11.102, Purport:

When one's intelligence is sharp, he can increase the interests of common men in loving Caitanya Mahāprabhu and through Him in loving Rādhā-Kṛṣṇa. Those not interested in understanding Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu are simply material in their attempts at professional chanting and dancing for money, despite their supposed artistry. If one does not have full faith in Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, he cannot properly chant and dance in the saṅkīrtana movement. Artificial chanting and dancing may be due to sentiments or sentimental agitation, but this cannot help one advance in Kṛṣṇa consciousness.

CC Madhya 13.113, Translation and Purport:

""Now I have gained the Lord of My life, in the absence of whom I was being burned by Cupid and was withering away.""

This song refers to Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī’s meeting with Kṛṣṇa at the holy place of Kurukṣetra, where Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa and His brother and sister came to visit when there was a solar eclipse. It is a song of separation from Kṛṣṇa. When Rādhārāṇī met Kṛṣṇa at Kurukṣetra, She remembered His intimate association in Vṛndāvana, and She thought, "Now I have gained the Lord of My life. In His absence I was being burned by the arrow of Cupid, and thus I was withering away. Now I have My life again."

CC Madhya 13.119, Purport:

In his Anubhāṣya, Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura describes the ecstasy of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu as follows. After giving up the company of the gopīs in Vṛndāvana, Śrī Kṛṣṇa, the son of Mahārāja Nanda, engaged in His pastimes at Dvārakā. When Kṛṣṇa went to Kurukṣetra with His brother and sister and others from Dvārakā, He again met the inhabitants of Vṛndāvana. Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu is rādhā-bhāva-dyuti-suvalita, that is, Kṛṣṇa Himself assuming the part of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī in order to understand Kṛṣṇa. Lord Jagannātha-deva is Kṛṣṇa, and Śrī Kṛṣṇa Caitanya Mahāprabhu is Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī. Caitanya Mahāprabhu's leading Lord Jagannātha toward the Guṇḍicā temple corresponded to Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī’s leading Kṛṣṇa toward Vṛndāvana. Śrī Kṣetra, Jagannātha Purī, was taken as the kingdom of Dvārakā, the place where Kṛṣṇa enjoys supreme opulence. But He was being led by Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu to Vṛndāvana, the simple village where all the inhabitants are filled with ecstatic love for Kṛṣṇa. Śrī Kṣetra is a place of aiśvarya-līlā, just as Vṛndāvana is the place of mādhurya-līlā. Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu's following at the rear of the ratha indicated that Lord Jagannātha, Kṛṣṇa, was forgetting the inhabitants of Vṛndāvana. Although Kṛṣṇa neglected the inhabitants of Vṛndāvana, He could not forget them. Thus in His opulent Ratha-yātrā, He was returning to Vṛndāvana. In the role of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu was examining whether the Lord still remembered the inhabitants of Vṛndāvana. When Caitanya Mahāprabhu fell behind the Ratha car, Jagannātha-deva, Kṛṣṇa Himself, understood the mind of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī. Therefore, Jagannātha sometimes fell behind the dancing Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu to indicate to Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī that He had not forgotten. Thus Lord Jagannātha would stop the forward march of the ratha and wait at a standstill. In this way Lord Jagannātha agreed that without the ecstasy of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī He could not feel satisfied. While Jagannātha was thus waiting, Gaurasundara, Caitanya Mahāprabhu, in His ecstasy of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī, immediately came forward to Kṛṣṇa. At such times, Lord Jagannātha would proceed ahead very slowly. These competitive exchanges were all part of the love affair between Kṛṣṇa and Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī. In that competition between Lord Caitanya's ecstasy for Jagannātha and Jagannātha's ecstasy for Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī, Caitanya Mahāprabhu emerged successful.

CC Madhya 13.126, Translation:

Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu spoke thus to Lord Jagannātha: “You are the same Kṛṣṇa, and I am the same Rādhārāṇī. We are meeting again in the same way that We met in the beginning of Our lives.

CC Madhya 13.132, Translation:

I have already described in brief Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī’s statement from Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam.

CC Madhya 13.137, Translation and Purport:

Speaking in the mood of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī, Caitanya Mahāprabhu said, “For most people, the mind and heart are one, but because My mind is never separated from Vṛndāvana, I consider My mind and Vṛndāvana to be one. My mind is already Vṛndāvana, and since You like Vṛndāvana, will You please place Your lotus feet there? I would deem that Your full mercy.

The mind's activities are thinking, feeling and willing, by which the mind accepts materially favorable things and rejects the unfavorable. This is the consciousness of people in general. But when one's mind does not accept and reject but simply becomes fixed on the lotus feet of Kṛṣṇa, then one's mind becomes as good as Vṛndāvana. Wherever Kṛṣṇa is, there also are Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī, the gopīs, the cowherd boys and all the other inhabitants of Vṛndāvana. Thus as soon as one fixes Kṛṣṇa in his mind, his mind becomes identical with Vṛndāvana. In other words, when one's mind is completely free from all material desires and is engaged only in the service of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, then one always lives in Vṛndāvana, and nowhere else.

CC Madhya 13.147, Translation and Purport:

"My dear Kṛṣṇa, You are the life and soul of Vṛndāvana-dhāma. You are especially the life of Nanda Mahārāja. You are the only opulence in the land of Vṛndāvana, and You are very merciful. Please come and let all the residents of Vṛndāvana live. Kindly keep Your lotus feet again in Vṛndāvana."

Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī did not express Her personal unhappiness at being separated from Kṛṣṇa. She wanted to evoke Kṛṣṇa's feelings for the condition of all the others in Vṛndāvana-dhāma—mother Yaśodā, Mahārāja Nanda, the cowherd boys, the gopīs, the birds and bees on the banks of the Yamunā, the water of the Yamunā, the trees, the forests and all the other paraphernalia associated with Kṛṣṇa before He left Vṛndāvana for Mathurā. These feelings of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī were manifested by Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, and therefore He invited Lord Jagannātha, Kṛṣṇa, to return to Vṛndāvana. That is the purport of the Ratha-yātrā car's going from Jagannātha Purī to the Guṇḍicā temple.

CC Madhya 13.148, Translation:

After hearing Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī’s statements, Lord Kṛṣṇa's love for the inhabitants of Vṛndāvana was evoked, and His body and mind became very much perturbed. After hearing of their love for Him, He immediately thought Himself to be always indebted to the residents of Vṛndāvana. Then Kṛṣṇa began to pacify Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī as follows.

CC Madhya 13.149, Translation and Purport:

"My dearest Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī, please hear Me. I am speaking the truth. I cry day and night simply upon remembering all you inhabitants of Vṛndāvana. No one knows how unhappy this makes Me."

It is said: vṛndāvanaṁ parityajya padam ekaṁ na gacchati. In one sense, Kṛṣṇa, the original Personality of Godhead (īśvaraḥ paramaḥ kṛṣṇaḥ sac-cid-ānanda-vigrahaḥ (Bs. 5.1)), does not even take one step away from Vṛndāvana. However, in order to take care of various duties, Kṛṣṇa had to leave Vṛndāvana. He had to go to Mathurā to kill Kaṁsa, and then He was taken by His father to Dvārakā, where He was busy with state affairs and disturbances created by demons. Kṛṣṇa was away from Vṛndāvana, and He was not at all happy, as He plainly disclosed to Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī. She is the dearmost life and soul of Śrī Kṛṣṇa, and He expressed His mind to Her as follows.

CC Madhya 13.150, Translation and Purport:

Śrī Kṛṣṇa continued: “All the inhabitants of Vṛndāvana-dhāma—My mother, father, cowherd boyfriends and everything else—are like My life and soul. And among all the inhabitants of Vṛndāvana, the gopīs are My very life and soul. And among the gopīs, You, Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī, are the chief. Therefore You are the very life of My life.

Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī is the center of all Vṛndāvana's activities. In Vṛndāvana, Kṛṣṇa is the instrument of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī; therefore all the inhabitants of Vṛndāvana still chant "Jaya Rādhe!" From Kṛṣṇa's own statement given herein, it appears that Rādhārāṇī is the Queen of Vṛndāvana and that Kṛṣṇa is simply Her decoration. Kṛṣṇa is known as Madana-mohana, the enchanter of Cupid, but Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī is the enchanter of Kṛṣṇa. Consequently Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī is called Madana-mohana-mohinī, the enchanter of the enchanter of Cupid.

CC Madhya 13.151, Translation:

“My dear Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī, I am always subservient to the loving affairs of all of you. I am under your control only. My separation from you and residence in distant places have occurred due to My strong misfortune.

CC Madhya 13.156, Translation and Purport:

“I have already killed all the mischievous demons who are enemies of the Yadu dynasty, and I have also killed Kaṁsa and his allies. But there are two or four demons still living. I want to kill them, and after doing so I shall very soon return to Vṛndāvana. Please know this for certain.

Just as Kṛṣṇa does not take a step away from Vṛndāvana, Kṛṣṇa's devotee also does not like to leave Vṛndāvana. However, when he has to tend to Kṛṣṇa's business, he leaves Vṛndāvana. After finishing his mission, a pure devotee returns home, back to Vṛndāvana, back to Godhead. Kṛṣṇa assured Rādhārāṇī that after killing the demons outside Vṛndāvana, He would return. "I am coming back very soon," He promised, "as soon as I have killed the few remaining demons."

CC Madhya 13.159, Translation:

While speaking to Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī, Kṛṣṇa became very anxious to return to Vṛndāvana. He made Her listen to a verse which banished all Her difficulties and which assured Her that She would again attain Kṛṣṇa.

CC Madhya 14.36, Purport:

Following in the footsteps of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, a Vaiṣṇava should be fully satisfied simply to see a variety of food offered to the Deity of Jagannātha or Rādhā-Kṛṣṇa. A Vaiṣṇava should not hunger for a variety of food for his own sake; rather, his satisfaction is in seeing various foods being offered to the Deity.

CC Madhya 14.74, Translation:

Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu was always thinking of the pastimes of Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa, and He remained personally merged in this consciousness.

CC Madhya 14.96, Purport:

Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura has pointed out that this vṛndāvana-vihāra—the pastimes of Vṛndāvana—does not refer to Kṛṣṇa's mixing with the gopīs or the transcendental mellow of parakīya-rasa. Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu's vṛndāvana-līlā in the garden of Jagannātha Purī did not involve association with women or with other people's wives in the fashion transcendentally demonstrated by Śrī Kṛṣṇa. In His vṛndāvana-līlā, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu conceived of Himself as the assistant of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī. When Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī enjoyed the company of Kṛṣṇa, Her maidservants were very pleased. One should not compare Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu's vṛndāvana-vihāra in the garden of Jagannātha with the activities of the gaurāṅga-nāgarīs.

CC Madhya 14.160, Translation:

“Of all the gopīs, Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī is the chief. She is a jewel mine of ecstatic love and the source of all purified transcendental conjugal mellows.

CC Madhya 14.161, Translation:

“Rādhārāṇī is grown up, and Her character is equipoised. She is always deeply absorbed in ecstatic love and always feeling in the mood of a left-wing gopī.

CC Madhya 14.165, Translation:

“Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī’s love is a highly advanced ecstasy. All Her dealings are completely pure and devoid of material tinge. Indeed, Her dealings are ten times purer than gold.

CC Madhya 14.166, Translation:

“As soon as Rādhārāṇī gets a chance to see Kṛṣṇa, Her body is suddenly decorated with various ecstatic ornaments.

CC Madhya 14.167, Translation:

“The transcendental ornaments of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī’s body include the eight sāttvikas, or transcendental symptoms, the thirty-three vyabhicārī-bhāvas, beginning with harṣa, or jubilation in natural love, and the twenty bhāvas, or ecstatic emotional ornaments.

CC Madhya 14.169, Translation:

“When Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī’s body manifests the ornaments of many ecstatic symptoms, the ocean of Kṛṣṇa's happiness immediately displays transcendental waves.

CC Madhya 14.170, Translation:

“Now hear a description of different ecstasies, beginning with kila-kiñcita. With these ecstatic ornaments, Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī enchants the mind of Kṛṣṇa.

CC Madhya 14.171, Translation:

“When Śrī Kṛṣṇa sees Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī and wants to touch Her body, He prohibits Her from going to the spot where one can cross the river Yamunā.

CC Madhya 14.172, Translation:

“Approaching Her, Kṛṣṇa prohibits Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī from picking flowers. He may also touch Her in front of Her friends.

CC Madhya 14.173, Purport:

Whenever Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī leaves Her house, She is always well dressed and attractive. It is Her womanly nature to attract Śrī Kṛṣṇa's attention, and upon seeing Her so attractively dressed, Śrī Kṛṣṇa desires to touch Her body. The Lord then finds some fault in Her and prohibits Her from going to a river crossing and stops Her from picking flowers. Such are the pastimes between Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī and Śrī Kṛṣṇa. Being a cowherd girl, Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī regularly carries milk in a container and often goes to sell the milk on the other side of the Yamunā. To cross the river, She has to pay the boatman, and the spot where the boatman collects his fares is called the dāna-ghāṭi. Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa stops Her from going, telling Her, "First You have to pay the fee; then You will be allowed to go." This pastime is called dāna-keli-līlā. Similarly, if Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī wants to pick a flower, Śrī Kṛṣṇa claims to be the garden's proprietor and prohibits Her. This pastime is called kila-kiñcita. Rādhārāṇī’s shyness arises due to Śrī Kṛṣṇa's prohibitions, and ecstatic loving bodily symptoms called kila-kiñcita-bhāva are manifest at this time. These ecstatic symptoms are explained in the following verse, which is from Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī’s Ujjvala-nīlamaṇi (Anubhāva-prakaraṇa 39).

CC Madhya 14.179, Translation:

“Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa is thousands upon thousands of times more satisfied when He sees Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī’s face light up from this combination of ecstatic love than He is by direct union with Her.

CC Madhya 14.180, Translation:

“"May the sight of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī"s kila-kiñcita ecstasy, which is like a bouquet, bring good fortune to all. When Śrī Kṛṣṇa blocked Rādhārāṇī’s way to the dāna-ghāṭi, there was laughter within Her heart. Her eyes grew bright, and fresh tears flowed from Her eyes, reddening them. Due to Her sweet relationship with Kṛṣṇa, Her eyes were enthusiastic, and when Her crying subsided, She appeared even more beautiful.’

CC Madhya 14.181, Translation:

“"Agitated by tears, Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī"s eyes were tinged with red, just like the eastern horizon at sunrise. Her lips began to move with jubilation and lusty desire. Her eyebrows curved, and Her lotuslike face smiled mildly. Seeing Rādhārāṇī’s face exhibit such emotion, Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa felt a million times happier than when He embraced Her. Indeed, Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa's happiness is not at all mundane.’”

CC Madhya 14.183, Translation:

Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu then asked Svarūpa Dāmodara, "Please speak of the ecstatic ornaments decorating the body of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī, by which She enchants the mind of Śrī Govinda."

CC Madhya 14.185, Translation:

“Sometimes when Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī is sitting or when She is going to Vṛndāvana, She sees Kṛṣṇa.

CC Madhya 14.188, Translation:

Svarūpa Dāmodara said, “Timidity, jubilation, ambition, respect, fear and the characteristics of the left-wing gopīs are all ecstatic symptoms that combine to agitate Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī.

CC Madhya 14.189, Translation:

“"When Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī saw Lord Kṛṣṇa just before Her, Her progress stopped and She assumed an attitude of opposition. Although Her face was slightly covered by a blue garment, Her two starry eyes were agitated, being wide and curved. Thus She was decorated with the ornaments of vilāsa, and Her beauty increased to give pleasure to Śrī Kṛṣṇa, the Supreme Personality of Godhead."

CC Madhya 14.190, Translation:

“When Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī stands before Kṛṣṇa, She stands bent in three places—Her neck, waist and legs—and Her eyebrows dance.

CC Madhya 14.191, Translation:

“When there is an awakening of the various ecstatic features on Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī’s face and in Her eyes that are appropriate to a charming feminine attitude, the lalita ornament is manifest.

CC Madhya 14.193, Translation:

“When Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa happens to see Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī decorated with these lalita ornaments, They both eagerly want to meet each other.

CC Madhya 14.194, Translation:

“"When Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī was decorated with the ornament of lalita alaṅkāra, just to increase Śrī Kṛṣṇa"s love, an attractive curve was manifested by Her neck, knees and waist. This was brought about by Her timidity and apparent desire to avoid Kṛṣṇa. The flickering movements of Her eyebrows could conquer the powerful bow of Cupid. To increase the joy of Her beloved, Her body was decorated with the ornaments of lalita alaṅkāra.’

CC Madhya 14.195, Translation:

“When Kṛṣṇa comes forward and greedily snatches at the border of Her sari, Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī is actually very pleased within, but still She tries to stop Him.

CC Madhya 14.196, Translation:

“This ecstatic attitude of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī’s is called kuṭṭamita. When this ecstatic ornament is manifested, Rādhārāṇī externally tries to avoid Kṛṣṇa, and She apparently becomes angry, although She is very happy within.

CC Madhya 14.198, Translation:

“Although Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī was checking Kṛṣṇa with Her hand, internally She was thinking, "Let Kṛṣṇa satisfy His desires." In this way She was very pleased within, although She externally displayed opposition and anger.

CC Madhya 14.199, Translation:

“Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī externally displays a kind of dry crying, as if She is offended. Then She mildly smiles and admonishes Lord Kṛṣṇa.

CC Madhya 14.200, Translation:

“"Actually She has no desire to stop Kṛṣṇa"s endeavor to touch Her body with His hands, yet Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī, whose thighs are like the trunk of a baby elephant, protests His advances and, sweetly smiling, admonishes Him. At such times She cries without tears on Her charming face.’

CC Madhya 14.201, Translation:

“In this way, Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī is ornamented and decorated with various ecstatic symptoms, which attract the mind of Śrī Kṛṣṇa.

CC Madhya 14.207, Translation:

“Then the maidservants of the goddess of fortune said to the servants of Lord Jagannātha, ‘Why did your Lord Jagannātha abandon the great opulence of the goddess of fortune and, for the sake of a few leaves, fruits and flowers, go see the flower garden of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī?

CC Madhya 14.230, Translation:

Thus Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu heard these discussions about the pure transcendental mellow of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī. Absorbed in transcendental ecstasy, the Lord began to dance.

CC Madhya 14.235, Translation:

While dancing absorbed in Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī’s ecstatic love, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu appeared in Her very form. Seeing this from a distant place, Nityānanda Prabhu offered prayers.

CC Madhya 15.228, Translation:

“You are most fortunate, and your endeavor is successful, for you have offered such wonderful food to Rādhā-Kṛṣṇa.

CC Madhya 15.229, Translation:

“The color of the rice is so attractive and its aroma so good that it appears Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa have directly taken it.

CC Madhya 15.237, Purport:

Those who are above the jurisdiction of night are always in the spiritual world, where the Lord's pastimes are constantly manifest to them. As the Brahma-saṁhitā (5.37–38) confirms:

ānanda-cinmaya-rasa-pratibhāvitābhis
tābhir ya eva nija-rūpatayā kalābhiḥ
goloka eva nivasaty akhilātma-bhūto
govindam ādi-puruṣaṁ tam ahaṁ bhajāmi
premāñjana-cchurita-bhakti-vilocanena
santaḥ sadaiva hṛdayeṣu vilokayanti
yaṁ śyāmasundaram acintya-guṇa-svarūpaṁ
govindam ādi-puruṣaṁ tam ahaṁ bhajāmi

"I worship Govinda, the primeval Lord, who resides in His own realm, Goloka, with Rādhā, who resembles His own spiritual figure and who embodies the ecstatic potency (hlādinī). Their companions are Her confidantes, who embody extensions of Her bodily form and who are imbued and permeated with ever-blissful spiritual rasa. I worship Govinda, the primeval Lord, who is Śyāmasundara, Kṛṣṇa Himself, with inconceivable innumerable attributes, whom the pure devotees see in their heart of hearts with the eye of devotion tinged with the salve of love."

CC Madhya 15.241, Purport:

In Dvārakā, Lord Kṛṣṇa had eighteen mothers—Devakī, Rohiṇī and others. Besides these was His foster mother, Yaśodā, in Vṛndāvana. Lord Kṛṣṇa also had many uncles. As stated by Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī in his Bṛhat Śrī Śrī Rādhā-kṛṣṇa-gaṇoddeśa-dīpikā (32), upanando ‘bhinandaś ca pitṛvyau pūrva-jau pituḥ: "The elder brothers of Nanda Mahārāja were Upananda and Abhinanda." Similarly, in the same verse the names of the younger brothers of Nanda Mahārāja are given: pitṛvyau tu kanīyāṁsau syātāṁ sannanda-nandanau. “Sannanda and Nandana (also known as Sunanda and Pāṇḍava) were the younger brothers of Kṛṣṇa's father, Nanda Mahārāja.” Śrī Kṛṣṇa's maternal uncles are also described in this book (in verse 46): yaśodhara-yaśodeva-sudevādyās tu mātulāḥ. "Yaśodhara, Yaśodeva and Sudeva were the maternal uncles of Kṛṣṇa." Also mentioned in the Rādhā-kṛṣṇa-gaṇoddeśa-dīpikā (38) are Kṛṣṇa's uncles who were the husbands of Nanda Mahārāja's sisters: mahānīlaḥ sunīlaś ca ramaṇāv etayoḥ kramāt. “Mahānīla and Sunīla are the husbands of Kṛṣṇa's aunts.”

CC Madhya 16.51, Translation:

A brāhmaṇa named Kṛṣṇadāsa, who was a resident of Rāḍha-deśa and a servant of Lord Nityānanda's, was a very fortunate person.

CC Madhya 16.281, Purport:

It was not essential for Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu to go to Vṛndāvana, for wherever He stayed was immediately converted to Vṛndāvana. Indeed, at that place were also the river Ganges, the river Yamunā and all other places of pilgrimage. This was also expressed by Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu Himself when He danced in the Ratha-yātrā. At that time He said that His very mind was Vṛndāvana (mora-mana—vṛndāvana). Because His mind was Vṛndāvana, all the pastimes of Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa were taking place within Himself. Nonetheless, just to teach people, He visited bhauma-vṛndāvana, Vṛndāvana-dhāma in this material world. In this way the Lord instructed everyone to visit Vṛndāvana-dhāma, which is a very holy place.

CC Madhya 16.281, Purport:

At the Ratha-yātrā festival, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, absorbed in the ecstasy of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī, dragged Lord Kṛṣṇa back to Vṛndāvana-dhāma. Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu spoke of this in the verses beginning āhuś ca te (CC Madhya 13.136).

CC Madhya 16.281, Purport:

Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu personally renovated Vṛndāvana-dhāma and advised His chief disciples, Rūpa and Sanātana, to develop it and open it to attract the spiritual vision of the general populace. At present there are about five thousand temples in Vṛndāvana, and still our society, the International Society for Krishna Consciousness, is constructing a huge, magnificent temple for the worship of Lord Kṛṣṇa and Lord Balarāma, along with Rādhā-Kṛṣṇa and Guru-Gaurāṅga. Since there is no prominent Kṛṣṇa-Balarāma temple in Vṛndāvana, we are attempting to construct one so that people will be attracted to Kṛṣṇa-Balarāma, or Nitāi-Gauracandra. Vrajendra-nandana yei, śacī suta haila sei. Narottama dāsa Ṭhākura says that Balarāma and the son of Mahārāja Nanda have advented Themselves as Gaura-Nitāi. To propagate this fundamental principle, we are establishing a Kṛṣṇa-Balarāma temple to broadcast to the world that worship of Gaura-Nitāi is the same as worship of Kṛṣṇa-Balarāma.

Although it is very difficult to enter into the Rādhā-Kṛṣṇa pastimes, most of the devotees of Vṛndāvana are attracted to the rādhā-kṛṣṇa-līlā. However, since Nitāi-Gauracandra are direct incarnations of Balarāma and Kṛṣṇa, we can be directly in touch with Lord Balarāma and Lord Kṛṣṇa through Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu and Nityānanda Prabhu. Those who are highly elevated in Kṛṣṇa consciousness can enter into the pastimes of Rādhā-Kṛṣṇa through the mercy of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu. It is said, śrī-kṛṣṇa-caitanya rādhā-kṛṣṇa nahe anya: "Śrī Kṛṣṇa Caitanya Mahāprabhu is a combination of Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa."

Sometimes materialists, forgetting the pastimes of Rādhā-Kṛṣṇa and Kṛṣṇa-Balarāma, go to Vṛndāvana, accept the land's spiritual facilities and engage in material activity.

CC Madhya 16.281, Purport:

Śrīla Narottama dāsa Ṭhākura, Śrīnivāsa Ācārya, Śrīla Jagannātha dāsa Bābājī Mahārāja, Śrī Bhagavān dāsa Bābājī Mahārāja and Śrīla Gaurakiśora dāsa Bābājī Mahārāja, and later Śrīla Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura of Calcutta, always engaged in nāma-bhajana and certainly did not live anywhere but Vṛndāvana. Presently, the members of the Hare Kṛṣṇa movement throughout the world live in materially opulent cities, such as London, New York, Los Angeles, Paris, Moscow, Zurich and Stockholm. However, we are satisfied with following in the footsteps of Śrīla Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura and other ācāryas. Because we live in the temples of Rādhā-Kṛṣṇa and continuously hold hari-nāma-saṅkīrtana—the chanting of Hare Kṛṣṇa—we consequently live in Vṛndāvana and nowhere else. We are also following in the footsteps of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu by attempting to construct a temple in Vṛndāvana for our disciples throughout the world to visit.

CC Madhya 17.211, Translation:

After hearing this description of Lord Kṛṣṇa from the male parrot, the female parrot began to recite a description of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī.

CC Madhya 17.212, Translation:

The female parrot said, “Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī’s affection, Her exquisite beauty and good behavior, Her artistic dancing and chanting and Her poetic compositions are all so attractive that they attract the mind of Kṛṣṇa, who attracts the mind of everyone in the universe.”

CC Madhya 17.216, Translation:

The female parrot said, "When Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa is with Rādhārāṇī, He is the enchanter of Cupid; otherwise, when He is alone, He Himself is enchanted by erotic feelings even though He enchants the whole universe."

CC Madhya 18 Summary:

The following summary of the Eighteenth Chapter is given by Śrīla Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura in his Amṛta-pravāha-bhāṣya. In the village of Āriṭ-grāma, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu discovered the transcendental lakes known as Rādhā-kuṇḍa and Śyāma-kuṇḍa.

CC Madhya 18.3, Purport:

Āriṭ-grāma is also called Ariṣṭa-grāma. Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu understood that in that village Ariṣṭāsura had been killed by Śrī Kṛṣṇa. While there, He inquired about Rādhā-kuṇḍa, but no one could tell Him where it was. The brāhmaṇa accompanying Him could also not ascertain its whereabouts. Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu could then understand that the holy places known as Rādhā-kuṇḍa and Śyāma-kuṇḍa were at that time lost to everyone's vision. He therefore discovered Rādhā-kuṇḍa and Śyāma-kuṇḍa, which were two reservoirs of water in two paddy fields. Although there was very little water, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu was omniscient and could understand that formerly these two ponds were called Śrī Rādhā-kuṇḍa and Śyāma-kuṇḍa. In this way Rādhā-kuṇḍa and Śyāma-kuṇḍa were discovered.

CC Madhya 18.4, Translation:

Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu asked the local people, "Where is Rādhā-kuṇḍa?" No one could inform Him, and the brāhmaṇa accompanying Him did not know either.

CC Madhya 18.5, Translation:

The Lord then understood that the holy place called Rādhā-kuṇḍa was no longer visible. However, being the omniscient Supreme Personality of Godhead, He discovered Rādhā-kuṇḍa and Śyāma-kuṇḍa in two paddy fields. There was only a little water, but He took His bath there.

CC Madhya 18.6, Translation:

When the people of the village saw Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu taking His bath in those two ponds in the middle of the paddy fields, they were very much astonished. The Lord then offered His prayers to Śrī Rādhā-kuṇḍa.

CC Madhya 18.7, Translation:

“Of all the gopīs, Rādhārāṇī is the dearmost. Similarly, the lake known as Rādhā-kuṇḍa is very dear to the Lord because it is very dear to Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī.

CC Madhya 18.8, Translation:

“"Just as Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī is most dear to Lord Kṛṣṇa, so Her lake, known as Rādhā-kuṇḍa, is also very dear to Him. Of all the gopīs, Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī is certainly the most beloved."

CC Madhya 18.9, Translation:

“In that lake, Lord Kṛṣṇa and Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī used to sport daily in the water and have a rāsa dance on the bank.

CC Madhya 18.10, Translation:

“Indeed, Lord Kṛṣṇa gives ecstatic love like that of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī to whoever bathes in that lake even once in his life.

CC Madhya 18.11, Translation:

“The attraction of Rādhā-kuṇḍa is as sweet as that of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī. Similarly, the glories of the kuṇḍa (lake) are as great as Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī’s.

CC Madhya 18.12, Translation:

“"Because of its wonderful transcendental qualities, Rādhā-kuṇḍa is as dear to Kṛṣṇa as Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī. It was in that lake that the all-opulent Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa performed His pastimes with Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī with great pleasure and transcendental bliss. Whoever bathes just once in Rādhā-kuṇḍa attains Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī"s loving attraction for Śrī Kṛṣṇa. Who within this world can describe the glories and sweetness of Śrī Rādhā-kuṇḍa?’”

CC Madhya 18.13, Translation:

Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu thus offered prayers to Rādhā-kuṇḍa. Overwhelmed by ecstatic love, He danced on the bank, remembering the pastimes Lord Kṛṣṇa performed on the bank of Rādhā-kuṇḍa.

CC Madhya 18.14, Translation:

Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu then marked His body with tilaka made from the mud of Rādhā-kuṇḍa, and with the help of Balabhadra Bhaṭṭācārya, He collected some of the mud and took it with Him.

CC Madhya 18.15, Translation:

From Rādhā-kuṇḍa, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu went to Sumanas Lake. When He saw Govardhana Hill from there, He was overwhelmed with joy.

CC Madhya 18.26, Purport:

"When Nanda Mahārāja offered a large quantity of food to Govardhana Hill, Kṛṣṇa assumed a gigantic form and eagerly invited everyone to ask boons from Him. Then, deceiving even Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī, He ate all the offered food. Let me take shelter of the place known as Annakūṭa, where Lord Kṛṣṇa enjoyed these pastimes."

CC Madhya 18.37, Purport:

Gāṅṭhuli-grāma is situated near the two villages Bilachu and Gopāla-pura. According to hearsay, Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa first met here.

CC Madhya 19.53, Translation:

“O most munificent incarnation! You are Kṛṣṇa Himself appearing as Śrī Kṛṣṇa Caitanya Mahāprabhu. You have assumed the golden color of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī, and You are widely distributing pure love of Kṛṣṇa. We offer our respectful obeisances unto You.

CC Madhya 19.115, Translation:

Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu taught Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī the ultimate limit of the truth about Lord Kṛṣṇa, the truth about devotional service and the truth about transcendental mellows, culminating in conjugal love between Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa. Finally He told Rūpa Gosvāmī about the ultimate conclusions of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam.

CC Madhya 19.154, Translation and Purport:

“Being situated in one's heart and being watered by śravaṇa-kīrtana, the bhakti creeper grows more and more. In this way it attains the shelter of the desire tree of the lotus feet of Kṛṣṇa, who is eternally situated in the planet known as Goloka Vṛndāvana, in the topmost region of the spiritual sky.

In the Brahma-saṁhitā (5.37) it is said:

ānanda-cinmaya-rasa-pratibhāvitābhis
tābhir ya eva nija-rūpatayā kalābhiḥ
goloka eva nivasaty akhilātma-bhūto
govindam ādi-puruṣaṁ tam ahaṁ bhajāmi

"I worship Govinda, the primeval Lord. He resides in His own realm, Goloka, with Rādhā, who resembles His own spiritual figure and who embodies the ecstatic potency (hlādinī). Their companions are Her confidantes, who embody extensions of Her bodily form and who are imbued and permeated with ever-blissful spiritual rasa."

CC Madhya 19.207-209, Translation:

“‘"My dearmost Kṛṣṇa, You are worshiping Me and giving up the company of all the other gopīs, who wanted to enjoy themselves with You." Thinking like this, Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī considered Herself Kṛṣṇa's most beloved gopī. She had become proud and had left the rāsa-līlā with Kṛṣṇa. In the deep forest She said, "My dear Kṛṣṇa, I cannot walk any more. You can take Me wherever You like." When Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī petitioned Kṛṣṇa in this way, Kṛṣṇa said, "Just get up on My shoulders." As soon as Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī began to do so, He disappeared. Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī then began to grieve over Her request and Kṛṣṇa's disappearance.’

CC Madhya 19.213, Purport:

When a person is attached to Kṛṣṇa's lotus feet, he does not eat anything not offered to Kṛṣṇa. Sei annāmṛta khāo, rādhā-kṛṣṇa-guṇa gāo, preme ḍāka caitanya-nitāi. Since a devotee eats only prasādam, he conquers the dictations of the tongue, belly and genitals. One can control the dictates of the senses when situated in the position of śānta-rasa. Then one's advancement in Kṛṣṇa consciousness is assured.

CC Madhya 20.182, Translation:

“"Who manifests an abundance of sweetness greater than Mine, which has never been experienced before and which causes wonder to all? Alas, I Myself, My mind bewildered upon seeing this beauty, impetuously desire to enjoy it like Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī."

CC Madhya 20.201, Translation:

“In the month of Āśvina, the predominating Deity is Padmanābha, and in Kārtika it is Dāmodara. This Dāmodara is different from Rādhā-Dāmodara, the son of Nanda Mahārāja in Vṛndāvana.

CC Madhya 21.105, Translation:

“Ornaments caress that body, but the transcendental body of Kṛṣṇa is so beautiful that it beautifies the ornaments He wears. Therefore Kṛṣṇa's body is said to be the ornament of ornaments. Enhancing the wonderful beauty of Kṛṣṇa is His three-curved style of standing. Above all these beautiful features, Kṛṣṇa's eyes dance and move obliquely, acting like arrows to pierce the minds of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī and the gopīs. When the arrow succeeds in hitting its target, their minds become agitated.

CC Madhya 22.16, Translation and Purport:

“"O my Lord, there is no limit to the unwanted orders of lusty desires. Although I have rendered these desires so much service, they have not shown any mercy to me. I have not been ashamed to serve them, nor have I even desired to give them up. O my Lord, O head of the Yadu dynasty, recently, however, my intelligence has been awakened, and now I am giving them up. Due to transcendental intelligence, I now refuse to obey the unwanted orders of these desires, and I now come to You to surrender myself at Your fearless lotus feet. Kindly engage me in Your personal service and save me."

This verse is also quoted in the Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu (3.2.35). When we chant the Hare Kṛṣṇa mahā-mantra we are saying, "Hare! O energy of the Lord! O my Lord Kṛṣṇa!" In this way we are simply addressing the Lord and His spiritual potency, represented as Rādhā-Kṛṣṇa, Sītā-Rāma or Lakṣmī-Nārāyaṇa. The devotee always prays to the Lord and His internal energy (consort) so that he may engage in Their transcendental loving service. When the conditioned soul attains his real spiritual energy and fully surrenders unto the Lord's lotus feet, he tries to engage in the Lord's service. This is the real constitutional position of the living entity.

CC Madhya 22.153, Purport:

Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura says that a devotee is attracted by the service of the inhabitants of Vṛndāvana—namely the cowherd men, Mahārāja Nanda, mother Yaśodā, Rādhārāṇī, the gopīs and the cows and calves.

CC Madhya 22.153, Purport:

The sahajiyās' understanding of the love affairs between Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa is not bona fide because they do not follow the principles laid down by the six Gosvāmīs. Their illicit connection and their imitation of the dress of Rūpa Gosvāmī, as well as their avoidance of the prescribed methods of revealed scriptures, will lead them to the lowest regions of hell. These imitative sahajiyās are cheated and unfortunate. They are not equal to advanced devotees (paramahaṁsas). Debauchees and paramahaṁsas are not on the same level.

CC Madhya 22.165, Purport:

Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura comments on this verse. Externally a devotee performs all the items of devotional service in nine different ways, beginning with śravaṇa and kīrtana, and within his mind he always thinks of his eternal relationship with Kṛṣṇa and follows in the footsteps of the devotees of Vṛndāvana. If one engages himself in the service of Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa in this way, he can transcend the regulative principles enjoined in the śāstras and, through his spiritual master, fully engage in rendering spontaneous love to Kṛṣṇa. In this way, he attains affection at the lotus feet of Kṛṣṇa. Kṛṣṇa actually comes under the control of such spontaneous feelings, and ultimately one can attain association with the Lord.

CC Madhya 23 Summary:

There is also a description of the sixty-four transcendental qualities of Kṛṣṇa and the twenty-five transcendental qualities of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī.

CC Madhya 23.33, Translation:

“"O Govinda, this youthful girl named Rādhikā is today constantly pouring forth tears like nectar falling from flowers as She sings Your holy names in a sweet voice."

CC Madhya 23.60, Translation:

“Mad emotional talks include ten divisions, called prajalpa and other names. An example of this is the ten verses spoken by Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī called "The Song to the Bumblebee."

CC Madhya 23.64, Translation:

“Of the four kinds of separation, three (pūrva-rāga, pravāsa and māna) are celebrated in Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī and the gopīs. In Dvārakā, among the queens, feelings of prema-vaicittya are very prominent.

CC Madhya 23.66, Translation:

“Lord Kṛṣṇa, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who appeared as the son of Nanda Mahārāja, is the supreme hero in all dealings. Similarly, Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī is the topmost heroine in all dealings.

CC Madhya 23.68, Translation:

“"The transcendental goddess Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī is the direct counterpart of Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa. She is the central figure for all the goddesses of fortune. She possesses all the attraction to attract the all-attractive Personality of Godhead. She is the primeval internal potency of the Lord."

CC Madhya 23.86, Translation:

“Similarly, Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī has unlimited transcendental qualities, of which twenty-five are principal. Śrī Kṛṣṇa is controlled by these transcendental qualities of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī.

CC Madhya 23.87-91, Translation and Purport:

“"Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī"s twenty-five chief transcendental qualities are: (1) She is very sweet. (2) She is always freshly youthful. (3) Her eyes are restless. (4) She smiles brightly. (5) She has beautiful, auspicious lines. (6) She makes Kṛṣṇa happy with Her bodily aroma. (7) She is very expert in singing. (8) Her speech is charming. (9) She is very expert in joking and speaking pleasantly. (10) She is very humble and meek. (11) She is always full of mercy. (12) She is cunning. (13) She is expert in executing Her duties. (14) She is shy. (15) She is always respectful. (16) She is always calm. (17) She is always grave. (18) She is expert in enjoying life. (19) She is situated at the topmost level of ecstatic love. (20) She is the reservoir of loving affairs in Gokula. (21) She is the most famous of submissive devotees. (22) She is very affectionate to elderly people. (23) She is very submissive to the love of Her friends. (24) She is the chief gopī. (25) She always keeps Kṛṣṇa under Her control. In short, She possesses unlimited transcendental qualities, just as Lord Kṛṣṇa does.’

These verses are found in the Ujjvala-nīlamaṇi (Śrī-rādhā-prakaraṇa 11–15).

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CC Madhya 23.92, Translation:

“The basis of all transcendental mellows is the hero and the heroine, and Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī and Lord Kṛṣṇa, the son of Mahārāja Nanda, are the best.

CC Madhya 23.93, Translation:

“Just as Lord Kṛṣṇa and Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī are the object and shelter of the mellow of conjugal love, so, in the mellow of servitorship, Kṛṣṇa, the son of Mahārāja Nanda, is the object, and servants like Citraka, Raktaka and Patraka are the shelter. Similarly, in the transcendental mellow of friendship, Lord Kṛṣṇa is the object, and friends like Śrīdāmā, Sudāmā and Subala are the shelter. In the transcendental mellow of parental affection, Kṛṣṇa is the object, and mother Yaśodā and Mahārāja Nanda are the shelter.

CC Madhya 23.104, Translation and Purport:

"Establish devotional service to Lord Kṛṣṇa and Rādhārāṇī in Vṛndāvana. You should also compile bhakti scriptures and preach the bhakti cult from Vṛndāvana."

Sanātana Gosvāmī was enjoined (1) to broadcast the revealed scriptures on devotional service and establish the conclusions of devotional service, (2) to reestablish lost places of pilgrimage like Vṛndāvana and Rādhā-kuṇḍa, (3) to establish the Vṛndāvana method of temple worship and install Deities in temples (Śrī Sanātana Gosvāmī established the Madana-mohana temple, and Rūpa Gosvāmī established the Govindajī temple), and (4) to enunciate the behavior of a Vaiṣṇava (as Śrīla Sanātana Gosvāmī did in the Hari-bhakti-vilāsa). In this way Sanātana Gosvāmī was empowered to establish the cult of Vaiṣṇavism. As stated by Śrīnivāsa Ācārya in his Ṣaḍ-gosvāmy-aṣṭaka (2):

nānā-śāstra-vicāraṇaika-nipuṇau sad-dharma-saṁsthāpakau
lokānāṁ hita-kāriṇau tri-bhuvane mānyau śaraṇyākarau
rādhā-kṛṣṇa-padāravinda-bhajanānandena mattālikau
vande rūpa-sanātanau raghu-yugau śrī-jīva-gopālakau

"I offer my respectful obeisances unto the six Gosvāmīs, namely Śrī Sanātana Gosvāmī, Śrī Rūpa Gosvāmī, Śrī Raghunātha Bhaṭṭa Gosvāmī, Śrī Raghunātha dāsa Gosvāmī, Śrī Jīva Gosvāmī and Śrī Gopāla Bhaṭṭa Gosvāmī, who are very expert in scrutinizingly studying all the revealed scriptures with the aim of establishing eternal religious principles for the benefit of all human beings. Thus they are honored all over the three worlds, and they are worth taking shelter of because they are absorbed in the mood of the gopīs and are engaged in the transcendental loving service of Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa."

CC Madhya 23.116, Purport:

Goloka Vṛndāvana is the kingdom of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī and the parents of Kṛṣṇa, Mahārāja Nanda and mother Yaśodā.

CC Madhya 23.116, Purport:

Śrī Nīlakaṇṭha confirms the existence of Goloka Vṛndāvana-dhāma by quoting the Ṛg-saṁhitā (Ṛg Veda 1.154.6):

tā vāṁ vāstūny uśmasi gamadhyai
yatra gāvo bhūri-śṛṅgā ayāsaḥ
atrāha tad urugāyasya kṛṣṇaḥ
paramaṁ padam avabhāti bhūri

“We wish to go to Your (Rādhā’s and Kṛṣṇa's) beautiful houses, about which cows with large, excellent horns are wandering. Yet distinctly shining on this earth is that supreme abode of Yours that showers joy on all, O Urugāya (Kṛṣṇa, who is much praised).”

CC Madhya 24.112, Purport:

Highly elevated Māyāvādī sannyāsīs sometimes worship the Rādhā-Kṛṣṇa Deity and discuss the pastimes of the Lord, but their purpose is not elevation to Goloka Vṛndāvana. They want to merge into the Lord's effulgence. This statement is quoted from Śaṅkarācārya's commentary on the Upaniṣad known as Nṛsiṁha-tāpanī.

CC Madhya 24.334, Purport:

When the Lord is established, worship with all sixty-four items should continue as far as possible. The sixty-four items are as follows: (1) There must be a big bell hanging in front of the temple room so that whoever comes into the room can ring the bell. This item is called prabodhana, or offering oneself submissively to the Lord. This is the first item. (2) The visitor must chant "Jaya Śrī Rādhā-Govinda!" or "Jaya Śrī Rādhā-Mādhava!" when he rings the bell. In either case, the word jaya must be uttered.

CC Madhya 24.334, Purport:

As far as placing the Deity in the bed is concerned, if the Deity is large and heavy, it is not possible to move Him daily. It is better that a small Deity, which is also worshiped, be taken to the bed. This mantra should be chanted: āgaccha śayana-sthānaṁ priyābhiḥ saha keśava. "O Keśava, kindly come to Your bed along with Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī." (Hari-bhakti-vilāsa 11.40)

The Deity should be placed in bed with Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī, and this should be indicated by bringing the wooden slippers from the altar to the bedside. When the Deity is laid down, His legs should be massaged. Before laying the Deity down, a pot of milk and sugar should be offered to Him. After taking this thick milk, the Deity should lie down and should be offered betel nuts and spices to chew.

CC Madhya 25.271, Purport:

The essence of spiritual knowledge is found in the pastimes of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, which are identical with the pastimes of Lord Kṛṣṇa. This is the essence of knowledge. If knowledge does not include the understanding of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu and Kṛṣṇa, it is simply superfluous. By Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu's grace, the nectar of Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa's pastimes is flowing in different directions in hundreds and thousands of rivers. One should not think that the pastimes of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu are different from Kṛṣṇa's pastimes. It is said, śrī-kṛṣṇa-caitanya, rādhā-kṛṣṇa nahe anya: "Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu is a combination of Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa." Thus without understanding the pastimes of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, one cannot understand Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa. Śrīla Narottama dāsa Ṭhākura therefore sings, rūpa-raghunātha-pade haibe ākuti/ kabe hāma bujhaba se yugala pirīti: "When shall I become very eager to study the books left by the six Gosvāmīs? Then I shall be able to understand the conjugal pastimes of Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa."

Compiled byMadhuGopaldas +
Completed sectionsALL +
Date of first entrySeptember 2, 0010 JL +
Date of last entrySeptember 2, 0010 JL +
Total quotes236 +
Total quotes by sectionBG: 0 +, SB: 0 +, CC: 236 +, OB: 0 +, Lec: 0 +, Conv: 0 + and Let: 0 +