A summary of the Eighteenth Chapter is given by Śrīla Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura in his Amṛta-pravāha-bhāṣya. On an autumn evening when the moon was full, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu walked along the seashore near the Āiṭoṭā temple. Mistaking the sea for the Yamunā River, He jumped into it, hoping to see the water pastimes Kṛṣṇa enjoyed with Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī and the other gopīs.
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Radharani (CC Antya-lila)
Glory to the all-merciful Rādhā and Madana-mohana! I am lame and ill advised, yet They are my directors, and Their lotus feet are everything to me.
In a temple of jewels in Vṛndāvana, underneath a desire tree, Śrī Śrī Rādhā-Govinda, served by Their most confidential associates, sit upon an effulgent throne. I offer my humble obeisances unto Them.
Fortunately we had the opportunity to be born of a Vaiṣṇava father who took care of us very nicely. He prayed to Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī that in the future we would become a servant of the eternal consort of Śrī Kṛṣṇa. Thus somehow or other we are now engaged in that service. We may conclude that even as dogs we must take shelter of a Vaiṣṇava. The benefit will be the same as that which accrues to an advanced devotee under a Vaiṣṇava's care.
"My dear friend, now I have met My very old and dear friend Kṛṣṇa on this field of Kurukṣetra. I am the same Rādhārāṇī, and now We are meeting together. It is very pleasant, but I would still like to go to the bank of the Yamunā beneath the trees of the forest there. I wish to hear the vibration of His sweet flute playing the fifth note within that forest of Vṛndāvana."
""My dear friend, now I have met My very old and dear friend Kṛṣṇa on this field of Kurukṣetra. I am the same Rādhārāṇī, and now We are meeting together. It is very pleasant, but I would still like to go to the bank of the Yamunā beneath the trees of the forest there. I wish to hear the vibration of His sweet flute playing the fifth note within that forest of Vṛndāvana.""
""May the pastimes of Śrī Kṛṣṇa reduce the miseries existing in the material world and nullify all unwanted desires. The pastimes of the Supreme Personality of Godhead are like śikhariṇī, a blend of yogurt and sugar candy. They overpower the pride of even the nectar produced on the moon, for they distribute the sweet fragrance of the concentrated loving affairs of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī and the gopīs.""
""Springtime had arrived, and the full moon of that season inspired the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is complete in everything, with new attraction to meet the beautiful Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī at night to increase the beauty of Their pastimes.""
Śrīla Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura interprets this verse (Vidagdha-mādhava 1.10) in two ways, for Lord Kṛṣṇa and for Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī. When interpreted for Kṛṣṇa, the night is understood to have been a dark-moon night, and when interpreted for Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī, it is considered to have been a full-moon night.
“(Experiencing previous attachment to Kṛṣṇa (pūrva-rāga), Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī thought:) "Since I have heard the name of a person called Kṛṣṇa, I have practically lost My good sense. Then, there is another person who plays His flute in such a way that after I hear the vibration, intense madness arises in My heart. And again there is still another person to whom My mind becomes attached when I see His beautiful lightninglike effulgence in His picture. Therefore I think that I am greatly condemned, for I have become simultaneously attached to three persons. It would be better for Me to die because of this."
“"My dear friend, these palpitations of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī"s heart are extremely difficult to cure. Even if one applied some medical treatment, it would only end in defamation.’
This verse (Vidagdha-mādhava 2.8) is spoken by Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī Herself.
“""O dearly beautiful one, the artistic loveliness of Your picture is now impressed within My mind. Since You are now living within My mind, wherever I wish to run because I am agitated by impressions of You, I find that You, O My friend, are blocking My way.""
This verse (Vidagdha-mādhava 2.33) is written in the Prakrit language, not in Sanskrit. When transformed into Sanskrit, it reads as follows:
- dhṛtvā praticchanda-guṇaṁ sundara mama mandire tvaṁ vasasi
- tathā tathā ruṇatsi balitaṁ yathā yathā cakitā palāye
The meaning is the same, but the native language is different. It was spoken to Kṛṣṇa by Madhumaṅgala as he read Him a letter from Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī.
"(Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī said to Her constant companion Viśākhā:) "My dear friend, if Kṛṣṇa is unkind to Me, there will be no need for you to cry, for it will not be due to any fault of yours. I shall then have to die, but afterwards please do one thing for Me: to observe My funeral ceremony, place My body with its arms embracing a tamāla tree like creepers so that I may remain forever in Vṛndāvana undisturbed. That is My last request.""
“"Upon hearing of My cruelty, moon-faced Rādhārāṇī may establish some kind of tolerance in Her aggrieved heart. But then She might turn against Me. Or, indeed, being fearful of the lusty desires invoked by the bow of formidable Cupid, She might even give up Her life. Alas! I have foolishly uprooted the soft creeper of Her desire just when it was ready to bear fruit."
Having been very cruel to Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī, Kṛṣṇa is repenting in this way (Vidagdha-mādhava 2.40).
“"Desiring the happiness of His association and embraces, My dear friend, I disregarded even My superiors and relaxed My shyness and gravity before them. Furthermore, although you are My best friend, more dear to Me than My own life, I have given you so much trouble. Indeed, I even put aside the vow of dedication to My husband, a vow kept by the most elevated women. Oh, alas! Although He is now neglecting Me, I am so sinful that I am still living. Therefore I must condemn My so-called patience."
Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī is speaking this verse (Vidagdha-mādhava 2.41) to Her intimate friend Viśākhādevī.
“"I was engaged in My own playful activities in My home, and because of My childish innocence I did not know right from wrong. Therefore, is it good for You to have forced Us into being so much attracted to You and then to have neglected Us? Now You are indifferent to Us. Do You think this is right?"
This verse (Vidagdha-mādhava 2.46) is spoken to Kṛṣṇa by Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī.
“"Our hearts are so polluted by miserable conditions that we are certainly going to Pluto"s kingdom. Nevertheless, Kṛṣṇa does not give up His beautiful loving smiling, which is full of cheating tricks. O Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī, You are very intelligent. How could You have developed such great loving affection for this deceitful debauchee from the neighborhood of the cowherds?’
This verse (Vidagdha-mādhava 2.37) is spoken to Rādhārāṇī by Lalitā-sakhī, another confidential friend.
""O Lord Kṛṣṇa, You are just like an ocean. The river of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī has reached You from a long distance—leaving far behind the tree of Her husband, breaking through the bridge of social convention, and forcibly crossing the hills of elder relatives. Coming here because of fresh feelings of love for You, that river has now received Your shelter, but now You are trying to turn Her back by the waves of unfavorable words. How is it that You are spreading this attitude?""
Śrīla Rāmānanda Rāya further inquired, “How have you described Vṛndāvana, the vibration of the transcendental flute, and the relationship between Kṛṣṇa and Rādhikā?
“"My dear friend the flute, it appears that you have been born of a very good family, for your residence is in the hands of Śrī Kṛṣṇa. By birth you are simple and are not at all crooked. Why then have you taken initiation into this dangerous mantra that enchants the assembled gopīs?"
This verse (Vidagdha-mādhava 5.17) is spoken by Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī.
“"My dear friend the flute, you are actually full of many holes or faults. You are light, hard, juiceless and full of knots. But what kind of pious activities have engaged you in the service of being kissed by the Lord and embraced by His hands?"
This verse (Vidagdha-mādhava 4.7) is spoken by Candrāvalī-sakhī, the gopī competitor of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī.
“"O most beautiful friend, please accept the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is standing before You full of transcendental bliss. The borders of His eyes roam from side to side, and His eyebrows move slowly like bumblebees on His lotuslike face. Standing with His right foot placed below the knee of His left leg, the middle of His body curved in three places, and His neck gracefully tilted to the side, He takes His flute to His pursed lips and moves His fingers upon it here and there."
This verse from the Lalita-mādhava-nāṭaka (4.27), a ten-act play by Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī, is spoken by Lalitādevī to Rādhārāṇī.
“"O beautiful-faced one, who is this creative person standing before us? With the sharp chisels of His loving glances, He is splitting the hard stones of many women"s devotion to their husbands. And with the luster of His body, surpassing the brilliance of countless emeralds, He is simultaneously constructing private meeting places for His pastimes.’
This verse (Lalita-mādhava 1.52) is spoken by Rādhārāṇī to Lalitādevī.
“"My dear friend, this newly youthful Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa, the moon in the family of Nanda Mahārāja, is so beautiful that He defies the beauty of clusters of valuable jewels. All glories to the vibration of His flute, for it is cunningly breaking the patience of chaste ladies by loosening their belts and tight dresses."
This verse from the Lalita-mādhava (1.49) is spoken by Lalitādevī to Rādhārāṇī.
“"The beauty of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī"s eyes forcibly devours the beauty of newly grown blue lotus flowers, and the beauty of Her face surpasses that of an entire forest of fully blossomed lotuses. Her bodily luster seems to place even gold into a painful situation. Thus the wonderful, unprecedented beauty of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī is awakening in Vṛndāvana.’
“"Although the effulgence of the moon is brilliant initially at night, in the daytime it fades away. Similarly, although the lotus is beautiful during the daytime, at night it closes. But, O My friend, the face of My most dear Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī is always bright and beautiful, both day and night. Therefore, to what can Her face be compared?"
""When Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī smiles, waves of joy flow over Her cheeks, and Her arched eyebrows dance like the bow of Cupid. Her glance is so enchanting that it is like a dancing bumblebee moving unsteadily due to intoxication. That bee has bitten the whorl of My heart.""
“"While dancing on the stage after having killed the ruler of uncivilized men (Kaṁsa), Lord Kṛṣṇa, master of all arts, will at the proper time accept the hand of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī, who is qualified with all transcendental attributes."
“"May the sweet sound of Lord Kṛṣṇa"s flute, His authorized messenger, be glorified, for it expertly releases Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī from Her shyness and attracts Her from Her home to the forest.’
“"My dear friend, who is this fearless young man? He is as bright as a lightning cloud, and He wanders in His pastimes like a maddened elephant. From where has He come to Vṛndāvana? Alas, by His restless movements and attractive glances He is plundering from the vault of My heart the treasure of My patience."
This verse (Lalita-mādhava 2.11) is spoken by Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī to Her friend Lalitādevī.
""Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī is the Ganges in which the elephant of My mind enjoys pastimes. She is the shining of the full autumn moon for the cakora birds of My eyes. She is the dazzling ornament, the bright and beautiful arrangement of stars, on the border of the sky of My chest. Now today I have gained Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī because of the highly elevated state of My mind.""
This verse from the Lalita-mādhava (2.10) expresses the thoughts of Lord Kṛṣṇa in relation with Rādhārāṇī.
I offer my respectful obeisances unto the lotus feet of my spiritual master and of all the other preceptors on the path of devotional service. I offer my respectful obeisances unto all the Vaiṣṇavas and unto the six Gosvāmīs, including Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī, Śrīla Sanātana Gosvāmī, Raghunātha dāsa Gosvāmī, Jīva Gosvāmī and their associates. I offer my respectful obeisances unto Śrī Advaita Ācārya Prabhu, Śrī Nityānanda Prabhu, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, and all His devotees, headed by Śrīvāsa Ṭhākura. I then offer my respectful obeisances unto the lotus feet of Lord Kṛṣṇa, Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī and all the gopīs, headed by Lalitā and Viśākhā.
Śrīla Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura explains the Gaura-gopāla mantra in his Amṛta-pravāha-bhāṣya. Worshipers of Śrī Gaurasundara accept the four syllables gau-ra-aṅ-ga as the Gaura mantra, but pure worshipers of Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa accept the four syllables rā-dhā kṛṣ-ṇa as the Gaura-gopāla mantra. However, Vaiṣṇavas consider Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu nondifferent from Rādhā-Kṛṣṇa (śrī-kṛṣṇa-caitanya rādhā-kṛṣṇa nahe anya). Therefore one who chants the mantra "gaurāṅga" and one who chants the names of Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa are on the same level.
Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu accepted her as having formerly been an associate of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī. In the entire world, three and a half people were His intimate devotees.
I offer my respectful obeisances unto the lotus feet of my spiritual master and of all the other preceptors on the path of devotional service, unto all the Vaiṣṇavas and unto the six Gosvāmīs, including Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī, Śrīla Sanātana Gosvāmī, Raghunātha dāsa Gosvāmī, Jīva Gosvāmī and their associates. I offer my respectful obeisances unto Śrī Advaita Ācārya Prabhu, Śrī Nityānanda Prabhu and Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, as well as all His devotees, headed by Śrīvāsa Ṭhākura. I then offer my respectful obeisances unto the lotus feet of Lord Kṛṣṇa and Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī and all the gopīs, headed by Lalitā and Viśākhā.
Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī also compiled the book named Ujjvala-nīlamaṇi, from which one can understand, to the fullest limits, the loving affairs of Śrī Śrī Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa.
He also compiled the book named Gopāla-campū, which is the essence of all Vedic literature. In this book he has exhibited the ecstatic loving transactions and pastimes of Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa in Vṛndāvana.
Previously, when Lord Kṛṣṇa was personally present, Subala, one of His cowherd boyfriends, gave Him happiness when He felt separation from Rādhārāṇī. Similarly, Rāmānanda Rāya helped give happiness to Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu.
Previously, when Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī felt the pangs of separation from Kṛṣṇa, Her constant companion Lalitā kept Her alive by helping Her in many ways. Similarly, when Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu felt Rādhārāṇī’s emotions, Svarūpa Dāmodara Gosvāmī helped Him maintain His life.
He brought so many presentations that no one could know them perfectly. Indeed, it was a fact that the supreme mother, Rādhārāṇī, personally cooked in the house of Rāghava Paṇḍita.
Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī received from Durvāsā Muni the benediction that whatever She cooked would be sweeter than nectar. That is the special feature of Her cooking.
“Do not expect honor, but offer all respect to others. Always chant the holy name of Lord Kṛṣṇa, and within your mind render service to Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa in Vṛndāvana.
Śrīla Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura says in his Amṛta-pravāha-bhāṣya that when a man and woman are married, they beget children and are thus entangled in family life. Talk concerning such family life is called grāmya-kathā. A person in the renounced order never indulges in either hearing or talking about such subjects. He should not eat palatable dishes, since that is unfit for a person in the renounced order. He should show all respect to others, but should not expect respect for himself. In this way, one should chant the holy name of the Lord and think of how to serve Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa in Vṛndāvana.
Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu again entrusted him to Svarūpa Dāmodara. Thus Raghunātha dāsa rendered very confidential service with Svarūpa Dāmodara Gosvāmī.
Antaraṅga-sevā refers to service performed in one's spiritual body. Svarūpa Dāmodara Gosvāmī was formerly Lalitādevī. Raghunātha dāsa Gosvāmī, who was among his assistants, now also began to serve Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa within his mind.
"By offering me the govardhana-śilā, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu has offered me a place near Govardhana Hill, and by offering me the garland of conchshells, He has offered me shelter at the lotus feet of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī."
“The unalloyed love of the gopīs and Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī is without any trace of material lust. The criterion of such transcendental love is that its only purpose is to satisfy Kṛṣṇa.
The lamentation of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī when Uddhava visited Vṛndāvana gradually became a feature of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu's transcendental madness.
Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu's emotions exactly corresponded to those of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī when She met Uddhava. The Lord always conceived of Himself in Her position and sometimes thought that He was Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī Herself.
Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura explains that the purport of the word abhimāna, or "self-conception," is that Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu thought Himself to be in the position of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī and was always ready to render Kṛṣṇa service in that way. Although Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu is Kṛṣṇa Himself, He assumed the complexion and emotions of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī and remained in that status. He never assumed the complexion or status of Lord Kṛṣṇa. Of course, Kṛṣṇa wanted to experience the role of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī; that is the original cause of His assuming the body of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu. Therefore pure Vaiṣṇavas never disturb Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu's conception of being Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī.
The gopīs were dancing in a circle, and in the middle of that circle, Kṛṣṇa, the son of Mahārāja Nanda, danced with Rādhārāṇī.
These are the feelings of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī. First Lord Caitanya felt that He had been taken to Vṛndāvana, where He saw Kṛṣṇa's rāsa dance with the gopīs. Then He was brought to Kurukṣetra to see Lord Jagannātha, His sister (Subhadrā) and Lord Balarāma. Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu lost Vṛndāvana and Kṛṣṇa, the master of Vṛndāvana. At this time, Caitanya Mahāprabhu experienced divyonmāda, transcendental madness in separation from Kṛṣṇa. At Kurukṣetra, Kṛṣṇa displays His opulence, whereas in Vṛndāvana He is in His original position. Kṛṣṇa never goes even a step away from Vṛndāvana; therefore Kurukṣetra is less important for the gopīs than Vṛndāvana.
Although devotees who worship Kṛṣṇa in opulence (His Vaikuṇṭha aspect) may prefer to see Lord Kṛṣṇa at Kurukṣetra along with Subhadrā and Balarāma, the gopīs want to see Kṛṣṇa in Vṛndāvana, performing the rāsa dance with Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī. Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu showed by practical example how one can cultivate the mood of Rādhārāṇī and the other gopīs in separation from Kṛṣṇa. Devotees absorbed in this mood do not like to see Kṛṣṇa anywhere else but Vṛndāvana. Therefore Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu lamented, "I found Kṛṣṇa in Vṛndāvana, and now I have again lost Him and come to Kurukṣetra."
"The ten bodily transformations resulting from separation from Kṛṣṇa are anxiety, wakefulness, mental agitation, thinness, uncleanliness, talking like a madman, disease, madness, illusion and death."
This verse is part of a description of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī’s different traits from Ujjvala-nīlamaṇi (Vipralambha-prakaraṇa 153), by Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī. In this book, he elaborately explains the ten symptoms as follows.
Cintā, anxiety. As stated in the Haṁsa-dūta (2):
- yadā yāto gopī-hṛdaya-madano nanda-sadanān
- mukundo gāndinyās tanayam anurundhan madhu-purīm
- tadāmāṅkṣīc cintā-sariti ghana-ghūrṇāparicayair
- agādhāyāṁ bādhāmaya-payasi rādhā virahiṇī
"At Akrūra's request, Kṛṣṇa and Balarāma left the house of Nanda Mahārāja for Mathurā. At that time the mind of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī was disrupted, and She became almost mad because of extreme separation from Kṛṣṇa. She experienced great mental pain and agitation, which caused Her to drown in mental speculation in the river of anxiety. She thought, "Now I am going to die, and when I die, Kṛṣṇa will surely come back to see Me again. But when He hears of My death from the people of Vṛndāvana, He will certainly be very unhappy. Therefore I shall not die."" This is the explanation of the word cintā.
Thinking Herself very unfortunate, Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī addressed Her very dear friend Viśākhā, "My dear friend, if I could see Kṛṣṇa in My dreams, I would certainly be glorified for My great fortune. But what can I do? Sleep also plays mischievously with Me. Indeed, it has become My enemy. Therefore I have not slept since the departure of Kṛṣṇa."
Udvega, mental agitation. This word is explained in the Haṁsa-dūta (104) as follows:
- mano me hā kaṣṭaṁ jvalati kim ahaṁ hanta karavai
- na pāraṁ nāvāraṁ su-mukhi kalayāmy asya jaladheḥ
- iyaṁ vande mūrdhnā sapadi tam upāyaṁ kathaya me
- parāmṛśye yasmād dhṛti-kaṇikayāpi kṣaṇikayā
Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī addressed Lalitā, "My dear beautiful-faced Lalitā, I cannot express how My heart is burning. It is a great, unfathomable ocean of anxiety. Still, I wish to offer My obeisances at your lotus feet. What shall I do? Please consider My condition and advise Me how I can become peaceful. That is My desire."
Tānava, thinness, is described as follows:
- udañcad-vaktrāmbhoruha-vikṛtir antaḥ-kulaṣitā
- sadāhārābhāva-glapita-kuca-kokā yadu-pate
- viśuṣyantī rādhā tava viraha-tāpād anu-dinaṁ
- nidāghe kuly eva kraśima-paripākaṁ prathayati
When Uddhava returned to Mathurā after visiting Vṛndāvana, Lord Kṛṣṇa inquired from him about Rādhārāṇī and Viśākhā. Uddhava replied as follows: "Consider the condition of the gopīs! Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī especially is in a very painful condition because of separation from You. She has grown skinny, and Her bodily luster is almost gone. Her heart is immersed in pain, and because She has given up eating, Her breasts have become black, as if diseased. Because of separation from You, all the gopīs, especially Rādhārāṇī, appear like dried-up water holes under the scorching heat of the sun."
Pralāpa, mad talking, is explained in the Lalita-mādhava as follows:
- kva nanda-kula-candramāḥ kva śikhi-candra-kālaṅkṛtiḥ
- kva mandra-muralī-ravaḥ kva nu surendra-nīla-dyutiḥ
- kva rāsa-rasa-tāṇḍavī kva sakhi jīva-rakṣauṣadhir
- nidhir mama suhṛttamaḥ kva tava hanta hā dhig vidhiḥ
This is Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī’s lamentation for Her beloved Kṛṣṇa, who was away from home. A woman whose husband has left home and gone to a foreign land is called proṣita-bhartṛkā. Lamenting for Kṛṣṇa in the same way that such a woman laments for her husband, Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī said, "My dear friend, where is the glory of the family of Mahārāja Nanda, who wears a half-moon ornament on His head? Where is Kṛṣṇa, whose hue is like that of the indranīla jewel and who plays so nicely on His flute? Where is your friend, the best of all men, so expert in dancing in the circle of the rāsa dance? Where is He who is the real medicine to save Me from dying of heart disease? I must condemn Providence, for he has caused Me so many tribulations by separating Me from Kṛṣṇa."
Being greatly afflicted by the pain of separation from Kṛṣṇa, Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī said, "My dear Lalitā, kindly hear Me. I cannot bear suffering the fever of separation from Kṛṣṇa, nor can I explain it to you. It is something like gold melting in an earthen box. This fever produces more distress than poison, and it is more piercing than a thunderbolt. I suffer exactly like someone almost dead from cholera. To be giving Me so much pain, this fever must be very strong indeed."
Unmāda, madness, is explained as follows:
- bhramati bhavana-garbhe nirnimittaṁ hasantī
- prathayati tava vārtāṁ cetanācetaneṣu
- luṭhati ca bhuvi rādhā kampitāṅgī murāre
Uddhava said to Kṛṣṇa, "My dear Kṛṣṇa, all the gopīs are so afflicted by Your absence that they have become almost mad. O Murāri, at home Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī laughs unnecessarily and, like a madwoman, inquires about You from every entity without distinction, even from the stones. She rolls on the ground, unable to bear the agony of Your absence."
Lalitā wrote Kṛṣṇa the following letter on Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī’s behalf: "My dear Kṛṣṇa, Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī has fallen unconscious on the ground, Her mind greatly agitated by Her separation from You. O enemy of Kaṁsa, You have now become a first-class politician, and therefore You can supposedly give relief to everyone. Therefore please consider the plight of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī, or very soon You will hear of Her death. Maybe at that time You will lament, although now You are jubilant."
Mṛtyu, death, is explained in the Haṁsa-dūta (96):
- aye rāsa-krīḍā-rasika mama sakhyaṁ nava-navā
- purā baddhā yena praṇaya-laharī hanta gahanā
- sa cen muktāpekṣas tvam asi dhig imāṁ tūla-śakalaṁ
- yad etasyā nāsā-nihitam idam adyāpi calati
In the following letter, Lalitā chastised Kṛṣṇa for staying in Mathurā: “Simply by dancing in the circle of the rāsa dance, You attracted Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī’s love. Why are You now so indifferent to my dear friend Rādhārāṇī? She is lying nearly unconscious, thinking of Your pastimes. I shall determine whether She is alive by putting a cotton swab under Her nostrils, and if She is still living, I shall chastise Her.”
“Hearing the vibration of Kṛṣṇa's flute, Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī and all Her gopī friends came there to meet Him. They were all very nicely dressed.
“When Kṛṣṇa and Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī entered a cave together, the other gopīs asked Me to pick some flowers.
When Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī was very much agitated due to feeling great separation from Kṛṣṇa, She spoke a verse to Viśākhā explaining the cause of Her great anxiety and restlessness.
After Kṛṣṇa disappeared with Rādhārāṇī during the rāsa dance, the gopīs wandered in the forest looking for Him. In the same way, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu wandered in that garden by the sea.
“‘O dear doe, Śrī Kṛṣṇa is always very pleased to give you pleasure. Kindly inform us whether He passed this way in the company of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī. We think They must certainly have come this way.
“‘We are not outsiders. Being very dear friends of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī, we can perceive the bodily fragrance of Kṛṣṇa from a distance.
“‘Kṛṣṇa has been embracing Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī, and the kuṅkuma powder on Her breasts has mixed with the garland of kunda flowers decorating His body. The fragrance of the garland has scented the entire atmosphere.
Lord Caitanya continued, “"O trees, kindly tell us whether Balarāma"s younger brother, Kṛṣṇa, welcomed your obeisances with loving glances as He passed this way, resting one hand on the shoulder of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī, holding a lotus flower in the other, and being followed by a swarm of bumblebees maddened by the fragrance of tulasī flowers.
Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu then recited the following verse, which was spoken by Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī to Her dear friend Viśākhā.
Lamenting in ecstatic love, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu then recited the following verse, which was spoken by Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī while exposing the lamentation of Her heart to Her friend Śrīmatī Viśākhā.
""Here in the arena of the rāsa dance, I remember Kṛṣṇa, who is always fond of joking and performing pastimes.""
This verse (Gīta-govinda 2.3) is sung by Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī.
Upon hearing Rāmānanda Rāya quote this verse, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu was very satisfied. Then He recited the following verse, which had been spoken by Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī in great anxiety.
"My dear lover," Lord Caitanya said in the mood of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī, “let Me describe some of the characteristics of Your transcendental lips. They agitate the mind and body of everyone, they increase lusty desires for enjoyment, they destroy the burden of material happiness and lamentation, and they make one forget all material tastes. The whole world falls under their control. They vanquish shame, religion and patience, especially in women. Indeed, they inspire madness in the minds of all women. Your lips increase the greed of the tongue and thus attract it. Considering all this, We see that the activities of Your transcendental lips are always paradoxical.
“He brought Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī to a bower by signaling with His flute. Then He entered within that bower to perform pastimes with Her.
Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu spoke these words in a mood of anger as He floated on waves of ecstatic love. Merged in an ocean of anxiety, He recited a verse spoken by Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī expressing the same emotion. Then He personally explained the verse and thus tasted the sweetness of Kṛṣṇa.
The aggregate of all these ecstasies once awoke a statement by Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī in the mind of Bilvamaṅgala Ṭhākura (Līlā-śuka). In the same ecstatic mood, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu now recited that verse, and on the strength of madness He described its meaning, which is unknown to people in general.
Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu said, “"Alas, what shall I do? To whom shall I speak? Let whatever I have done in hopes of meeting Kṛṣṇa be finished now. Please say something auspicious, but do not speak about Kṛṣṇa. Alas, Kṛṣṇa is lying within My heart like Cupid; therefore how can I possibly give up talking of Him? I cannot forget Kṛṣṇa, whose smile is sweeter than sweetness itself and who gives pleasure to My mind and eyes. Alas, My great thirst for Kṛṣṇa is increasing moment by moment!"
This statement by Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī is quoted from the Kṛṣṇa-karṇāmṛta (42).
While speaking in this way, Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī suddenly remembered Kṛṣṇa. Indeed, He appeared within Her heart. Greatly astonished, She told Her friends, "The person I want to forget is lying in My heart."
Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī’s ecstasy also made Her think of Kṛṣṇa as Cupid, and this understanding frightened Her. She said, "This Cupid, who has conquered the whole world and entered My heart, is My greatest enemy, for He does not allow Me to forget Him."
Then great eagerness conquered all the other soldiers of ecstasy, and an uncontrollable desire arose in the kingdom of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī’s mind. Greatly unhappy, She then chastised Her own mind.
“Lord Kṛṣṇa was in the water of the Yamunā in the company of the gopīs, headed by Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī. They were performing pastimes in a great sporting manner.
“I saw this pastime as I stood on the bank of the Yamunā in the company of the gopīs. One gopī was showing some other gopīs the pastimes of Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa in the water.
“Kṛṣṇa forcibly swept Rādhārāṇī away and took Her into water up to Her neck. Then He released Her where the water was very deep. She grasped Kṛṣṇa's neck, however, and floated on the water like a lotus flower plucked by the trunk of an elephant.
“Then Kṛṣṇa quarreled with Rādhārāṇī, and all the gopīs hid themselves in a cluster of white lotus flowers. They submerged their bodies up to their necks in the water. Only their faces floated above the surface, and the faces were indistinguishable from the lotuses.
“In the absence of the other gopīs, Lord Kṛṣṇa behaved with Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī as freely as He desired. When the gopīs began searching for Kṛṣṇa, Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī, being of very fine intelligence and thus knowing the situation of Her friends, immediately mingled in their midst.
“In Vṛndāvana, the trees and creepers are wonderful because throughout the entire year they produce all kinds of fruits and flowers. The gopīs and maidservants in the bowers of Vṛndāvana picked these fruits and flowers and brought them before Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa.
“At home Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī had made various types of sweetmeats from milk and sugar, such as gaṅgājala, amṛtakeli, pīyūṣagranthi, karpūrakeli, sarapūrī, amṛti, padmacini and khaṇḍa-kṣīrisāra-vṛkṣa. She had then brought them all for Kṛṣṇa.
“When Kṛṣṇa saw the very nice arrangement of food, He happily sat down and had a forest picnic. Then, after Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī and Her gopī friends partook of the remnants, Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa lay down together in the jeweled house.
“Some of the gopīs fanned Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa, others massaged Their feet, and some fed Them betel leaves to chew. When Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa fell asleep, all the gopīs also lay down. When I saw this, My mind was very happy.
As His feelings of separation in the ecstasy of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī increased at every moment, the Lord's activities, both day and night, were now wild, insane performances.
Just as Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī inquired from Her personal friend Viśākhā, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, reciting that very verse, began speaking like a madman.
Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī once spoke a verse to Her gopī friends describing how She hankers for the transcendental scent of Kṛṣṇa's body. Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu recited that same verse and made its meaning clear.
The evidence of the truth of these talks is found in Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam. There, in the section of the Tenth Canto known as the Bhramara-gīta, "The Song to the Bumblebee," Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī speaks insanely in ecstatic love for Kṛṣṇa.
When Uddhava arrived from Mathurā carrying a message for the gopīs, the gopīs began talking about Kṛṣṇa and crying. Then Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī saw a bumblebee and began speaking to it like someone mad, thinking that the bee was a messenger of Uddhava's or was someone very dear to him and Kṛṣṇa.
After hearing all these statements from Śrīmatī Rādhikā, the bumblebee left and then returned. After some thought, the gopī said:
- priya-sakha punar āgāḥ preyasā preṣitaḥ kiṁ
- varaya kim anurundhe mānanīyo ‘si me ‘ṅga
- nayasi katham ihāsmān dustyaja-dvandva-pārśvaṁ
- satatam urasi saumya śrīr vadhūḥ sākam āste
“You are Kṛṣṇa's very dear friend, and by His order you have come here again. Therefore you are worshipable for Me. O best of messengers, tell Me now, what is your request? What do you want? Kṛṣṇa cannot give up conjugal love, and therefore I understand that you have come here to take us to Him. But how will you do that? We know that many goddesses of fortune now reside at Kṛṣṇa's chest, and they constantly serve Kṛṣṇa better than we can.”
While Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī was thinking in this way, the characteristics of natural love became manifest because of Her pure heart.
In that mood, the mind of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī was agitated, and therefore She spoke a verse of advanced devotion to Her gopī friends.
In the same spirit of ecstasy, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu recited that verse, and as soon as He did so, He felt like Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī.
These statements by Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī show the symptoms of pure love for Kṛṣṇa tasted by Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu. In that ecstatic love, His mind was unsteady. Transformations of transcendental love spread throughout His entire body, and He could not sustain His body and mind.
The Vṛndāvana Deities of Madana-mohana with Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī, Govinda with Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī, and Gopīnātha with Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī are the life and soul of the Gauḍīya Vaiṣṇavas.