Radharani (CC Adi-lila)

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Expressions researched:
"Radha" |"Radha's" |"Radharani" |"Radharani's" |"Radhe" |"Radhika" |"Radhika's"

Sri Caitanya-caritamrta

CC Preface and Introduction

CC Preface:

Everyone has to suffer or enjoy the fruits of his activity; no one can check the laws of material nature that govern such things. As long as one is engaged in fruitive activity, one is sure to be baffled in the attempt to attain the ultimate goal of life. I sincerely hope that by understanding the teachings of Lord Caitanya presented in this book, Śrī Caitanya-caritāmṛta, human society will experience a new light of spiritual life, which will open the field of activity for the pure soul.

oṁ tat sat

A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami

March 14, 1968

The Birthday of Lord Caitanya

Śrī Śrī Rādhā-Kṛṣṇa Temple

New York, N.Y.

CC Introduction:

Caitanya Mahāprabhu informs us that in every country and in every scripture there is some hint of love of Godhead. But no one knows what love of Godhead actually is. The Vedic scriptures, however, are different in that they can direct the individual in the proper way to love God. Other scriptures do not give information on how one can love God, nor do they actually define or describe what or who the Godhead actually is. Although they officially promote love of Godhead, they have no idea how to execute it. But Caitanya Mahāprabhu gives a practical demonstration of how to love God in a conjugal relationship. Taking the part of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī, Caitanya Mahāprabhu tried to love Kṛṣṇa as Rādhārāṇī loved Him. Kṛṣṇa was always amazed by Rādhārāṇī’s love. "How does Rādhārāṇī give Me such pleasure?" He would ask. In order to study Rādhārāṇī, Kṛṣṇa lived in Her role and tried to understand Himself. This is the secret of Lord Caitanya's incarnation. Caitanya Mahāprabhu is Kṛṣṇa, but He has taken the mood and role of Rādhārāṇī to show us how to love Kṛṣṇa. Thus the author writes in the fifth verse, “I offer my respectful obeisances unto the Supreme Lord, who is absorbed in Rādhārāṇī’s thoughts.”

This brings up the question of who Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī is and what Rādhā-Kṛṣṇa is. Actually Rādhā-Kṛṣṇa is the exchange of love—but not ordinary love. Kṛṣṇa has immense potencies, of which three are principal: the internal, the external and the marginal potencies.

CC Introduction:

To learn how Kṛṣṇa enjoys pleasure, we must study the first nine cantos of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, and then we should study the Tenth Canto, in which Kṛṣṇa's pleasure potency is displayed in His pastimes with Rādhārāṇī and the damsels of Vraja. Unfortunately, unintelligent people turn at once to the sports of Kṛṣṇa in the Daśama-skandha, the Tenth Canto. Kṛṣṇa's embracing Rādhārāṇī or His dancing with the cowherd girls in the rāsa dance are generally not understood by ordinary men, because they consider these pastimes in the light of mundane lust. They foolishly think that Kṛṣṇa is like themselves and that He embraces the gopīs just as an ordinary man embraces a young girl. Some people thus become interested in Kṛṣṇa because they think that His religion allows indulgence in sex. This is not kṛṣṇa-bhakti, love of Kṛṣṇa, but prākṛta-sahajiyā—materialistic lust.

To avoid such errors, we should understand what Rādhā-Kṛṣṇa actually is. Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa display Their pastimes through Kṛṣṇa's internal energy. The pleasure potency of Kṛṣṇa's internal energy is a most difficult subject matter, and unless one understands what Kṛṣṇa is, one cannot understand it. Kṛṣṇa does not take any pleasure in this material world, but He has a pleasure potency. Because we are part and parcel of Kṛṣṇa, the pleasure potency is within us also, but we are trying to exhibit that pleasure potency in matter. Kṛṣṇa, however, does not make such a vain attempt. The object of Kṛṣṇa's pleasure potency is Rādhārāṇī; Kṛṣṇa exhibits His potency as Rādhārāṇī and then engages in loving affairs with Her. In other words, Kṛṣṇa does not take pleasure in this external energy but exhibits His internal energy, His pleasure potency, as Rādhārāṇī and then enjoys with Her. Thus Kṛṣṇa manifests Himself as Rādhārāṇī in order to enjoy His internal pleasure potency. Of the many extensions, expansions and incarnations of the Lord, this pleasure potency is the foremost and chief.

CC Introduction:

It is not that Rādhārāṇī is separate from Kṛṣṇa. Rādhārāṇī is also Kṛṣṇa, for there is no difference between the energy and the energetic. Without energy, there is no meaning to the energetic, and without the energetic, there is no energy. Similarly, without Rādhā there is no meaning to Kṛṣṇa, and without Kṛṣṇa there is no meaning to Rādhā. Because of this, the Vaiṣṇava philosophy first of all pays obeisances to and worships the internal pleasure potency of the Supreme Lord. Thus the Lord and His potency are always referred to as Rādhā-Kṛṣṇa. Similarly, those who worship Nārāyaṇa first of all utter the name of Lakṣmī, as Lakṣmī-Nārāyaṇa. Similarly, those who worship Lord Rāma first of all utter the name of Sītā. In any case—Sītā-Rāma, Rādhā-Kṛṣṇa, Lakṣmī-Nārāyaṇa—the potency always comes first.

CC Introduction:

Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa are one, and when Kṛṣṇa desires to enjoy pleasure, He manifests Himself as Rādhārāṇī. The spiritual exchange of love between Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa is the actual display of Kṛṣṇa's internal pleasure potency. Although we speak of "when" Kṛṣṇa desires, just when He did desire we cannot say. We only speak in this way because in conditioned life we take it that everything has a beginning; however, in spiritual life everything is absolute, and so there is neither beginning nor end. Yet in order to understand that Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa are one and that They also become divided, the question "When?" automatically comes to mind. When Kṛṣṇa desired to enjoy His pleasure potency, He manifested Himself in the separate form of Rādhārāṇī, and when He wanted to understand Himself through the agency of Rādhā, He united with Rādhārāṇī, and that unification is called Lord Caitanya. This is all explained by Śrīla Kṛṣṇadāsa Kavirāja in the fifth verse of the Caitanya-caritāmṛta.

In the next verse the author further explains why Kṛṣṇa assumed the form of Caitanya Mahāprabhu. Kṛṣṇa desired to know the glory of Rādhā’s love. "Why is She so much in love with Me?" Kṛṣṇa asked. "What is My special qualification that attracts Her so? And what is the actual way in which She loves Me?" It seems strange that Kṛṣṇa, as the Supreme, should be attracted by anyone's love. A man searches after the love of a woman because he is imperfect—he lacks something. The love of a woman, that potency and pleasure, is absent in man, and therefore a man wants a woman. But this is not the case with Kṛṣṇa, who is full in Himself. Thus Kṛṣṇa expressed surprise: "Why am I attracted by Rādhārāṇī? And when Rādhārāṇī feels My love, what is She actually feeling?" To taste the essence of that loving exchange, Kṛṣṇa made His appearance in the same way that the moon appears on the horizon of the sea. Just as the moon was produced by the churning of the sea, by the churning of spiritual loving affairs the moon of Caitanya Mahāprabhu appeared. Indeed, Lord Caitanya's complexion was golden, just like the luster of the moon. Although this is figurative language, it conveys the meaning behind the appearance of Caitanya Mahāprabhu. The full significance of His appearance will be explained in later chapters.

CC Introduction:

With verse 15, Kṛṣṇadāsa Kavirāja Gosvāmī begins offering his obeisances directly to Kṛṣṇa Himself. Kṛṣṇadāsa Kavirāja was an inhabitant of Vṛndāvana and a great devotee. He had been living with his family in Katwa, a small town in the district of Burdwan, in Bengal. He worshiped Rādhā-Kṛṣṇa with his family, and once when there was some misunderstanding among his family members about devotional service, he was advised by Nityānanda Prabhu in a dream to leave home and go to Vṛndāvana. Although he was very old, he started out that very night and went to live in Vṛndāvana. While he was there, he met some of the Gosvāmīs, principal disciples of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu. He was requested to write the Caitanya-caritāmṛta by the devotees of Vṛndāvana. Although he began this work at a very old age, by the grace of Lord Caitanya he finished it. Today it remains the most authoritative book on Caitanya Mahāprabhu's philosophy and life.

CC Introduction:

When this is established, in the sixteenth verse Kṛṣṇadāsa offers his obeisances to the functional Deity, Govinda. The Govinda Deity is called the functional Deity because He shows us how to serve Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa. The Madana-mohana Deity simply establishes that "I am Your eternal servant." With Govinda, however, there is actual acceptance of service. Govinda resides eternally in Vṛndāvana.

CC Introduction:

Vṛndāvana is actually experienced as it is by persons who have stopped trying to derive pleasure from material enjoyment. "When will my mind become cleansed of all hankering for material enjoyment so I will be able to see Vṛndāvana?" one great devotee asks. The more Kṛṣṇa conscious we become and the more we advance, the more everything is revealed as spiritual. Thus Kṛṣṇadāsa Kavirāja Gosvāmī considered the Vṛndāvana in India to be as good as the Vṛndāvana in the spiritual sky, and in the sixteenth verse of the Caitanya-caritāmṛta he describes Rādhārāṇī and Kṛṣṇa as seated beneath a wish-fulfilling tree in Vṛndāvana, on a throne decorated with valuable jewels. There Kṛṣṇa's dear gopī friends serve Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa by singing, dancing, offering betel nuts and refreshments, and decorating Their Lordships with flowers. Even today in India people decorate swinging thrones and re-create this scene during the month of July–August. Generally at that time people go to Vṛndāvana to offer their respects to the Deities there.

CC Adi-lila

CC Adi 1 Summary:

Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu is none other than the combined form of Śrī Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa. He is the life of those devotees who strictly follow in the footsteps of Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī. Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī and Śrīla Sanātana Gosvāmī are the two principal followers of Śrīla Svarūpa Dāmodara Gosvāmī, who acted as the most confidential servitor of Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa Caitanya Mahāprabhu, known as Viśvambhara in His early life. A direct disciple of Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī was Śrīla Raghunātha dāsa Gosvāmī. The author of Śrī Caitanya-caritāmṛta, Śrīla Kṛṣṇadāsa Kavirāja Gosvāmī, stands as the direct disciple of Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī and Śrīla Raghunātha dāsa Gosvāmī.

CC Adi 1 Summary:

The First Chapter of Śrī Caitanya-caritāmṛta begins with fourteen Sanskrit verses that describe the Absolute Truth. Then the next three Sanskrit verses describe the principal Deities of Vṛndāvana, namely, Śrī Rādhā-Madana-mohana, Śrī Rādhā-Govindadeva and Śrī Rādhā-Gopīnāthajī. The first of the fourteen verses is a symbolic representation of the Supreme Truth, and the entire First Chapter is in actuality devoted to this single verse, which describes Lord Caitanya in His six different transcendental expansions.

CC Adi 1.5, Translation:

The loving affairs of Śrī Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa are transcendental manifestations of the Lord's internal pleasure-giving potency. Although Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa are one in Their identity, They separated Themselves eternally. Now these two transcendental identities have again united, in the form of Śrī Kṛṣṇa Caitanya. I bow down to Him, who has manifested Himself with the sentiment and complexion of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī although He is Kṛṣṇa Himself.

CC Adi 1.6, Translation:

Desiring to understand the glory of Rādhārāṇī’s love, the wonderful qualities in Him that She alone relishes through Her love, and the happiness She feels when She realizes the sweetness of His love, the Supreme Lord Hari, richly endowed with Her emotions, appeared from the womb of Śrīmatī Śacī-devī, as the moon appeared from the ocean.

CC Adi 1.15, Translation:

Glory to the all-merciful Rādhā and Madana-mohana! I am lame and ill advised, yet They are my directors, and Their lotus feet are everything to me.

CC Adi 1.16, Translation:

In a temple of jewels in Vṛndāvana, underneath a desire tree, Śrī Śrī Rādhā-Govinda, served by Their most confidential associates, sit upon an effulgent throne. I offer my humble obeisances unto Them.

CC Adi 1.19, Purport:

The author of Śrī Caitanya-caritāmṛta offers his respectful obeisances unto the three Deities of Vṛndāvana named Śrī Rādhā-Madana-mohana, Śrī Rādhā-Govindadeva and Śrī Rādhā-Gopīnāthajī. These three Deities are the life and soul of the Bengali Vaiṣṇavas, or Gauḍīya Vaiṣṇavas, who have a natural aptitude for residing in Vṛndāvana. The Gauḍīya Vaiṣṇavas who follow strictly in the line of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu worship the Divinity by chanting transcendental sounds meant to develop a sense of one's transcendental relationship with the Supreme Lord, a reciprocation of mellows (rasas) of mutual affection, and, ultimately, the achievement of the desired success in loving service. These three Deities are worshiped in three different stages of one's development. The followers of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu scrupulously follow these principles of approach.

CC Adi 1.19, Purport:

Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu explained this mode of devotional service in three stages, and therefore these worshipable Deities were installed in Vṛndāvana by different Gosvāmīs. They are very dear to the Gauḍīya Vaiṣṇavas there, who visit the temples at least once a day. Besides the temples of these three Deities, many other temples have been established in Vṛndāvana, such as the temple of Rādhā-Dāmodara of Jīva Gosvāmī, the temple of Śyāmasundara of Śyāmānanda Gosvāmī, the temple of Gokulānanda of Lokanātha Gosvāmī, and the temple of Rādhā-ramaṇa of Gopāla Bhaṭṭa Gosvāmī. There are seven principal temples over four hundred years old that are the most important of the five thousand temples now existing in Vṛndāvana.

CC Adi 1.46, Purport:

In all the ancient literatures of devotional service and in the more recent songs of Śrīla Narottama dāsa Ṭhākura, Śrīla Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura and other unalloyed Vaiṣṇavas, the spiritual master is always considered either one of the confidential associates of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī or a manifested representation of Śrīla Nityānanda Prabhu.

CC Adi 1.55, Purport:

Because of his development of transcendental attachment for the Supreme Lord, a surrendered soul feels the presence of his beloved everywhere, and all his senses are engaged in the loving service of the Lord. His eyes are engaged in seeing the beautiful couple Śrī Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa sitting on a decorated throne beneath a desire tree in the transcendental land of Vṛndāvana. His nose is engaged in smelling the spiritual aroma of the lotus feet of the Lord. Similarly, his ears are engaged in hearing messages from Vaikuṇṭha, and his hands embrace the lotus feet of the Lord and His associates. Thus the Lord is manifested to a pure devotee from within and without. This is one of the mysteries of the devotional relationship in which a devotee and the Lord are bound by a tie of spontaneous love. To achieve this love should be the goal of life for every living being.

CC Adi 1.57, Translation:

"All glories to Cintāmaṇi and my initiating spiritual master, Somagiri. All glories to my instructing spiritual master, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who wears peacock feathers in His crown. Under the shade of His lotus feet, which are like desire trees, Jayaśrī (Rādhārāṇī) enjoys the transcendental mellow of an eternal consort."

CC Adi 1.57, Purport:

Cintāmaṇi was a prostitute with whom Bilvamaṅgala was intimate earlier in his life. She gave him the inspiration to begin on the path of devotional service, and because she convinced him to give up material existence to try for perfection by loving Kṛṣṇa, he has first offered his respects to her. Next he offers his respects to his initiating spiritual master, Somagiri, and then to the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who was also his instructing spiritual master. He explicitly mentions Bhagavān, who has peacock feathers on His crown, because the Lord of Vṛndāvana, Kṛṣṇa the cowherd boy, used to come to Bilvamaṅgala to talk with him and supply him with milk. In his adoration of Śrī Kṛṣṇa, the Personality of Godhead, he states that Jayaśrī, the goddess of fortune, Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī, takes shelter in the shade of His lotus feet to enjoy the transcendental rasa of nuptial love. The complete treatise Kṛṣṇa-karṇāmṛta is dedicated to the transcendental pastimes of Śrī Kṛṣṇa and Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī. It is a book to be read and understood by the most elevated devotees of Śrī Kṛṣṇa.

CC Adi 2.22, Purport:

(8) From the Ananta-saṁhitā:

ya eva bhagavān kṛṣṇo
rādhikā-prāṇa-vallabhaḥ
sṛṣṭy ādau sa jagan-nātho
gaura āsīn maheśvari

"The Supreme Person, Śrī Kṛṣṇa Himself, who is the life of Śrī Rādhārāṇī and is the Lord of the universe in creation, maintenance and annihilation, appears as Gaura, O Maheśvarī."

CC Adi 3.58, Translation:

"By performing the sacrifice of congregational chanting of the holy name, learned scholars in the Age of Kali worship Lord Kṛṣṇa, who is now nonblackish because of the great upsurge of the feelings of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī. He is the only worshipable Deity for the paramahaṁsas, who have attained the highest stage of the fourth order (sannyāsa). May that Supreme Personality of Godhead, Lord Caitanya, show us His great causeless mercy."

CC Adi 3.81, Translation:

Antaḥ kṛṣṇa refers to one who is always thinking of Kṛṣṇa. This attitude is a predominant feature of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī. Even though many devotees always think of Kṛṣṇa, none can surpass the gopīs, among whom Rādhārāṇī is the leader in thinking of Kṛṣṇa. Rādhārāṇī’s Kṛṣṇa consciousness surpasses that of all other devotees. Lord Caitanya accepted the position of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī to understand Kṛṣṇa; therefore He was always thinking of Kṛṣṇa in the same way as Rādhārāṇī. By thinking of Lord Kṛṣṇa, He always overlapped Kṛṣṇa.

CC Adi 4 Summary:

In this chapter of the epic Caitanya-caritāmṛta, Kṛṣṇadāsa Kavirāja Gosvāmī has stressed that Lord Caitanya appeared for three principal purposes of His own. The first purpose was to relish the position of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī, who is the prime reciprocator of transcendental love of Śrī Kṛṣṇa. Lord Kṛṣṇa is the reservoir of transcendental loving transactions with Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī. The subject of those loving transactions is the Lord Himself, and Rādhārāṇī is the object. Thus the subject, the Lord, wanted to relish the loving mellow in the position of the object, Rādhārāṇī.

The second reason for His appearance was to understand the transcendental mellow of Himself. Lord Kṛṣṇa is all sweetness. Rādhārāṇī’s attraction for Kṛṣṇa is sublime, and to experience that attraction and understand the transcendental sweetness of Himself, He accepted the mentality of Rādhārāṇī.

The third reason that Lord Caitanya appeared was to enjoy the bliss tasted by Rādhārāṇī. The Lord thought that undoubtedly Rādhārāṇī enjoyed His company and He enjoyed the company of Rādhārāṇī, but the exchange of transcendental mellow between the spiritual couple was more pleasing to Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī than to Śrī Kṛṣṇa. Rādhārāṇī felt more transcendental pleasure in the company of Kṛṣṇa than He could understand without taking Her position, but for Śrī Kṛṣṇa to enjoy in the position of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī was impossible because that position was completely foreign to Him. Kṛṣṇa is the transcendental male, and Rādhārāṇī is the transcendental female. Therefore, to know the transcendental pleasure of loving Kṛṣṇa, Lord Kṛṣṇa Himself appeared as Lord Caitanya, accepting the emotions and bodily luster of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī.

CC Adi 4 Summary:

This chapter also specifically describes the difference between lust and love. The transactions of Kṛṣṇa and Rādhā are completely different from material lust. Therefore the author has very clearly distinguished between them.

CC Adi 4.33, Purport:

Many realized souls, such as Raghunātha dāsa Gosvāmī and King Kulaśekhara, have recommended with great emphasis that one develop this spontaneous love of Godhead, even at the risk of transgressing all the traditional codes of morality and religiosity. Śrī Raghunātha dāsa Gosvāmī, one of the six Gosvāmīs of Vṛndāvana, has written in his prayers called the Manaḥ-śikṣā that one should simply worship Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa with all attention. Na dharmaṁ nādharmaṁ śruti-gaṇa-niruktaṁ kila kuru: one should not be much interested in performing Vedic rituals or simply following rules and regulations.

CC Adi 4.34, Purport:

The activities of the Supreme Lord can never be understood by irresponsible persons who think the pastimes of Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa to be ordinary affairs. The rāsa dance is arranged by Kṛṣṇa's internal potency yogamāyā, and it is beyond the grasp of the materially affected person.

CC Adi 4.34, Purport:

Trying to throw mud into transcendence with their perversity, the sahajiyās misinterpret the sayings tat-paratvena nirmalam (CC Madhya 19.170) and tat-paro bhavet. By misinterpreting tādṛśīḥ krīḍāḥ, they want to indulge in sex while pretending to imitate Lord Kṛṣṇa. But one must actually understand the imports of the words through the intelligence of the authorized gosvāmīs. Śrīla Narottama dāsa Ṭhākura, in his prayers to the Gosvāmīs, has explained his inability to understand such spiritual affairs:

rūpa-raghunātha-pade ha-ibe ākuti
kabe hāma bujhaba se yugala-pīriti

"When I shall be eager to understand the literature given by the Gosvāmīs, then I shall be able to understand the transcendental love affairs of Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa." In other words, unless one is trained under the disciplic succession of the Gosvāmīs, one cannot understand Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa. The conditioned souls are naturally averse to understanding the spiritual existence of the Lord, and if they try to know the transcendental nature of the Lord's pastimes while they remain absorbed in materialism, they are sure to blunder like the sahajiyās.

CC Adi 4.35, Purport:

This imperative is applicable to pure devotees. Neophytes will be able to understand these affairs only after being elevated by regulated devotional service under the expert guidance of the spiritual master. Then they too will be competent to hear of the love affairs of Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa.

As long as one is in material, conditioned life, strict discipline is required in the matter of moral and immoral activities. The absolute world is transcendental and free from such distinctions because there inebriety is not possible. But in this material world a sexual appetite necessitates distinction between moral and immoral conduct. There are no sexual activities in the spiritual world. The transactions between lover and beloved in the spiritual world are pure transcendental love and unadulterated bliss.

One who has not been attracted by the transcendental beauty of rasa will certainly be dragged down into material attraction, thus to act in material contamination and progress to the darkest region of hellish life. But by understanding the conjugal love of Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa one is freed from the grip of attraction to material so-called love between man and woman.

CC Adi 4.41, Purport:

Svarūpa Dāmodara Gosvāmī has described Lord Caitanya as Kṛṣṇa Himself with the attitude of Rādhārāṇī, or a combination of Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa. The intention of Lord Caitanya is to taste Kṛṣṇa's sweetness in transcendental love. He does not care to think of Himself as Kṛṣṇa, because He wants the position of Rādhārāṇī. We should remember this. A class of so-called devotees called the nadīyā-nāgarīs or gaura-nāgarīs pretend that they have the sentiment of gopīs toward Lord Caitanya, but they do not realize that He placed Himself not as the enjoyer, Kṛṣṇa, but as the enjoyed, the devotee of Kṛṣṇa. The concoctions of unauthorized persons pretending to be bona fide have not been accepted by Lord Caitanya. Presentations such as those of the gaura-nāgarīs are only disturbances to the sincere execution of the mission of Lord Caitanya. Lord Caitanya is undoubtedly Kṛṣṇa Himself, and He is always nondifferent from Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī. But the emotion technically called vipralambha-bhāva, which the Lord adopted for confidential reasons, should not be disturbed in the name of service. A mundaner should not unnecessarily intrude into affairs of transcendence and thereby displease the Lord. One must always be on guard against this sort of devotional anomaly. A devotee is not meant to create disturbances to Kṛṣṇa. As Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī has explained, devotional service is ānukūlyena, or favorable to Kṛṣṇa. Acting unfavorably toward Kṛṣṇa is not devotion. Kaṁsa was the enemy of Kṛṣṇa. He always thought of Kṛṣṇa, but he thought of Him as an enemy. One should always avoid such unfavorable so-called service.

Lord Caitanya has accepted the role of Rādhārāṇī, and we should support that position, as Svarūpa Dāmodara did in the Gambhīrā (the room where Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu stayed in Purī). He always reminded Lord Caitanya of Rādhā’s feelings of separation as they are described in Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, and Lord Caitanya appreciated his assistance. But the gaura-nāgarīs, who place Lord Caitanya in the position of enjoyer and themselves as His enjoyed, are not approved by Lord Caitanya or by Lord Caitanya's followers. Instead of being blessed, the foolish imitators are left completely apart. Their concoctions are against the principles of Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu. The doctrine of transcendental enjoyment by Kṛṣṇa cannot be mixed up with the doctrine of transcendental feeling of separation from Kṛṣṇa in the role of Rādhārāṇī.

CC Adi 4.48, Translation:

This mood is unbounded in the damsels of Vraja, but among them it finds its perfection in Śrī Rādhā.

CC Adi 4.50, Translation:

Therefore Lord Gaurāṅga, who is Śrī Hari Himself, accepted the sentiments of Rādhā and thus fulfilled His own desires.

CC Adi 4.50, Purport:

The transcendental mellow relished by the gopīs in Vraja is superexcellently featured in Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī. Mature assimilation of the transcendental humor of conjugal love is represented by Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī, whose feelings are incomprehensible even to the Lord Himself. The intensity of Her loving service is the highest form of ecstasy. No one can surpass Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī in relishing the qualities of the Lord through this supreme transcendental mellow. Therefore the Lord Himself agreed to assume the position of Rādhārāṇī in the form of Lord Śrī Gaurāṅga. He then relished the highest position of parakīya-rasa, as exhibited in the transcendental abode of Vraja.

CC Adi 4.52, Translation:

"Lord Kṛṣṇa desired to taste the limitless nectarean mellows of the love of one of His multitude of loving damsels (Śrī Rādhā), and so He has assumed the form of Lord Caitanya. He has tasted that love while hiding His own dark complexion with Her effulgent yellow color. May that Lord Caitanya confer upon us His grace."

CC Adi 4.55, Translation:

“The loving affairs of Śrī Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa are transcendental manifestations of the Lord's internal pleasure-giving potency. Although Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa are one in Their identity, They separated Themselves eternally. Now these two transcendental identities have again united, in the form of Śrī Kṛṣṇa Caitanya. I bow down to Him, who has manifested Himself with the sentiment and complexion of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī although He is Kṛṣṇa Himself.”

CC Adi 4.56, Translation and Purport:

Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa are one and the same, but They have assumed two bodies. Thus They enjoy each other, tasting the mellows of love.

The two transcendentalists Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa are a puzzle to materialists. The above description of Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa from the diary of Śrīla Svarūpa Dāmodara Gosvāmī is a condensed explanation, but one needs great spiritual insight to understand the mystery of these two personalities. One is enjoying in two. Śrī Kṛṣṇa is the potent factor, and Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī is the internal potency. According to Vedānta philosophy, there is no difference between the potent and the potency; they are identical. We cannot differentiate between one and the other, any more than we can separate fire from heat.

Everything in the Absolute is inconceivable in relative existence. Therefore in relative cognizance it is very difficult to assimilate this truth of the oneness between the potent and the potency. The philosophy of inconceivable oneness and difference propounded by Lord Caitanya is the only source of understanding for such intricacies of transcendence.

In fact, Rādhārāṇī is the internal potency of Śrī Kṛṣṇa, and She eternally intensifies the pleasure of Śrī Kṛṣṇa. Impersonalists cannot understand this without the help of a mahā-bhāgavata devotee. The very name "Rādhā" suggests that Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī is eternally the topmost mistress of the comforts of Śrī Kṛṣṇa. As such, She is the medium transmitting the living entities' service to Śrī Kṛṣṇa. Devotees in Vṛndāvana therefore seek the mercy of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī in order to be recognized as loving servitors of Śrī Kṛṣṇa.

CC Adi 4.58, Translation:

Therefore I shall first delineate the position of Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa. From that description the glory of Lord Caitanya will be known.

CC Adi 4.59, Translation:

Śrīmatī Rādhikā is the transformation of Kṛṣṇa's love. She is His internal energy called hlādinī.

CC Adi 4.69, Translation and Purport:

Śrī Rādhā Ṭhākurāṇī is the embodiment of mahābhāva. She is the repository of all good qualities and the crest jewel among all the lovely consorts of Lord Kṛṣṇa.

The unadulterated action of the hlādinī-śakti is displayed in the dealings of the damsels of Vraja and Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī, who is the topmost participant in that transcendental group. The essence of the hlādinī-śakti is love of Godhead, the essence of love of Godhead is bhāva, or transcendental sentiment, and the highest pitch of that bhāva is called mahābhāva. Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī is the personified embodiment of these three aspects of transcendental consciousness. She is therefore the highest principle in love of Godhead and is the supreme lovable object of Śrī Kṛṣṇa.

CC Adi 4.70, Translation and Purport:

"Of these two gopīs (Rādhārāṇī and Candrāvalī), Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī is superior in all respects. She is the embodiment of mahābhāva, and She surpasses all in good qualities."

This is a quotation from Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī’s Ujjvala-nīlamaṇi (Rādhā-prakaraṇa 3).

CC Adi 4.71, Purport:

Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī is as fully spiritual as Kṛṣṇa. No one should consider Her to be material. She is definitely not like the conditioned souls, who have material bodies, gross and subtle, covered by material senses. She is all-spiritual, and both Her body and Her mind are of the same spiritual embodiment. Because Her body is spiritual, Her senses are also spiritual. Thus Her body, mind and senses fully shine in love of Kṛṣṇa. She is the personified hlādinī-śakti (the pleasure-giving energy of the Lord's internal potency), and therefore She is the only source of enjoyment for Śrī Kṛṣṇa.

Śrī Kṛṣṇa cannot enjoy anything that is internally different from Him. Therefore Rādhā and Śrī Kṛṣṇa are identical. The sandhinī portion of Śrī Kṛṣṇa's internal potency has manifested the all-attractive form of Śrī Kṛṣṇa, and the same internal potency, in the hlādinī feature, has presented Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī, who is the attraction for the all-attractive. No one can match Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī in the transcendental pastimes of Śrī Kṛṣṇa.

CC Adi 4.72, Translation:

"I worship Govinda, the primeval Lord, who resides in His own realm, Goloka, with Rādhā, who resembles His own spiritual figure and who embodies the ecstatic potency (hlādinī). Their companions are Her confidantes, who embody extensions of Her bodily form and who are imbued and permeated with ever-blissful spiritual rasa."

CC Adi 4.74-75, Translation:

The beloved consorts of Lord Kṛṣṇa are of three kinds: the goddesses of fortune, the queens, and the milkmaids of Vraja, who are the foremost of all. These consorts all proceed from Rādhikā.

CC Adi 4.76, Translation:

Just as the fountainhead, Lord Kṛṣṇa, is the cause of all incarnations, so Śrī Rādhā is the cause of all these consorts.

CC Adi 4.77, Translation:

The goddesses of fortune are partial manifestations of Śrīmatī Rādhikā, and the queens are reflections of Her image.

CC Adi 4.80, Translation:

Without many consorts, there is not such exultation in rasa. Therefore there are many manifestations of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī to assist in the Lord's pastimes.

CC Adi 4.81, Translation and Purport:

Among them are various groups of consorts in Vraja who have varieties of sentiments and mellows. They help Lord Kṛṣṇa taste all the sweetness of the rāsa dance and other pastimes.

As already explained, Kṛṣṇa and Rādhā are one in two. They are identical. Kṛṣṇa expands Himself in multi-incarnations and plenary portions like the puruṣas. Similarly, Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī expands Herself in multiforms as the goddesses of fortune, the queens and the damsels of Vraja. Such expansions from Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī are all Her plenary portions. All these womanly forms of Kṛṣṇa are expansions corresponding to His plenary expansions of Viṣṇu forms. These expansions have been compared to reflected forms of the original form. There is no difference between the original form and the reflected forms. The female reflections of Kṛṣṇa's pleasure potency are as good as Kṛṣṇa Himself.

The plenary expansions of Kṛṣṇa's personality are called vaibhava-vilāsa and vaibhava-prakāśa, and Rādhā’s expansions are similarly described. The goddesses of fortune are Her vaibhava-vilāsa forms, and the queens are Her vaibhava-prakāśa forms. The personal associates of Rādhārāṇī, the damsels of Vraja, are direct expansions of Her body. As expansions of Her personal form and transcendental disposition, they are agents of different reciprocations of love in the pastimes of Lord Kṛṣṇa, under the supreme direction of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī. In the transcendental realm, enjoyment is fully relished in variety. The exuberance of transcendental mellows is increased by the association of a large number of personalities similar to Rādhārāṇī, who are also known as gopīs or sakhīs. The variety of innumerable mistresses is a source of relish for Śrī Kṛṣṇa, and therefore these expansions from Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī are necessary for enhancing the pleasure potency of Śrī Kṛṣṇa. Their transcendental exchanges of love are the superexcellent affairs of the pastimes in Vṛndāvana. By these expansions of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī’s personal body, She helps Lord Kṛṣṇa taste the rāsa dance and other, similar activities. Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī, being the central petal of the rāsa-līlā flower, is also known by the names found in the following verses.

CC Adi 4.82, Translation:

Rādhā is the one who gives pleasure to Govinda, and She is also the enchantress of Govinda. She is the be-all and end-all of Govinda, and the crest jewel of all His consorts.

CC Adi 4.83, Translation:

"The transcendental goddess Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī is the direct counterpart of Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa. She is the central figure for all the goddesses of fortune. She possesses all the attractiveness to attract the all-attractive Personality of Godhead. She is the primeval internal potency of the Lord."

CC Adi 4.86, Purport:

Kṛṣṇa-mayī has two different imports. First, a person who always thinks of Kṛṣṇa both within and without and who always remembers only Kṛṣṇa, wherever he goes or whatever he sees, is called kṛṣṇa-mayī. Also, since Kṛṣṇa's personality is full of love, His loving potency, Rādhārāṇī, being nondifferent from Him, is called kṛṣṇa-mayī.

CC Adi 4.87, Translation and Purport:

Her worship (ārādhana) consists of fulfilling the desires of Lord Kṛṣṇa. Therefore the Purāṇas call Her Rādhikā.

The name "Rādhā" is derived from the root word ārādhana, which means "worship." The personality who excels all in worshiping Kṛṣṇa may therefore be called Rādhikā, the greatest servitor.

CC Adi 4.89, Translation:

Therefore Rādhā is parama-devatā, the supreme goddess, and She is worshipable for everyone. She is the protectress of all, and She is the mother of the entire universe.

CC Adi 4.90, Translation:

I have already explained the meaning of "sarva-lakṣmī." Rādhā is the original source of all the goddesses of fortune.

CC Adi 4.93, Translation:

"Kānti" may also mean "all the desires of Lord Kṛṣṇa." All the desires of Lord Kṛṣṇa rest in Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī.

CC Adi 4.94, Translation:

Śrīmatī Rādhikā fulfills all the desires of Lord Kṛṣṇa. This is the meaning of "sarva-kānti."

CC Adi 4.95, Translation:

Lord Kṛṣṇa enchants the world, but Śrī Rādhā enchants even Him. Therefore She is the supreme goddess of all.

CC Adi 4.96, Translation:

Śrī Rādhā is the full power, and Lord Kṛṣṇa is the possessor of full power. The two are not different, as evidenced by the revealed scriptures.

CC Adi 4.98, Translation:

Thus Rādhā and Lord Kṛṣṇa are one, yet They have taken two forms to enjoy the mellows of pastimes.

CC Adi 4.99-100, Translation:

To promulgate prema-bhakti (devotional service in love of Godhead), Kṛṣṇa appeared as Śrī Kṛṣṇa Caitanya with the mood and complexion of Śrī Rādhā. Thus I have explained the meaning of the fifth verse.

CC Adi 4.105, Purport:

Svarūpa Dāmodara has been identified as Lalitā-devī, the second expansion of Rādhārāṇī. However, text 160 of Kavi-karṇapūra's authoritative Gaura-gaṇoddeśa-dīpikā describes Svarūpa Dāmodara as the same Viśākhā-devī who serves the Lord in Goloka Vṛndāvana. Therefore it is to be understood that Śrī Svarūpa Dāmodara is a direct expansion of Rādhārāṇī who helps the Lord experience the attitude of Rādhārāṇī.

CC Adi 4.106, Translation and Purport:

The heart of Lord Caitanya is the image of Śrī Rādhikā’s emotions. Thus feelings of pleasure and pain arise constantly therein.

Lord Caitanya's heart was full of the feelings of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī, and His appearance resembled Hers. Svarūpa Dāmodara has explained His attitude as rādhā-bhāva-mūrti, the attitude of Rādhārāṇī. One who engages in sense gratification on the material platform can hardly understand rādhā-bhāva, but one who is freed from the demands of sense gratification can understand it. Rādhā-bhāva must be understood from the Gosvāmīs, those who are actually controllers of the senses. From such authorized sources it is to be known that the attitude of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī is the highest perfection of conjugal love, which is the highest of the five transcendental mellows, and it is the complete perfection of love of Kṛṣṇa.

CC Adi 4.108, Translation:

Just as Rādhikā went mad at the sight of Uddhava, so Lord Caitanya was obsessed day and night with the madness of separation.

CC Adi 4.114, Translation:

In youth He tasted the essence of rasa, fulfilling His desires in pastimes like the rāsa dance with Śrīmatī Rādhikā and the other gopīs.

CC Adi 4.117, Translation:

"Lord Kṛṣṇa made Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī close Her eyes in shame before Her friends by His words relating Their amorous activities on the previous night. Then He showed the highest limit of cleverness in drawing pictures of dolphins in various playful sports on Her breasts. In this way Lord Hari made His youth successful by performing pastimes in the bushes with Śrī Rādhā and Her friends."

CC Adi 4.118, Translation:

"O Paurṇamāsī, if Lord Hari had not descended in Mathurā with Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī, this entire creation—and especially Cupid, the demigod of love—would have been useless."

CC Adi 4.122, Translation:

“I am the full spiritual truth and am made of full joy, but the love of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī drives Me mad.

CC Adi 4.123, Translation:

“I do not know the strength of Rādhā’s love, with which She always overwhelms Me.

CC Adi 4.124, Translation:

"The love of Rādhikā is My teacher, and I am Her dancing pupil. Her prema makes Me dance various novel dances."

CC Adi 4.125, Translation:

"In the forest on the bank of Rādhā-kuṇḍa."

"What is He doing there?"

"He is learning dancing."

"Who is His master?"

"Your image, Rādhā, revealing itself in every tree and creeper in every direction, is roaming like a skillful dancer, making Him dance behind."

CC Adi 4.126, Translation:

“Whatever pleasure I get from tasting My love for Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī, She tastes ten million times more than Me by Her love.

CC Adi 4.127, Translation:

“Just as I am the abode of all mutually contradictory characteristics, so Rādhā’s love is always full of similar contradictions.

CC Adi 4.128, Translation:

“Rādhā’s love is all-pervading, leaving no room for expansion. But still it is expanding constantly.

CC Adi 4.131, Translation:

“All glories to Rādhā’s love for Kṛṣṇa, the enemy of the demon Mura! Although it is all-pervading, it tends to increase at every moment. Although it is important, it is devoid of pride. And although it is pure, it is always beset with duplicity.”

CC Adi 4.132, Translation:

“Śrī Rādhikā is the highest abode of that love, and I am its only object.

CC Adi 4.133, Translation:

“I taste the bliss to which the object of love is entitled. But the pleasure of Rādhā, the abode of that love, is ten million times greater.

CC Adi 4.135, Purport:

Viṣaya and āśraya are two very significant words relating to the reciprocation between Kṛṣṇa and His devotee. The devotee is called the āśraya, and his beloved, Kṛṣṇa, is the viṣaya. Different ingredients are involved in the exchange of love between the āśraya and viṣaya, which are known as vibhāva, anubhāva, sāttvika and vyabhicārī. Vibhāva is divided into the two categories ālambana and uddīpana. Ālambana may be further divided into āśraya and viṣaya. In the loving affairs of Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa, Rādhārāṇī is the āśraya feature and Kṛṣṇa the viṣaya. The transcendental consciousness of the Lord tells Him, "I am Kṛṣṇa, and I experience pleasure as the viṣaya. The pleasure enjoyed by Rādhārāṇī, the āśraya, is many times greater than the pleasure I feel." Therefore, to feel the pleasure of the āśraya category, Lord Kṛṣṇa appeared as Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu.

CC Adi 4.139, Translation:

“Only Rādhikā, by the strength of Her love, tastes all the nectar of My sweetness.

CC Adi 4.140, Translation:

“Although Rādhā’s love is pure like a mirror, its purity increases at every moment.

CC Adi 4.142, Translation:

“There is constant competition between My sweetness and the mirror of Rādhā’s love. They both go on increasing, but neither knows defeat.

CC Adi 4.145, Translation and Purport:

"If I deliberate on a way to taste it, I find that I hanker for the position of Rādhikā."

Kṛṣṇa's attractiveness is wonderful and unlimited. No one can know the end of it. Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī alone can relish such extensiveness from Her position in the āśraya category. The mirror of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī’s transcendental love is perfectly clear, yet it appears clearer and clearest in the transcendental method of understanding Kṛṣṇa. In the mirror of Rādhārāṇī’s heart, the transcendental features of Kṛṣṇa appear increasingly new and fresh. In other words, the attraction of Kṛṣṇa increases in proportion to the understanding of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī. Each tries to supersede the other. Neither wants to be defeated in increasing the intensity of love. Desiring to understand Rādhārāṇī’s attitude of increasing love, Lord Kṛṣṇa appeared as Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu.

CC Adi 4.146, Translation:

"Who manifests an abundance of sweetness greater than Mine, which has never been experienced before and which causes wonder to all? Alas, I Myself, My mind bewildered upon seeing this beauty, impetuously desire to enjoy it like Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī."

CC Adi 4.189, Purport:

The situation of the gopīs is perplexing, for although they did not want personal happiness, it was imposed upon them. The solution to this perplexity is that Śrī Kṛṣṇa's sense of happiness is limited by the happiness of the gopīs. Devotees at Vṛndāvana therefore try to serve the gopīs, namely Rādhārāṇī and Her associates. If one gains the favor of the gopīs, he easily gains the favor of Kṛṣṇa because on the recommendation of the gopīs Kṛṣṇa at once accepts the service of a devotee. Lord Caitanya, therefore, wanted to please the gopīs instead of Kṛṣṇa. But His contemporaries misunderstood Him, and for this reason Lord Caitanya renounced the order of householder life and became a sannyāsī.

CC Adi 4.203, Translation:

"The lotus-eyed Rādhārāṇī powerfully condemned the ecstatic love that caused a flow of tears that hindered Her sight of Govinda."

CC Adi 4.214, Translation and Purport:

Among the gopīs, Śrīmatī Rādhikā is the foremost. She surpasses all in beauty, in good qualities, in good fortune and, above all, in love.

Among all the gopīs, Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī is the most exalted. She is the most beautiful, the most qualified and, above all, the greatest lover of Kṛṣṇa.

CC Adi 4.215, Translation:

"Just as Rādhā is dear to Lord Kṛsṇa, so Her bathing place (Rādhā-kuṇḍa) is dear to Him. She alone is His most beloved of all the gopīs."

CC Adi 4.216, Translation:

"O Pārtha, in all the three planetary systems, this earth is especially fortunate, for on earth is the town of Vṛndāvana. And there the gopīs are especially glorious because among them is My Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī."

CC Adi 4.217, Translation and Purport:

All the other gopīs help increase the joy of Kṛṣṇa's pastimes with Rādhārāṇī. The gopīs act as the instruments of Their mutual enjoyment.

It is said that the gopīs are divided into five groups, namely the sakhīs, nitya-sakhīs, prāṇa-sakhīs, priya-sakhīs and parama-preṣṭha-sakhīs. All these fair-complexioned associates of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī, the Queen of Vṛndāvana-dhāma, are expert artists in evoking erotic sentiments in Kṛṣṇa. The parama-preṣṭha-sakhīs are eight in number, and in the ecstatic dealings of Kṛṣṇa and Rādhā they side sometimes with Kṛṣṇa and at other times with Rādhārāṇī, just to create a situation in which it appears that they favor one against the other. That makes the exchange of mellows more palatable.

CC Adi 4.218, Translation:

Rādhā is the beloved consort of Kṛṣṇa, and She is the wealth of His life. Without Her, the gopīs cannot give Him pleasure.

CC Adi 4.219, Translation and Purport:

"Lord Kṛṣṇa, the enemy of Kaṁsa, left aside the other gopīs during the rāsa dance and took Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī to His heart, for She is the helper of the Lord in realizing the essence of His desires."

In this verse from the Gīta-govinda (3.1), Jayadeva Gosvāmī describes Śrī Kṛṣṇa's leaving the rāsa-līlā to search for Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī.

CC Adi 4.220, Translation:

Lord Caitanya appeared with the sentiment of Rādhā. He preached the dharma of this age—the chanting of the holy name and pure love of God.

CC Adi 4.221, Translation:

In the mood of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī, He also fulfilled His own desires. This is the principal reason for His appearance.

CC Adi 4.230, Translation:

“Desiring to understand the glory of Rādhārāṇī’s love, the wonderful qualities in Him that She alone relishes through Her love, and the happiness She feels when She realizes the sweetness of His love, the Supreme Lord Hari, richly endowed with Her emotions, appeared from the womb of Śrīmatī Śacī-devī, as the moon appeared from the ocean.”

CC Adi 4.241, Translation:

“One more qualified than Me is impossible to find in the world. But in Rādhā alone I feel the presence of one who can give Me pleasure.

CC Adi 4.242-243, Translation:

“Although My beauty defeats the beauty of ten million Cupids, although it is unequaled and unsurpassed, and although it gives pleasure to the three worlds, seeing Rādhārāṇī gives pleasure to My eyes.

CC Adi 4.244, Translation:

“The vibration of My transcendental flute attracts the three worlds, but My ears are enchanted by the sweet words of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī.

CC Adi 4.245, Translation:

“Although My body lends fragrance to the entire creation, the scent of Rādhārāṇī’s limbs captivates My mind and heart.

CC Adi 4.246, Translation:

“Although the entire creation is full of different tastes because of Me, I am charmed by the nectarean taste of the lips of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī.

CC Adi 4.247, Translation:

“And although My touch is cooler than ten million moons, I am refreshed by the touch of Śrīmatī Rādhikā.

CC Adi 4.248, Translation:

“Thus although I am the source of happiness for the entire world, the beauty and attributes of Śrī Rādhikā are My life and soul.

CC Adi 4.249, Translation:

“In this way My affectionate feelings for Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī may be understood, but on analysis I find them contradictory.

CC Adi 4.250, Translation:

“My eyes are fully satisfied when I look upon Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī, but by looking upon Me, She becomes even more advanced in satisfaction.

CC Adi 4.251, Translation:

“The flutelike murmur of the bamboos rubbing against one another steals Rādhārāṇī’s consciousness, for She thinks it to be the sound of My flute. And She embraces a tamāla tree, mistaking it for Me.

CC Adi 4.258, Translation:

“The happiness I feel when meeting Rādhārāṇī is a hundred times greater than the happiness I get from meeting others.

CC Adi 4.259, Translation and Purport:

“"My dear auspicious Rādhārāṇī, Your body is the source of all beauty. Your red lips are softer than the sense of immortal sweetness, Your face bears the aroma of a lotus flower, Your sweet words defeat the vibrations of the cuckoo, and Your limbs are cooler than the pulp of sandalwood. All My transcendental senses are overwhelmed in ecstatic pleasure by tasting You, who are completely decorated by beautiful qualities."

This verse, spoken by Lord Kṛṣṇa to Rādhā, is recorded in the Lalita-mādhava (9.9) of Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī.

CC Adi 4.260, Translation and Purport:

“"Her eyes are enchanted by the beauty of Lord Kṛṣṇa, the enemy of Kaṁsa. Her body thrills in pleasure at His touch. Her ears are always attracted to His sweet voice, Her nostrils are enchanted by His fragrance, and Her tongue hankers for the nectar of His soft lips. She hangs down her lotuslike face, exercising self-control only by pretense, but She cannot help showing the external signs of Her spontaneous love for Lord Kṛṣṇa."

Thus Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī describes the countenance of Rādhārāṇī.

CC Adi 4.261, Translation:

“Considering this, I can understand that some unknown mellow in Me controls the entire existence of My captivator, Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī.

CC Adi 4.262, Translation:

“I am always eager to taste the joy that Rādhārāṇī derives from Me.

CC Adi 4.267, Translation:

“Unless I accept the luster of the ecstatic love of Śrī Rādhikā, these three desires cannot be fulfilled.

CC Adi 4.268, Translation:

“Therefore, assuming Rādhārāṇī’s sentiments and bodily complexion, I shall descend to fulfill these three desires.”

CC Adi 4.271-272, Translation:

First Lord Kṛṣṇa made His parents and elders appear. Then Kṛṣṇa Himself, with the sentiments and complexion of Rādhikā, appeared in Navadvīpa, like the full moon, from the womb of mother Śacī, which is like an ocean of pure milk.

CC Adi 4.275, Translation:

"Lord Kṛṣṇa desired to taste the limitless nectarean mellows of the love possessed by one of His multitude of loving damsels (Śrī Rādhā), and so He has assumed the form of Lord Caitanya. He has tasted that love while hiding His own dark complexion with Her effulgent yellow color. May that Lord Caitanya confer upon us His grace."

CC Adi 5.202, Translation and Purport:

By His mercy I have attained the shelter of the great personality Śrī Raghunātha dāsa Gosvāmī, and by His mercy I have found the refuge of Śrī Svarūpa Dāmodara.

Anyone desiring to become expert in the service of Śrī Śrī Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa should always aspire to be under the guidance of Svarūpa Dāmodara Gosvāmī, Rūpa Gosvāmī, Sanātana Gosvāmī and Raghunātha dāsa Gosvāmī. To come under the protection of the Gosvāmīs, one must get the mercy and grace of Nityānanda Prabhu. The author has tried to explain this fact in these two verses.

CC Adi 5.203, Purport:

"I was unwilling to drink the nectar of devotional service possessed of renunciation, but Sanātana Gosvāmī, out of his causeless mercy, made me drink it, even though I was otherwise unable to do so. Therefore he is an ocean of mercy. He is very compassionate to fallen souls like me, and thus it is my duty to offer my respectful obeisances unto his lotus feet." Kṛṣṇadāsa Kavirāja Gosvāmī also, in the last section of the Caitanya-caritāmṛta, specifically mentions the names of Rūpa Gosvāmī, Sanātana Gosvāmī and Śrīla Jīva Gosvāmī and offers his respectful obeisances unto the lotus feet of these three spiritual masters, as well as Raghunātha dāsa. Śrīla Raghunātha dāsa Gosvāmī also accepted Sanātana Gosvāmī as the teacher of the science of devotional service. Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī is described as the bhakti-rasācārya, or one who knows the essence of devotional service. His famous book Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu is the science of devotional service, and by reading this book one can understand the meaning of devotional service. Another of his famous books is the Ujjvala-nīlamaṇi. In this book he elaborately explains the loving affairs and transcendental activities of Lord Kṛṣṇa and Rādhārāṇī.

CC Adi 5.204, Translation and Purport:

All glory, all glory to the lotus feet of Lord Nityānanda, by whose mercy I have attained Śrī Rādhā-Govinda!

Śrīla Narottama dāsa Ṭhākura, who is famous for his poetic composition known as Prārthanā, has lamented in one of his prayers, "When will Lord Nityānanda be merciful upon me so that I will forget all material desires?" Śrīla Narottama dāsa Ṭhākura confirms that unless one is freed from material desires to satisfy the needs of the body and senses, one cannot understand the transcendental abode of Lord Kṛṣṇa, Vṛndāvana. He also confirms that one cannot understand the loving affairs of Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa without going through the direction of the six Gosvāmīs. In another verse Narottama dāsa Ṭhākura has stated that without the causeless mercy of Nityānanda Prabhu, one cannot enter into the affairs of Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa.

CC Adi 5.213, Translation:

He enjoys the rāsa dance with Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī, Śrī Lalitā and others. He manifests Himself as the Cupid of Cupids.

CC Adi 5.215, Translation:

With Rādhā and Lalitā serving Him on His two sides, He attracts the hearts of all by His own sweetness.

CC Adi 5.220, Translation:

By His left side is Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī and Her personal friends. With them Lord Govinda enjoys the rāsa-līlā and many other pastimes.

CC Adi 5.226, Purport:

The Padma Purāṇa specifically mentions that anyone who thinks the form of the Lord in the temple to be made of wood, stone or metal is certainly in a hellish condition. Impersonalists are against the worship of the Lord's form in the temple, and there is even a group of people who pass as Hindus but condemn such worship. Their so-called acceptance of the Vedas has no meaning, for all the ācāryas, even the impersonalist Śaṅkarācārya, have recommended the worship of the transcendental form of the Lord. Impersonalists like Śaṅkarācārya recommend the worship of five forms, known as pañcopāsanā, which include Lord Viṣṇu. Vaiṣṇavas, however, worship the forms of Lord Viṣṇu in His varied manifestations, such as Rādhā-Kṛṣṇa, Lakṣmī-Nārāyaṇa, Sītā-Rāma and Rukmiṇī-Kṛṣṇa. Māyāvādīs admit that worship of the Lord's form is required in the beginning, but they think that in the end everything is impersonal. Therefore, since they are ultimately against worship of the Lord's form, Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu has described them as offenders.

CC Adi 5.229, Translation:

Lord Caitanya and Lord Nityānanda are the life and soul of those Vaiṣṇavas, who do not know anything but devotional service to Śrī Śrī Rādhā-Kṛṣṇa.

CC Adi 5.232, Purport:

All the inhabitants of Vṛndāvana are Vaiṣṇavas. They are all-auspicious because somehow or other they always chant the holy name of Kṛṣṇa. Even though some of them do not strictly follow the rules and regulations of devotional service, on the whole they are devotees of Kṛṣṇa and chant His name directly or indirectly. Purposely or without purpose, even when they pass on the street they are fortunate enough to exchange greetings by saying the name of Rādhā or Kṛṣṇa. Thus directly or indirectly they are auspicious.

The present city of Vṛndāvana has been established by the Gauḍīya Vaiṣṇavas since the six Gosvāmīs went there and directed the construction of their different temples. Of all the temples in Vṛndāvana, ninety percent belong to the Gauḍīya Vaiṣṇava sect, the followers of the teachings of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu and Nityānanda, and seven temples are very famous. The inhabitants of Vṛndāvana do not know anything but the worship of Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa. In recent years some unscrupulous so-called priests known as caste gosvāmīs have introduced the worship of demigods privately, but no genuine and rigid Vaiṣṇavas participate in this. Those who are serious about the Vaiṣṇava method of devotional activities do not take part in such worship of demigods.

The Gauḍīya Vaiṣṇavas never differentiate between Rādhā-Kṛṣṇa and Lord Caitanya. They say that since Lord Caitanya is the combined form of Rādhā-Kṛṣṇa, He is not different from Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa. But some misled people try to prove that they are greatly elevated by saying that they like to chant the holy name of Lord Gaura instead of the names of Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa. Thus they purposely differentiate between Lord Caitanya and Rādhā-Kṛṣṇa. According to them, the system of nadīyā-nāgarī, which they have recently invented in their fertile brains, is the worship of Gaura, Lord Caitanya, but they do not like to worship Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa. They put forward the argument that since Lord Caitanya Himself appeared as Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa combined, there is no necessity of worshiping Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa. Such differentiation by so-called devotees of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu is considered disruptive by pure devotees. Anyone who differentiates between Rādhā-Kṛṣṇa and Gaurāṅga is to be considered a plaything in the hands of māyā.

There are others who are against the worship of Caitanya Mahāprabhu, thinking Him mundane. But any sect that differentiates between Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu and Rādhā-Kṛṣṇa, either by worshiping Rādhā-Kṛṣṇa as distinct from Lord Caitanya or by worshiping Lord Caitanya but not Rādhā-Kṛṣṇa, is in the group of prākṛta-sahajiyās.

Śrīla Kṛṣṇadāsa Kavirāja Gosvāmī, the author of Śrī Caitanya-caritāmṛta, predicts in verses 225 and 226 that in the future those who manufacture imaginary methods of worship will gradually give up the worship of Rādhā-Kṛṣṇa, and although they will call themselves devotees of Lord Caitanya, they will also give up the worship of Caitanya Mahāprabhu and fall down into material activities. For the real worshipers of Lord Caitanya, the ultimate goal of life is to worship Śrī Śrī Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa.

CC Adi 6.53, Purport:

There are two kinds of devotional service: the way of pāñcarātrika regulative principles and the way of bhāgavata transcendental loving service. The love of Godhead of those engaged in pāñcarātrika regulative principles depends more or less on the opulent and reverential platform, but the worship of Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa is purely on the platform of transcendental love. Even persons who play as the superiors of Kṛṣṇa also take the chance to offer transcendental loving service to the Lord. The service attitude of the devotees who play the parts of superiors of the Lord is very difficult to understand, but it can be very plainly understood in connection with the superexcellence of their particular service to Lord Kṛṣṇa. A vivid example is the service of mother Yaśodā to Kṛṣṇa, which is distinct. In the feature of Nārāyaṇa, the Lord can accept services only from His associates who play parts in which they are equal to or less than Him, but in the feature of Lord Kṛṣṇa He accepts service very plainly from His fathers, teachers and other elders who are His superiors, as well as from His equals and His subordinates. This is very wonderful.

CC Adi 6.68, Translation and Purport:

“O Uddhava! It is indeed regrettable that Kṛṣṇa resides in Mathurā. Does He remember His father's household affairs and His friends, the cowherd boys? O great soul! Does He ever talk about us, His maidservants? When will He lay on our heads His aguru-scented hand?”

This verse appears in Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (10.47.21), in the section known as the Bhramara-gītā. When Uddhava came to Vṛndāvana, Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī, in complete separation from Kṛṣṇa, sang like this.

CC Adi 6.69-70, Translation:

What to speak of the other gopīs, even Śrī Rādhikā, who in every respect is the most elevated of them all and who has bound Śrī Kṛṣṇa forever by Her loving attributes, serves His feet as His maidservant.

CC Adi 6.71, Translation and Purport:

"O My Lord, O My husband, O most dearly beloved! O mighty-armed Lord! Where are You? Where are You? O My friend, reveal Yourself to Your maidservant, who is very much aggrieved by Your absence."

This verse is quoted from Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (10.30.39). When the rāsa dance was going on in full swing, Kṛṣṇa left all the gopīs and took only Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī with Him. At that time all the gopīs lamented, and Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī, being proud of Her position, requested Kṛṣṇa to carry Her wherever He liked. Then Kṛṣṇa immediately disappeared from the scene, and Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī began to lament.

CC Adi 7.4, Purport:

Taking advantage of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, many unscrupulous devotees manufacture a mahā-mantra of their own. Sometimes they sing bhaja nitāi gaura rādhe śyāma hare kṛṣṇa hare rāma or śrī-kṛṣṇa-caitanya prabhu-nityānanda hare kṛṣṇa hare rāma śrī-rādhe govinda. Actually, however, one should chant the names of the full Pañca-tattva (śrī-kṛṣṇa-caitanya prabhu-nityānanda śrī-advaita gadādhara śrīvāsādi-gaura-bhakta-vṛnda) and then the sixteen words Hare Kṛṣṇa, Hare Kṛṣṇa, Kṛṣṇa Kṛṣṇa, Hare Hare/ Hare Rāma, Hare Rāma, Rāma Rāma, Hare Hare. But these unscrupulous, less intelligent men confuse the entire process. Of course, since they are also devotees they can express their feelings in that way, but the method prescribed by Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu's pure devotees is to first chant the full Pañca-tattva mantra and then chant the mahā-mantra—Hare Kṛṣṇa, Hare Kṛṣṇa, Kṛṣṇa Kṛṣṇa, Hare Hare/ Hare Rāma, Hare Rāma, Rāma Rāma, Hare Hare.

CC Adi 7.11, Purport:

Although Kṛṣṇa is the reservoir of all pleasure, He has a special intention to taste Himself by accepting the form of a devotee. It is to be concluded that although Lord Caitanya is present in the form of a devotee, He is Kṛṣṇa Himself. Therefore Vaiṣṇavas sing, śrī-kṛṣṇa-caitanya rādhā-kṛṣṇa nahe anya: "Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa combined together are Śrī Kṛṣṇa Caitanya Mahāprabhu." And as Śrī Svarūpa Dāmodara Gosvāmī has said, caitanyākhyaṁ prakaṭam adhunā tad-dvayaṁ caikyam āptam: Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa assumed oneness in the form of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu.

CC Adi 7.17, Purport:

"When will there be eruptions on my body as soon as I chant the name of Lord Caitanya, and when will there be incessant torrents of tears as soon as I chant the holy names Hare Kṛṣṇa? When will Lord Nityānanda be merciful toward me and free me from all desires for material enjoyment? When will my mind be completely freed from all contamination of desires for material pleasure? Only at that time will it be possible for me to understand Vṛndāvana. Only if I become attached to the instructions given by the six Gosvāmīs, headed by Rūpa Gosvāmī and Raghunātha dāsa Gosvāmī, will it be possible for me to understand the conjugal love of Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa." By attachment to the devotional service of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu, one immediately comes to the ecstatic position. When he develops his love for Nityānanda Prabhu he is freed from all attachment to the material world, and at that time he becomes eligible to understand the Lord's pastimes in Vṛndāvana. In that condition, when one develops his love for the six Gosvāmīs, he can understand the conjugal love between Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa. These are the different stages of a pure devotee's promotion to conjugal love in the service of Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa in an intimate relationship with Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu.

CC Adi 7.18-19, Purport:

Distinguishing between pure devotees and internal or confidential devotees, Śrī Rūpa Gosvāmī, in his book Upadeśāmṛta, traces the following gradual process of development. Out of many thousands of karmīs, one is better when he is situated in perfect Vedic knowledge. Out of many such learned scholars and philosophers, one who is actually liberated from material bondage is better, and out of many such persons who are actually liberated, one who is a devotee of the Supreme Personality of Godhead is considered to be the best. Among the many such transcendental lovers of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the gopīs are the best, and among the gopīs Śrīmatī Rādhikā is the best. Śrīmatī Rādhikā is very dear to Lord Kṛṣṇa, and similarly Her ponds, namely, Śyāma-kuṇḍa and Rādhā-kuṇḍa, are also very dear to the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

CC Adi 7.73, Purport:

The grammatical word jugglers cannot bewilder a devotee who engages in chanting the Hare Kṛṣṇa mahā-mantra. Simply addressing the energy of the Supreme Lord as Hare and the Lord Himself as Kṛṣṇa very soon situates the Lord within the heart of the devotee. By thus addressing Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa, one directly engages in His Lordship's service. The essence of all revealed scriptures and all knowledge is present when one addresses the Lord and His energy by the Hare Kṛṣṇa mantra, for this transcendental vibration can completely liberate a conditioned soul and directly engage him in the service of the Lord.

CC Adi 7.128, Purport:

Without oṁkāra, no Vedic mantra is successful. The Gosvāmīs therefore declare that praṇava (oṁkāra) is the complete representation of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, and they have analyzed oṁkāra in terms of its alphabetical constituents as follows:

a-kāreṇocyate kṛṣṇaḥ sarva-lokaika-nāyakaḥ
u-kāreṇocyate rādhā ma-kāro jīva-vācakaḥ

Oṁkāra is a combination of the letters a, u and m. A-kāreṇocyate kṛṣṇaḥ: the letter a (a-kāra) refers to Kṛṣṇa, who is sarva-lokaika-nāyakaḥ, the master of all living entities and planets, material and spiritual. Nāyaka means "leader." He is the supreme leader (nityo nityānāṁ cetanaś cetanānām (Kaṭha Upaniṣad 2.2.13)). The letter u (u-kāra) indicates Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī, the pleasure potency of Kṛṣṇa, and m (ma-kāra) indicates the living entities (jīvas). Thus oṁ is the complete combination of Kṛṣṇa, His potency and His eternal servitors. In other words, oṁkāra represents Kṛṣṇa, His name, fame, pastimes, entourage, expansions, devotees, potencies and everything else pertaining to Him. As Caitanya Mahāprabhu states in the present verse of Śrī Caitanya-caritāmṛta, sarva-viśva-dhāma: oṁkāra is the resting place of everything, just as Kṛṣṇa is the resting place of everything (brahmaṇo hi pratiṣṭhāham).

CC Adi 7.149, Translation and Purport:

From that moment when the Māyāvādī sannyāsīs heard the explanation of the Vedānta-sūtra from the Lord, their minds changed, and on the instruction of Caitanya Mahāprabhu, they too chanted "Kṛṣṇa! Kṛṣṇa!" always.

In this connection it may be mentioned that sometimes the sahajiyā class of devotees opine that Prakāśānanda Sarasvatī and Prabodhānanda Sarasvatī are the same man. Prabodhānanda Sarasvatī was a great Vaiṣṇava devotee of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu, but Prakāśānanda Sarasvatī, the head of the Māyāvādī sannyāsīs in Benares, was a different person. Prabodhānanda Sarasvatī belonged to the Rāmānuja-sampradāya, whereas Prakāśānanda Sarasvatī belonged to the Śaṅkarācārya-sampradāya. Prabodhānanda Sarasvatī wrote a number of books, among which are the Caitanya-candrāmṛta, Rādhā-rasa-sudhā-nidhi, Saṅgīta-mādhava, Vṛndāvana-śataka and Navadvīpa-śataka.

CC Adi 7.164, Purport:

When Rūpa Gosvāmī and Sanātana Gosvāmī went to Vṛndāvana, there was not a single temple, but by their preaching they were gradually able to construct various temples. Sanātana Gosvāmī constructed the Madana-mohana temple, and Rūpa Gosvāmī constructed the Govindajī temple. Similarly, their nephew Jīva Gosvāmī constructed the Rādhā-Dāmodara temple, Śrī Gopāla Bhaṭṭa Gosvāmī constructed the Rādhā-ramaṇa temple, Śrī Lokanātha Gosvāmī constructed the Gokulānanda temple, and Śyāmānanda Gosvāmī constructed the Śyāmasundara temple. In this way, many temples were gradually constructed.

CC Adi 7.168, Purport:

The Pañca-tattva is a very important factor in understanding Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu. There are sahajiyās who, not knowing the importance of the Pañca-tattva, concoct their own slogans, such as bhaja nitāi gaura, rādhe śyāma, japa hare kṛṣṇa hare rāma or śrī-kṛṣṇa-caitanya prabhu-nityānanda hare kṛṣṇa hare rāma śrī-rādhe govinda. Such chants may be good poetry, but they cannot help us to go forward in devotional service. In such chants there are also many discrepancies, which need not be discussed here. Strictly speaking, when chanting the names of the Pañca-tattva, one should fully offer his obeisances: śrī-kṛṣṇa-caitanya prabhu-nityānanda śrī-advaita gadādhara śrīvāsādi-gaura-bhakta-vṛnda. By such chanting one is blessed with the competency to chant the Hare Kṛṣṇa mahā-mantra without offense.

CC Adi 8.11, Purport:

"Whenever and wherever there is a decline in religious practice, O descendant of Bharata, and a predominant rise of irreligion—at that time I descend Myself." Kṛṣṇa always protects the living entities in many ways. He comes Himself, He sends His own confidential devotees, and He leaves behind Him śāstras like the Bhagavad-gītā. Why? It is so that people may take advantage of the benediction to be liberated from the clutches of māyā. Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu accepted sannyāsa so that even a foolish person who accepted Him as an ordinary sannyāsī would offer Him respect, for this would help diminish his material distresses and ultimately liberate him from the material clutches. Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī points out in this connection that Śrī Kṛṣṇa Caitanya Mahāprabhu is the combined form of Śrī Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa (mahāprabhu śrī-caitanya, rādhā-kṛṣṇa—nahe anya). Therefore when fools considered Caitanya Mahāprabhu to be an ordinary human being and thus treated Him disrespectfully, the merciful Lord, in order to deliver these offenders, accepted sannyāsa so that they would offer Him obeisances, accepting Him as a sannyāsī. Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu accepted sannyāsa to bestow His great mercy on people in general, who cannot appreciate Him as Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa Themselves.

CC Adi 8.22, Purport:

The prākṛta-sahajiyās who chant nitāi-gaura rādhe śyāma have very little knowledge of the Bhāgavata conclusion, and they hardly follow the Vaiṣṇava rules and regulations, and yet because they chant bhaja nitāi-gaura, their chanting immediately evokes tears and other signs of ecstasy. Although they do not know the principles of Vaiṣṇava philosophy and are not very much advanced in education, by these symptoms they attract many men to become their followers. Their ecstatic tears will of course help them in the long run, for as soon as they come in contact with a pure devotee their lives will become successful. Even in the beginning, however, because they are chanting the holy names of nitāi-gaura, their swift advancement on the path of love of Godhead is very prominently visible.

CC Adi 8.31, Translation and Purport:

But if one only chants, with some slight faith, the holy names of Lord Caitanya and Nityānanda, very quickly he is cleansed of all offenses. Thus as soon as he chants the Hare Kṛṣṇa mahā-mantra, he feels the ecstasy of love for God.

Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura remarks in this connection that if one takes shelter of Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu and Nityānanda, follows Their instructions to become more tolerant than the tree and humbler than the grass, and in this way chants the holy name of the Lord, very soon he achieves the platform of transcendental loving service to the Lord, and tears appear in his eyes. There are offenses to be considered in chanting the Hare Kṛṣṇa mahā-mantra, but there are no such considerations in chanting the names of Gaura-Nityānanda. Therefore, if one chants the Hare Kṛṣṇa mahā-mantra but his life is still full of sinful activities, it will be very difficult for him to achieve the platform of loving service to the Lord. But if in spite of being an offender one chants the holy names of Gaura-Nityānanda, he is very quickly freed from the reactions to his offenses. Therefore, one should first approach Lord Caitanya and Nityānanda, or worship Guru-Gaurāṅga, and then come to the stage of worshiping Rādhā-Kṛṣṇa. In our Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement, our students are first advised to worship Guru-Gaurāṅga, and then, when they are somewhat advanced, the Rādhā-Kṛṣṇa Deity is installed, and they are engaged in the worship of the Lord.

One should first take shelter of Gaura-Nityānanda in order to reach, ultimately, Rādhā-Kṛṣṇa.

CC Adi 8.31, Purport:

In the beginning one should very regularly chant Śrī Gaurasundara's holy name and then chant the holy name of Lord Nityānanda. Thus one's heart will be cleansed of impure desires for material enjoyment. Then one can approach Vṛndāvana-dhāma to worship Lord Kṛṣṇa. Unless one is favored by Lord Caitanya and Nityānanda, there is no need to go to Vṛndāvana, for unless one's mind is purified, he cannot see Vṛndāvana, even if he goes there. Actually going to Vṛndāvana involves taking shelter of the six Gosvāmīs by reading the Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu, Vidagdha-mādhava, Lalita-mādhava and the other books that they have given. In this way one can understand the transcendental loving affairs between Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa. Kabe hāma bujhaba se yugala-pirīti. The conjugal love between Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa is not an ordinary human affair; it is fully transcendental. In order to understand Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa, worship Them and engage in Their loving service, one must be guided by Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, Nityānanda Prabhu and the six Gosvāmīs, Lord Caitanya's direct disciples.

For an ordinary man, worship of Śrī Caitanya and Nityānanda Prabhu or the Pañca-tattva is easier than worship of Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa. Unless one is very fortunate, he should not be induced to worship Rādhā-Kṛṣṇa directly. A neophyte student who is not sufficiently educated or enlightened should not indulge in the worship of Śrī Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa or the chanting of the Hare Kṛṣṇa mantra. Even if he does so, he cannot get the desired result. One should therefore chant the names of Nitāi-Gaura and worship Them without false prestige. Since everyone within this material world is more or less influenced by sinful activities, in the beginning it is essential that one take to the worship of Guru-Gaurāṅga and ask their favor, for thus despite all his disqualifications one will very soon become qualified to worship the Rādhā-Kṛṣṇa vigraha.

It should be noted in this connection that the holy names of Lord Kṛṣṇa and Gaurasundara are both identical with the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Therefore one should not consider one name to be more potent than the other. Considering the position of the people of this age, however, the chanting of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu's name is more essential than the chanting of the Hare Kṛṣṇa mahā-mantra because Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu is the most magnanimous incarnation and His mercy is very easily achieved. Therefore one must first take shelter of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu by chanting śrī-kṛṣṇa-caitanya prabhu-nityānanda śrī-advaita gadādhara śrīvāsādi-gaura-bhakta-vṛnda. By serving Gaura-Nityānanda one is freed from the entanglements of material existence and thus becomes qualified to worship the Rādhā-Kṛṣṇa Deity.

CC Adi 8.32, Translation and Purport:

Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, the independent Supreme Personality of Godhead, is greatly magnanimous. Unless one worships Him, one can never be liberated.

Śrī Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura here remarks that one should not give up the worship of Rādhā-Kṛṣṇa to worship Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu. By worshiping either Rādhā-Kṛṣṇa or Lord Caitanya alone, one cannot become advanced. One should not try to supersede the instructions of the six Gosvāmīs, for they are ācāryas and very dear to Lord Caitanya. Therefore Narottama dāsa Ṭhākura sings:

rūpa-raghunātha-pade haibe ākuti
kabe hāma bujhaba se yugala-pirīti

One must be a submissive student of the six Gosvāmīs, from Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī to Raghunātha dāsa Gosvāmī. Not following their instructions but imagining how to worship Gaurasundara and Rādhā-Kṛṣṇa is a great offense, as a result of which one clears a path to hell. If one neglects the instructions of the six Gosvāmīs and yet becomes a so-called devotee of Rādhā-Kṛṣṇa, he merely criticizes the real devotees of Rādhā-Kṛṣṇa. As a result of speculation, he considers Gaurasundara to be an ordinary devotee and therefore cannot make progress in serving the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Rādhā-Kṛṣṇa.

CC Adi 8.32, Purport:

One must be a submissive student of the six Gosvāmīs, from Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī to Raghunātha dāsa Gosvāmī. Not following their instructions but imagining how to worship Gaurasundara and Rādhā-Kṛṣṇa is a great offense, as a result of which one clears a path to hell. If one neglects the instructions of the six Gosvāmīs and yet becomes a so-called devotee of Rādhā-Kṛṣṇa, he merely criticizes the real devotees of Rādhā-Kṛṣṇa. As a result of speculation, he considers Gaurasundara to be an ordinary devotee and therefore cannot make progress in serving the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Rādhā-Kṛṣṇa.

CC Adi 8.66, Purport:

Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura writes in his Anubhāṣya, “Kāśīśvara Gosāñi was one of the contemporaries of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu who was with the Lord in Jagannātha Purī. Also known as Kāśīśvara Paṇḍita, he was a disciple of Īśvara Purī and son of Vāsudeva Bhaṭṭācārya, who belonged to the dynasty of Kāñjilāla Kānu. His surname was Caudhurī. His nephew, his sister's son, who was named Rudra Paṇḍita, was the original priest of Vallabhapura, which is situated about one mile from the Śrīrāmapura railway station in the village of Cātarā. Installed there are the Deities of Rādhā-Govinda and Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu. Kāśīśvara Gosāñi was a very strong man, and therefore when Lord Caitanya visited the temple of Jagannātha, he used to protect the Lord from the crowds. Another of his duties was to distribute prasādam to the devotees after kīrtana.”

CC Adi 8.66, Purport:

It is said in the Gaura-gaṇoddeśa-dīpikā (137) that the servant of Kṛṣṇa in Vṛndāvana named Bhṛṅgāra descended as Kāśīśvara Gosāñi during the pastimes of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu. In our householder life we also sometimes visited this temple of Vallabhapura and took prasādam there at noon. The Deities of this temple, Śrī Śrī Rādhā-Govinda and the Gaurāṅga vigraha, are extremely beautiful. Near Vallabhapura is a beautiful temple of Jagannātha. We sometimes used to take prasādam in this Jagannātha temple also. These two temples are situated within a one mile-radius of the Śrīrāmapura railway station, near Calcutta.

CC Adi 9.37, Purport:

Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu produced so many fruits of devotional service that they must be distributed all over the world; otherwise, how could He alone relish and taste each and every fruit? The original reason that Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa descended as Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu was to understand Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī’s love for Kṛṣṇa and to taste that love. The fruits of the tree of devotional service were innumerable, and therefore He wanted to distribute them unrestrictedly to everyone. Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī therefore writes:

anarpita-carīṁ cirāt karuṇayāvatīrṇaḥ kalau
samarpayitum unnatojjvala-rasāṁ sva-bhakti-śriyam
hariḥ puraṭa-sundara-dyuti-kadamba-sandīpitaḥ
sadā hṛdaya-kandare sphuratu vaḥ śacī-nandanaḥ

There were many previous incarnations of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, but none were so generous, kind and magnanimous as Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, for He distributed the most confidential aspect of devotional service, namely, the conjugal love of Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa. Therefore Śrī Rūpa Gosvāmī Prabhupāda desires that Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu live perpetually in the hearts of all devotees, for thus they can understand and relish the loving affairs of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī and Kṛṣṇa.

CC Adi 10.14, Purport:

In the Gaura-gaṇoddeśa-dīpikā (54), Śrīla Puṇḍarīka Vidyānidhi is described as the father of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī in kṛṣṇa-līlā. Caitanya Mahāprabhu therefore treated him as His father. Puṇḍarīka Vidyānidhi's father was known as Bāṇeśvara or, according to another opinion, Śuklāmbara Brahmacārī, and his mother's name was Gaṅgādevī. According to one opinion, Bāṇeśvara was a descendant of Śrī Śivarāma Gaṅgopādhyāya. The original home of Puṇḍarīka Vidyānidhi was in East Bengal (now Bangladesh), in a village near Dacca named Bāghiyā, which belonged to the Vārendra group of brāhmaṇa families. Sometimes these Vārendra brāhmaṇas were at odds with another group known as Rāḍhīya brāhmaṇas, and therefore Puṇḍarīka Vidyānidhi's family was ostracized and at that time was not living as a respectable family.

CC Adi 10.15, Purport:

In the Gaura-gaṇoddeśa-dīpikā (147–53) it is stated, "The pleasure potency of Śrī Kṛṣṇa formerly known as Vṛndāvaneśvarī is now personified in the form of Śrī Gadādhara Paṇḍita in the pastimes of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu." Śrī Svarūpa Dāmodara Gosvāmī has pointed out that in the shape of Lakṣmī, the pleasure potency of Kṛṣṇa, she was formerly very dear to the Lord as Śyāmasundara-vallabhā. The same Śyāmasundara-vallabhā was present in Lord Caitanya's pastimes as Gadādhara Paṇḍita. Formerly, as Lalitā-sakhī, she was always devoted to Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī. Thus Gadādhara Paṇḍita is simultaneously an incarnation of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī and Lalitā-sakhī. In the Twelfth Chapter of this part of the Caitanya-caritāmṛta there is a description of the descendants or disciplic succession of Gadādhara Paṇḍita.

CC Adi 10.53, Purport:

About eight or ten miles from Calcutta, on the banks of the Ganges, is a village known as Eṅḍiyādaha-grāma. Śrīla Gadādhara dāsa was known as an inhabitant of this village (eṅḍiyādaha-vāsī gadādhara dāsa). The Bhakti-ratnākara (Seventh Wave), informs us that after the disappearance of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu, Gadādhara dāsa went from Navadvīpa to Katwa. Thereafter he came to Eṅḍiyādaha and resided there. He is stated to be the luster of the body of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī, just as Śrīla Gadādhara Paṇḍita Gosvāmī is an incarnation of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī Herself. Caitanya Mahāprabhu is sometimes explained to be rādhā-bhāva-dyuti-suvalita, or characterized by the emotions and bodily luster of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī. Gadādhara dāsa is this dyuti, or luster. In the Gaura-gaṇoddeśa-dīpikā (154) he is described to be an expansion of the potency of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī. He counts among the associates of both Śrīla Gaurahari and Nityānanda Prabhu; as a devotee of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu he was one of the associates of Lord Kṛṣṇa in conjugal love, and as a devotee of Lord Nityānanda he is considered to have been one of the friends of Kṛṣṇa in pure devotional service. Even though he was an associate of Lord Nityānanda Prabhu, he was not among the cowherd boys but was situated in the transcendental mellow of conjugal love.

CC Adi 10.53, Purport:

When Śrīla Gadādhara dāsa Prabhu was preaching the cult of hari-kīrtana, there was a magistrate who was very much against his saṅkīrtana movement. Following in the footsteps of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu, Śrīla Gadādhara dāsa one night went to the house of the Kazi and requested him to chant the Hare Kṛṣṇa mahā-mantra. The Kazi replied, "All right, I shall chant Hare Kṛṣṇa tomorrow." On hearing this, Śrīla Gadādhara dāsa Prabhu began to dance, and he said, "Why tomorrow? You have already chanted the Hare Kṛṣṇa mantra, so simply continue."

In the Gaura-gaṇoddeśa-dīpikā (verses 154–55) it is said:

rādhā-vibhūti-rūpā yā candrakāntiḥ purā vraje
sa śrī-gaurāṅga-nikaṭe dāsa-vaṁśyo gadādharaḥ
pūrṇānandā vraje yāsīd baladeva-priyāgraṇī
sāpi kārya-vaśād eva prāviśat taṁ gadādharam

Śrīla Gadādhara dāsa is considered to be a united form of Candrakānti, who is the effulgence of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī, and Pūrṇānandā, who is the foremost of Lord Balarāma's very dear girlfriends. Thus Śrīla Gadādhara dāsa Prabhu was one of the associates of both Caitanya Mahāprabhu and Nityānanda Prabhu.

CC Adi 10.53, Purport:

The tomb of Gadādhara dāsa Prabhu, which is in the village of Eṅḍiyādaha, was under the control of the Saṁyogī Vaiṣṇavas and later under the direction of Siddha Bhagavān dāsa Bābājī of Kālnā. By his order, Śrī Madhusūdana Mullik, one of the members of the aristocratic Mullik family of the Nārikelaḍāṅgā in Calcutta, established a pāṭavāṭī (monastery) there in the Bengali year 1256 (A.D. 1849). He also arranged for the worship of a Deity named Śrī Rādhākānta. His son Balāicāṅda Mullik established Gaura-Nitāi Deities there in the Bengali year 1312 (A.D. 1905). Thus on the throne of the temple are both Gaura-Nityānanda Deities and Rādhā-Kṛṣṇa Deities. Below the throne is a tablet with an inscription written in Sanskrit. In that temple there is also a small Deity of Lord Śiva as Gopeśvara. This is all described on a stone by the side of the entrance door.

CC Adi 10.84, Purport:

Śrī Anupama was the father of Śrīla Jīva Gosvāmī and younger brother of Śrī Sanātana Gosvāmī and Śrī Rūpa Gosvāmī. His former name was Vallabha, but after Lord Caitanya met him He gave him the name Anupama. Because of working in the Muslim government, these three brothers were given the title Mullik. Our personal family is connected with the Mulliks of Mahatma Gandhi Road in Calcutta, and we often used to visit their Rādhā-Govinda temple. They belong to the same family as we do.

CC Adi 10.84, Purport:

In the year 1436 Śakābda (A.D. 1514), the youngest brother, Anupama, died and went back home, back to Godhead. He went to the abode in the spiritual sky where Śrī Rāmacandra is situated. At Jagannātha Purī, Śrī Rūpa Gosvāmī informed Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu of this incident. Vallabha was a great devotee of Śrī Rāmacandra; therefore he could not seriously consider the worship of Rādhā-Govinda according to the instructions of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu. Yet he directly accepted Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu as an incarnation of the Supreme Personality of Godhead Rāmacandra. In the Bhakti-ratnākara there is the following statement: "Vallabha was given the name Anupama by Śrī Gaurasundara, but he was always absorbed in the devotional service of Lord Rāmacandra. He did not know anyone but Śrī Rāmacandra, but he knew that Caitanya Gosāñi was the same Lord Rāmacandra."

In the Gaura-gaṇoddeśa-dīpikā (180) Śrī Rūpa Gosvāmī is described to be the gopī named Śrī Rūpa-mañjarī. In the Bhakti-ratnākara there is a list of the books Śrī Rūpa Gosvāmī compiled. Of all his books, the following sixteen are very popular among Vaiṣṇavas: (1) Haṁsadūta, (2) Uddhava-sandeśa, (3) Kṛṣṇa-janma-tithi-vidhi, (4 and 5) Rādhā-kṛṣṇa-gaṇoddeśa-dīpikā, Bṛhat (major) and Laghu (minor), (6) Stavamālā, (7) Vidagdha-mādhava, (8) Lalita-mādhava, (9) Dāna-keli-kaumudi, (10) Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu (this is the most celebrated book by Śrī Rūpa Gosvāmī), (11) Ujjvala-nīlamaṇi, (12) Ākhyāta-candrikā, (13) Mathurā-mahimā, (14) Padyāvalī, (15) Nāṭaka-candrikā and (16) Laghu-bhāgavatāmṛta. Śrī Rūpa Gosvāmī gave up all family connections, joined the renounced order of life and divided his money, giving fifty percent to the brāhmaṇas and Vaiṣṇavas and twenty-five percent to his kuṭumba (family members), and keeping twenty-five percent for personal emergencies. He met Haridāsa Ṭhākura in Jagannātha Purī, where he also met Lord Caitanya and His other associates. Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu used to praise the handwriting of Rūpa Gosvāmī. Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī could compose verses according to the desires of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, and by His direction he wrote two books named Lalita-mādhava and Vidagdha-mādhava. Lord Caitanya desired the two brothers, Sanātana Gosvāmī and Rūpa Gosvāmī, to publish many books in support of the Vaiṣṇava religion. When Sanātana Gosvāmī met Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, the Lord advised him also to go to Vṛndāvana.

CC Adi 10.85, Purport:

In the Gaura-gaṇoddeśa-dīpikā (195) it is said that Śrīla Jīva Gosvāmī was formerly Vilāsa-mañjarī gopī. From his very childhood Jīva Gosvāmī was greatly fond of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam. He later came to Navadvīpa to study Sanskrit, and, following in the footsteps of Śrī Nityānanda Prabhu, he circumambulated the entire Navadvīpa-dhāma. After visiting Navadvīpa-dhāma he went to Benares to study Sanskrit under Madhusūdana Vācaspati, and after finishing his studies in Benares he went to Vṛndāvana and took shelter of his uncles, Śrī Rūpa and Sanātana. This is described in the Bhakti-ratnākara. As far as our information goes, Śrīla Jīva Gosvāmī composed and edited at least twenty-five books. They are all very much celebrated, and they are listed as follows: (1) Hari-nāmāmṛta-vyākaraṇa, (2) Sūtra-mālikā, (3) Dhātu-saṅgraha, (4) Kṛṣṇārcā-dīpikā, (5) Gopāla-virudāvalī, (6) Rasāmṛta-śeṣa, (7) Śrī Mādhava-mahotsava, (8) Śrī Saṅkalpa-kalpavṛkṣa, (9) Bhāvārtha-sūcaka-campū, (10) Gopāla-tāpanī-ṭīkā, (11) a commentary on the Brahma-saṁhitā, (12) a commentary on the Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu, (13) a commentary on the Ujjvala-nīlamaṇi, (14) a commentary on the Yogasāra-stava, (15) a commentary on the Gāyatrī-mantra, as described in the Agni Purāṇa, (16) a description of the Lord's lotus feet derived from the Padma Purāṇa, (17) a description of the lotus feet of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī, (18) Gopāla-campū (in two parts) and (19–25) seven sandarbhas: the Krama-, Tattva-, Bhagavat-, Paramātma-, Kṛṣṇa-, Bhakti- and Prīti-sandarbha. After the disappearance of Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī and Sanātana Gosvāmī in Vṛndāvana, Śrīla Jīva Gosvāmī became the ācārya of all the Vaiṣṇavas in Bengal, Orissa and the rest of the world, and it is he who used to guide them in their devotional service. In Vṛndāvana he established the Rādhā-Dāmodara temple, where, after retirement, we had the opportunity to live from 1962 until 1965, when we decided to come to the United States of America.

CC Adi 10.85, Purport:

According to another accusation, Śrīla Jīva Gosvāmī did not approve of the principles of the parakīya-rasa of Vraja-dhāma and therefore supported svakīya-rasa, showing that Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa are eternally married. Actually, when Jīva Gosvāmī was alive, some of his followers disliked the parakīya-rasa of the gopīs. Therefore Śrīla Jīva Gosvāmī, for their spiritual benefit, supported svakīya-rasa, for he could understand that sahajiyās would otherwise exploit the parakīya-rasa, as they are actually doing at the present time. Unfortunately, in Vṛndāvana and Navadvīpa it has become fashionable among sahajiyās, in their debauchery, to find an unmarried sexual partner to live with to execute so-called devotional service in parakīya-rasa. Foreseeing this, Śrīla Jīva Gosvāmī supported svakīya-rasa, and later all the Vaiṣṇava ācāryas also approved of it. Śrīla Jīva Gosvāmī was never opposed to the transcendental parakīya-rasa, nor has any other Vaiṣṇava disapproved of it. Śrīla Jīva Gosvāmī strictly followed his predecessor gurus and Vaiṣṇavas, Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī and Sanātana Gosvāmī, and Śrīla Kṛṣṇadāsa Kavirāja Gosvāmī accepted him as one of his instructor gurus.

CC Adi 10.90, Purport:

The spot where we now find Śrī Rādhā-kuṇḍa was an agricultural field during the time of Caitanya Mahāprabhu. A small reservoir of water was there, and Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu bathed in that water and pointed out that originally Rādhā-kuṇḍa existed in that location. Following His directions, Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī and Sanātana Gosvāmī renovated Rādhā-kuṇḍa. This is one of the brilliant examples of how the Gosvāmīs excavated lost places of pilgrimage. Similarly, it is through the endeavor of the Gosvāmīs that all the important temples in Vṛndāvana were established. Originally there were seven important Gauḍīya Vaiṣṇava temples established in Vṛndāvana, namely the Madana-mohana temple, Govinda temple, Gopīnātha temple, Śrī Rādhāramaṇa temple, Rādhā-Śyāmasundara temple, Rādhā-Dāmodara temple and Gokulānanda temple.

CC Adi 10.91, Purport:

Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura writes in his Anubhāṣya, "Śrīla Raghunātha dāsa Gosvāmī was most probably born in the year 1416 Śakābda (A.D. 1494) in a kāyastha family as the son of Govardhana Majumadāra, who was the younger brother of the then zamindar, Hiraṇya Majumadāra. The village where he took birth is known as Śrī-kṛṣṇapura. On the railway line between Calcutta and Burdwan is a station named Triśābaghā (now known as Ādi-saptagrāma), and about one and a half miles away is the village of Śrī-kṛṣṇapura, where the parental home of Śrī Raghunātha dāsa Gosvāmī was situated. A temple of Śrī Śrī Rādhā-Govinda is still there. In front of the temple is a large open area but no large hall for devotees to assemble. A rich Calcutta gentleman named Haricaraṇa Ghoṣa, who resided in the Simlā quarter, recently repaired the temple. The entire temple compound is surrounded by walls, and in a small room just to the side of the temple is a small platform on which Raghunātha dāsa Gosvāmī used to worship the Deity. By the side of the temple is the dying river Sarasvatī."

CC Adi 10.91, Purport:

The forefathers of Śrīla Raghunātha dāsa Gosvāmī were all Vaiṣṇavas and were very rich men. His spiritual master at home was Yadunandana Ācārya. Although Raghunātha dāsa was a family man, he had no attachment for his estate and wife. Seeing his tendency to leave home, his father and uncle engaged special bodyguards to watch over him, but nevertheless he managed to escape their vigilance and went away to Jagannātha Purī to meet Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu. This incident took place in the year 1439 Śakābda (A.D. 1517). Raghunātha dāsa Gosvāmī compiled three books, named Stava-mālā (or Stavāvalī), Dāna-carita and Muktā-carita. He lived a long time, residing for most of his life at Rādhā-kuṇḍa. The place where Raghunātha dāsa Gosvāmī performed his devotional service still exists by Rādhā-kuṇḍa. He almost completely gave up eating, and therefore he was very skinny and of weak health. His only concern was to chant the holy name of the Lord. He gradually reduced his sleeping until he was almost not sleeping at all. It is said that his eyes were always full of tears. When Śrīnivāsa Ācārya went to see Raghunātha dāsa Gosvāmī, the Gosvāmī blessed him by embracing him. Śrīnivāsa Ācārya requested his blessings for preaching in Bengal, and Śrīla Raghunātha dāsa Gosvāmī granted them. In the Gaura-gaṇoddeśa-dīpikā (186) it is stated that Śrīla Raghunātha dāsa Gosvāmī was formerly the gopī named Rasa-mañjarī. Sometimes it is said that he was Rati-mañjarī.

CC Adi 10.100, Translation:

Day and night he rendered service within his mind to Rādhā-Kṛṣṇa, and for three hours a day he discoursed about the character of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu.

CC Adi 10.101, Translation:

Śrī Raghunātha dāsa Gosvāmī took three baths daily in the Rādhā-kuṇḍa lake. As soon as he found a Vaiṣṇava residing in Vṛndāvana, he would embrace him and give him all respect.

CC Adi 10.107, Purport:

Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura writes in his Anubhāṣya, “About one and a half miles away from Kumārahaṭṭa, or Kāmarhaṭṭa, which is a few miles from Calcutta, is a village known as Kāṅcaḍāpāḍā, which was the home of Śrī Śivānanda Sena. There he constructed a temple of Śrī Gauragopāla. Śrīnātha Paṇḍita established another temple there with Śrī Rādhā-Kṛṣṇa mūrtis.

CC Adi 10.134, Purport:

Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu considered Śrī Rāmānanda Rāya and Śrī Sanātana Gosvāmī to be equal in their renunciation, for although Śrī Rāmānanda Rāya was a gṛhastha engaged in government service and Śrī Sanātana Gosvāmī was in the renounced order of complete detachment from material activities, they were both servants of the Supreme Personality of Godhead who kept Kṛṣṇa in the center of all their activities. Śrī Rāmānanda Rāya was one of the three and a half personalities with whom Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu discussed the most confidential topics of Kṛṣṇa consciousness. Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu advised Pradyumna Miśra to learn the science of Kṛṣṇa from Śrī Rāmānanda Rāya. As Subala always assisted Kṛṣṇa in His dealings with Rādhārāṇī in kṛṣṇa-līlā, so Rāmānanda Rāya assisted Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu in His feelings of separation from Kṛṣṇa. Śrī Rāmānanda Rāya was the author of the Jagannātha-vallabha-nāṭaka.

CC Adi 10.135-136, Purport:

In the Gaura-gaṇoddeśa-dīpikā (189) it is said that Śikhi Māhiti was formerly an assistant of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī named Rāgalekhā. His sister Mādhavī was also an assistant of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī and was named Kalākelī.

CC Adi 10.137, Translation and Purport:

Mādhavīdevī, the seventeenth of the prominent devotees, was the younger sister of Śikhi Māhiti. She is considered to have formerly been a maidservant of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī.

In the Antya-līlā of Caitanya-caritāmṛta, Chapter Two, verses 104–106, there is a description of Mādhavīdevī. Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu considered her one of the maidservants of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī. Within this world, Caitanya Mahāprabhu had three and a half very confidential devotees. The three were Svarūpa Gosāñi, Śrī Rāmānanda Rāya and Śikhi Māhiti, and Śikhi Māhiti's sister, Mādhavīdevī, being a woman, was considered the half. Thus it is known that Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu had three and a half confidential devotees.

CC Adi 10.158, Purport:

Raghunātha Bhaṭṭa Gosvāmī supplied all the ornaments of the Govinda Deity. He never talked of nonsense or worldly matters but always engaged in hearing about Kṛṣṇa twenty-four hours a day. He never cared to hear blasphemy of a Vaiṣṇava. Even when there were points to be criticized, he used to say that since all the Vaiṣṇavas were engaged in the service of the Lord, he did not mind their faults. Later Raghunātha Bhaṭṭa Gosvāmī lived by Rādhā-kuṇḍa in a small cottage. In the Gaura-gaṇoddeśa-dīpikā (185) it is said that Raghunātha Bhaṭṭa Gosvāmī was formerly the gopī named Rāga-mañjarī.

CC Adi 11.29, Purport:

Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura writes in his Anubhāṣya, “The Caitanya-bhāgavata states that Parameśvara dāsa, known sometimes as Parameśvarī dāsa, was the life and soul of Śrī Nityānanda Prabhu. The body of Parameśvara dāsa was the place of Lord Nityānanda's pastimes. Parameśvara dāsa, who lived for some time at Khaḍadaha village, was always filled with the ecstasy of a cowherd boy. Formerly he was Arjuna, a friend of Kṛṣṇa and Balarāma. He was the fifth among the twelve gopālas. He accompanied Śrīmatī Jāhnavā-devī when she performed the festival at Khetari. It is stated in the Bhakti-ratnākara that by the order of Śrīmatī Jāhnavā-mātā, he installed Rādhā-Gopīnātha in the temple at Āṭapura, in the district of Hugli. The Āṭapura station is on the narrow-gauge railway line between Howrah and Āmatā. Another temple in Āṭapura, established by the Mitra family, is known as the Rādhā-Govinda temple. In front of the temple, in a very attractive place among two bakula trees and a kadamba tree, is the tomb of Parameśvarī Ṭhākura, and above it is an altar with a tulasī bush. It is said that only one flower a year comes out of the kadamba tree. It is offered to the Deity.

CC Adi 11.32, Purport:

Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura writes in his Anubhāṣya, "The village of Maheśa Paṇḍita, which is known as Pālapāḍā, is situated in the district of Nadia within a forest about one mile south of the Cākadaha railway station. The Ganges flows nearby. It is said that formerly Maheśa Paṇḍita lived on the eastern side of Jirāṭ in the village known as Masipura or Yaśīpura, and when Masipura merged into the riverbed of the Ganges, the Deities there were brought to Pālapāḍā, which is situated in the midst of various villages such as Beleḍāṅgā, Berigrāma, Sukhasāgara, Cānduḍe and Manasāpotā. (There are about fourteen villages, and the entire neighborhood is known as Pāñcanagara Paragaṇā.) It is mentioned that Maheśa Paṇḍita joined the festival performed by Śrī Nityānanda Prabhu at Pānihāṭi. Narottama dāsa Ṭhākura also joined in the festival, and Maheśa Paṇḍita saw him on that occasion. In the temple of Maheśa Paṇḍita there are Deities of Gaura-Nityānanda, Śrī Gopīnātha, Śrī Madana-mohana and Rādhā-Govinda, as well as a śālagrāma-śilā."

CC Adi 11.36, Translation and Purport:

The twenty-first devotee of Śrī Nityānanda in Bengal was Kṛṣṇadāsa Brāhmaṇa, who was a first-class servant of the Lord.

In this verse the word rāḍhe refers to Rāḍhadeśa, the part of Bengal where the Ganges does not flow.

CC Adi 11.40, Purport:

“In the family of Kānu Ṭhākura there is a Rādhā-Kṛṣṇa Deity known as Prāṇavallabha. It is said that his family worshiped this Deity long before the appearance of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu. When there was a Maharashtrian invasion of Bengal, the family of Kānu Ṭhākura was scattered, and after the invasion one Harikṛṣṇa Gosvāmī of that family came back to their original home, Bodhakhānā, and re-established the Prāṇavallabha Deity. The descendants of the family still engage in the service of Prāṇavallabha.

CC Adi 11.41, Purport:

In Saptagrāma there is still a temple with a six-armed Deity of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu that was personally worshiped by Śrīla Uddhāraṇa Datta Ṭhākura. On the right side of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu is a Deity of Śrī Nityānanda Prabhu, and on the left side is Gadādhara Prabhu. There are also a Rādhā-Govinda mūrti and a śālagrāma-śilā, and below the throne is a picture of Śrī Uddhāraṇa Datta Ṭhākura.

CC Adi 12.82, Purport:

Bhūgarbha Gosāñi, formerly known as Prema-mañjarī, was a great friend of Lokanātha Gosvāmī, who constructed the temple of Gokulānanda, one of the seven important temples of Vṛndāvana—namely those of Govinda, Gopīnātha, Madana-mohana, Rādhāramaṇa, Śyāmasundara, Rādhā-Dāmodara and Gokulānanda—which are authorized institutions of Gauḍīya Vaiṣṇavas.

CC Adi 12.85, Purport:

The Gaura-gaṇoddeśa-dīpikā (196 and 207) mentions that Hari Ācārya was formerly the gopī named Kālākṣī. Sādipuriyā Gopāla is celebrated as a preacher of the Hare Kṛṣṇa movement in Vikramapura, in East Bengal (now Bangladesh). Kṛṣṇadāsa Brahmacārī was formerly among the group of sakhīs known as the aṣṭa-sakhīs. His name was Indulekhā. Kṛṣṇadāsa Brahmacārī lived in Vṛndāvana. There is a tomb in the Rādhā-Dāmodara temple known as Kṛṣṇadāsa's tomb. Some say that this is the tomb of Kṛṣṇadāsa Brahmacārī, and others say it is that of Kṛṣṇadāsa Kavirāja Gosvāmī. In either case we offer our respects because both of them were expert in distributing love of Godhead to the fallen souls of this age. The Śākhā-nirṇaya mentions that Puṣpagopāla was formerly known as Svarṇagrāmaka.

CC Adi 13.41, Translation and Purport:

As Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī talked inconsistently when She met Uddhava, so also Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu relished, both day and night, such ecstatic talk in the mood of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī.

In this connection one should refer to Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī’s soliloquy after meeting Uddhava in Vṛndāvana. Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu presented a similar picture of such ecstatic imaginary talking. Full of jealousy and madness symptomizing neglect by Kṛṣṇa, Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī, criticizing a bumblebee, talked just like a madwoman. Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, in the last days of His pastimes, exhibited all the symptoms of such ecstasy. In this connection one should refer to the Fourth Chapter of the Ādi-līlā, verses 107 and 108.

CC Adi 13.42, Purport:

Vidyāpati was a famous composer of songs about the pastimes of Rādhā-Kṛṣṇa. He was an inhabitant of Mithilā, born in a brāhmaṇa family. It is calculated that he composed his songs during the reign of King Śivasiṁha and Queen Lachimādevī, in the beginning of the fourteenth century of the Śaka Era, almost one hundred years before the appearance of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu. The twelfth generation of Vidyāpati's descendants is still living. Vidyāpati's songs about the pastimes of Lord Kṛṣṇa express intense feelings of separation from Kṛṣṇa, and Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu relished all those songs in His ecstasy of separation from Kṛṣṇa.

CC Adi 13.42, Purport:

Caṇḍīdāsa was born in the village of Nānnura, which is also in the Birbhum district of Bengal. He was born of a brāhmaṇa family, and it is said that he also took birth in the beginning of the fourteenth century, Śakābda Era. It has been suggested that Caṇḍīdāsa and Vidyāpati were great friends because the writings of both express the transcendental feelings of separation profusely. The feelings of ecstasy described by Caṇḍīdāsa and Vidyāpati were actually exhibited by Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu. He relished all those feelings in the role of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī, and His appropriate associates for this purpose were Śrī Rāmānanda Rāya and Śrī Svarūpa Dāmodara Gosvāmī. These intimate associates of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu helped the Lord very much in the pastimes in which He felt like Rādhārāṇī.

CC Adi 13.43, Purport:

In the beginning of the Caitanya-caritāmṛta it is said that Lord Caitanya appeared in order to taste the feelings Rādhārāṇī felt upon seeing Kṛṣṇa. Kṛṣṇa Himself could not understand the ecstatic feelings of Rādhārāṇī toward Him, and therefore He desired to accept the role of Rādhārāṇī and thereby taste these feelings. Lord Caitanya is Kṛṣṇa with the feelings of Rādhārāṇī; in other words, He is a combination of Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa. It is therefore said, śrī-kṛṣṇa-caitanya rādhā-kṛṣṇa nahe anya. By worshiping Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu alone, one can relish the loving affairs of Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa together. One should therefore try to understand Rādhā-Kṛṣṇa not directly but through Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu and through His devotees. Śrīla Narottama dāsa Ṭhākura therefore says, rūpa-raghunātha-pade haibe ākuti, kabe hāma bujhaba se yugala-pīriti: "When shall I develop a mentality of service toward Śrī Rūpa Gosvāmī, Sanātana Gosvāmī, Raghunātha dāsa Gosvāmī and the other devotees of Lord Caitanya and thus become eligible to understand the pastimes of Śrī Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa?"

CC Adi 13.61, Purport:

On Baṅkima Rāya's right side is a deity of Jāhnavā, and on His left side is Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī. The priests of the temple describe that Lord Nityānanda Prabhu entered within the body of Baṅkima Rāya and that the deity of Jāhnavā-mātā was therefore later placed on the right side of Baṅkima Rāya. Afterwards, many other Deities were installed within the temple. On another throne within the temple are Deities of Muralīdhara and Rādhā-Mādhava. On another throne are Deities of Manomohana, Vṛndāvana-candra and Gaura-Nitāi. But Baṅkima Rāya is the Deity originally installed by Nityānanda Prabhu.

On the eastern side of the temple is a ghāṭa known as Kadamba-khaṇḍī on the bank of a river called the Yamunā, and it is said that the Deity of Baṅkima Rāya was floating in the water and Lord Nityānanda Prabhu picked Him up and then installed Him in the temple. Thereafter, in a place known as Bhaḍḍāpura, in the village of Vīracandra-pura, about half a mile west, in a place underneath a nima tree, Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī was found. For this reason, the Rādhārāṇī of Baṅkima Rāya was known as Bhaḍḍāpurera Ṭhākurāṇī, the mistress of Bhaḍḍāpura. On another throne, on the right side of Baṅkima Rāya, is a Deity of Yogamāyā.

CC Adi 13.124, Purport:

If Lord Kṛṣṇa is very pleased with a devotee, He takes away his material property, as He states in Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (10.88.8): yasyāham anugṛhṇāmi hariṣye tad-dhanaṁ śanaiḥ. "To show special favor to a devotee, I take away all his material property." Similarly, Narottama dāsa Ṭhākura says:

dhana mora nityānanda, rādhā-kṛṣṇa-śrīcaraṇa
sei mora prāṇadhana

"My real riches are Nityānanda Prabhu and the lotus feet of Śrī Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa." He further prays, "O Lord, kindly give me this opulence. I do not want anything but Your lotus feet as my property." Śrīla Narottama dāsa Ṭhākura has sung in many places that his real property is the lotus feet of Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa. Unfortunately, we are interested in unreal property and are neglecting our real property (adhane yatana kari' dhana teyāginu).

CC Adi 17 Summary:

In this chapter we shall find descriptions of the mango distribution festival and Lord Caitanya's discourses with Chand Kazi. Finally, the chapter shows that the same son of mother Yaśodā, Lord Kṛṣṇa, tasted four transcendental mellows of devotional service in His form of Śacīnandana, the son of mother Śacī. To understand Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī’s ecstatic love for Him, Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa assumed the form of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu. The attitude of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī is considered the superexcellent devotional mentality. As Caitanya Mahāprabhu, Kṛṣṇa Himself assumed the position of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī to taste Her ecstatic situation. No one else could do this.

When Śrī Kṛṣṇa assumed the form of the four-armed Nārāyaṇa, the gopīs showed their respect, but they were not very interested in Him. In the ecstatic love of the gopīs, all worshipable forms but Kṛṣṇa are rejected. Among all the gopīs, Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī has the highest ecstatic love. When Kṛṣṇa in His form of Nārāyaṇa saw Rādhārāṇī, He could not keep His position as Nārāyaṇa, and again He assumed the form of Kṛṣṇa.

CC Adi 17.113, Purport:

Śrī-kṛṣṇa-caitanya rādhā-kṛṣṇa nahe anya: in the vision of a perfect devotee, Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu is a combination of Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa. One who sees Lord Caitanya to be different from Kṛṣṇa is under the illusory energy of the Lord. It appears that the astrologer was already an advanced devotee, and when he came into the presence of the Supreme Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, he became perfectly self-realized and could see that the Supreme Personality of Godhead Kṛṣṇa and Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu are one and the same Supreme Person.

CC Adi 17.250, Purport:

It is mentioned in Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam that when Uddhava came from Lord Kṛṣṇa with a message for the gopīs, all the gopīs, especially Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī, denounced Kṛṣṇa in various ways. Such denunciations, however, reflect an exuberant loving attitude that an ordinary man cannot understand.

CC Adi 17.276, Translation and Purport:

To taste the mellows of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī’s loving affairs in Her relationship with Kṛṣṇa, and to understand the reservoir of pleasure in Kṛṣṇa, Kṛṣṇa Himself, as Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, accepted the mood of Rādhārāṇī.

In this connection Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura writes in his Anubhāṣya, “Śrī Gaurasundara is Kṛṣṇa Himself with the attitude of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī. Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu never gave up the attitude of the gopīs. He remained everlastingly predominated by Kṛṣṇa and never accepted the part of the predominator by imitating conjugal love with an ordinary woman, as sahajiyās generally do.

CC Adi 17.282, Translation:

During the season of springtime, when the rāsa dance was going on, suddenly Kṛṣṇa disappeared from the scene, indicating that He wanted to be alone with Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī.

CC Adi 17.283, Translation:

Kṛṣṇa was sitting in a solitary bush, waiting for Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī to pass by. But while He was searching, the gopīs arrived there, like a phalanx of soldiers.

CC Adi 17.289, Translation:

After saying this and offering obeisances, all the gopīs dispersed. Then Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī came and appeared before Lord Kṛṣṇa.

CC Adi 17.290, Translation:

When Lord Kṛṣṇa saw Rādhārāṇī, He wanted to maintain the four-armed form to joke with Her.

CC Adi 17.291, Translation:

In front of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī, Śrī Kṛṣṇa had to hide the two extra arms. He tried His best to keep four arms before Her, but He was completely unable to do so.

CC Adi 17.292, Translation:

The influence of Rādhārāṇī’s pure ecstasy is so inconceivably great that it forced Kṛṣṇa to come to His original two-armed form.

CC Adi 17.293, Translation:

"Prior to the rāsa dance, Lord Kṛṣṇa hid Himself in a grove just to have fun. When the gopīs came, their eyes resembling those of deer, by His sharp intelligence He exhibited His beautiful four-armed form to hide Himself. But when Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī came there, Kṛṣṇa could not maintain His four arms in Her presence. This is the wonderful glory of Her love."

CC Adi 17.304, Purport:

The conjugal love between Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa, which is called yugala-pīriti, is not understandable by mundane scholars, artists or poets. It is simply to be understood by devotees who strictly follow in the footsteps of the six Gosvāmīs. Sometimes so-called artists and poets try to understand the love affairs of Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa, and they publish cheap books of poetry and pictures on the subject. Unfortunately, however, they do not understand the transcendental affairs of Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa even to the smallest degree. They are simply meddling in a matter in which they are not fit even to enter.

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Compiled byMadhuGopaldas +
Completed sectionsALL +
Date of first entry2 September 10 +
Date of last entry2 September 10 +
Total quotes186 +
Total quotes by sectionBG: 0 +, SB: 0 +, CC: 186 +, OB: 0 +, Lec: 0 +, Conv: 0 + and Let: 0 +